Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 19 de 19
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Age Ageing ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no evidence on the specific beneficial association of the main types of olive oil consumption with frailty. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the relationship between olive oil consumption and incident frailty in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Participants were recruited in 2008-10 and follow-up through 2013. SUBJECTS: In total, 1,896 older adults aged 60+. METHODS: At baseline, olive oil and other food consumption was collected using a validated dietary history. Incident frailty was defined as having at least three of the following five Fried-based criteria: low physical activity, fatigue, slow walking, muscle weakness and unintentional weight loss. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for the major confounders. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, 135 incident frailty cases were identified. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of frailty across sex-specific tertiles of total olive oil consumption (12.7, 20 and 30.8 g/day, respectively) were: 1 (ref.), 0.52 (0.32, 0.83) and 0.47 (0.29, 0.78), P trend 0.003. When differentiating by olive oil types, the results held for virgin but did not for common (refined) olive oil. CONCLUSION: The highest total olive oil consumption (~3 tablespoons), especially if virgin, was associated with half the risk of frailty as the lowest consumption (~1 tablespoon) among older adults. This study suggests that virgin olive oil should be the preferent culinary olive oil type for frailty prevention. If confirmed in other settings, small doses of virgin olive oil could be added as a simple geriatric nutritional advice on the prevention of frailty.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578912

RESUMO

A higher energy intake (EI) at night has been associated with a higher risk of obesity, while a higher EI at lunch may protect against weight gain. This study examined the association between EI throughout the day and incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) among older adults. A cohort of 607 individuals aged ≥ 60 free from MetS at baseline was followed from 2008-2010 until 2015. At baseline, habitual EI was assessed on six eating occasions: breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and snacking. MetS was defined according to the harmonized definition. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including total EI, diet quality, and physical activity/sedentary behavior. During follow-up, 101 new MetS cases occurred. Compared to the lowest sex-specific quartile of EI at dinner, the OR (95% confidence interval) for incident MetS were: 1.71 (0.85-3.46) in the second, 1.70 (0.81-3.54) in the third, and 2.57 (1.14-5.79) in the fourth quartile (p-trend: 0.034). Elevated waist circumference and triglycerides were the MetS components that most contributed to this association. A higher EI at dinner was associated with a higher risk of MetS in older adults. Reducing EI at dinner might be a simple strategy to prevent MetS.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Refeições/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Environ Int ; 156: 106744, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventionally grown fruits and vegetables (FVs) are the main source of general population exposure to pesticide residues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of intake of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with cancer risk. METHODS: We followed 150,830 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1998-2016, and Nurses' Health Study II, 1999-2017) and 29,486 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1998-2016) without a history of cancer. We ascertained FV intake via validated food frequency questionnaires and categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residue levels based on USDA surveillance data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total and site-specific cancer related to quintiles of high- and low-pesticide-residue FV intake. RESULTS: We documented 23,678 incident cancer cases during 2,862,118 person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable analysis, neither high- nor low-pesticide-residue FV intake was associated with cancer. The HRs (95% CI) per 1 serving/day increase in intake were 0.99 (0.97-1.01) for high- and 1.01 (0.99-1.02) for low-pesticide-residue FVs. Additionally, we found no association between high-pesticide-residue FV intake and risk of specific sites, including malignancies previously linked to occupational pesticide exposure ([HR, 95% CI comparing extreme quintiles of intake] lung [1.17 (0.95-1.43)], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [0.89 (0.72-1.09)], prostate [1.31 (0.88-1.93)]) or inversely related to intake of organic foods (breasts [1.03 (0.94-1.31)]). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that overall exposure to pesticides through FV intake is not related to cancer risk, although they do not rule out associations with specific chemicals or sub-types of specific cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Dieta , Seguimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
4.
J Nutr ; 151(8): 2390-2398, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality risks. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between UPF consumption and incident dyslipidemia in older adults, where evidence is limited. METHODS: We studied a prospective cohort of 1082 community-dwelling adults in Spain, older than 60 (mean age, 68 ± 6 years old). Participants (52% were women) were recruited between 2008-10 and followed up to 2015. At baseline, food intake data were collected using a validated computerized face-to-face dietary history. UPFs were identified according to the nature and extent of their industrial processing (NOVA classification). Triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were measured in fasting plasma samples collected at baseline and at follow-up. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression adjusted for the main potential confounders. RESULTS: Among those free of corresponding dyslipidemia at baseline, and after a follow-up of between 5 to 7 years, 60 (out of 895) developed incident hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL), 112 (out of 878) had low HDL cholesterol (<40 in men/<50 mg/dL in women), and 54 (out of 472) had high LDL cholesterol (>129 mg/dL). The mean percentage of UPF consumption was 19% ± 11% of total energy intake. Those in the highest versus the lowest tertile of energy intake from UPFs had more than twice the odds of incident hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 2.66; 95% CI: 1.20-5.90; P-trend, 0.011) or low HDL cholesterol (OR, 2.23; 95% CI: 1.22-4.05; P-trend, 0.012). UPF consumption was not associated with high LDL cholesterol plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although UPF consumption in Spain was low among older adults, high consumption of UPFs was clearly associated with incident dyslipidemia. The increase in CVD risk recently found to be associated with UPF consumption might be mediated by these atherogenic lipid abnormalities.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669219

RESUMO

Diet has been clearly associated with cardiovascular disease, but few studies focus on the influence of cooking and food preservation methods on health. The aim of this study was to describe cooking and food preservation patterns, as well as to examine their association with inflammatory and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in the Spanish adult population. A cross-sectional study of 10,010 individuals, representative of the Spanish population, aged 18 years or over was performed using data from the ENRICA study. Food consumption data were collected through a face-to-face dietary history. Cooking and food preservation patterns were identified by factor analysis with varimax rotation. Linear regression models adjusted for main confounders were built. Four cooking and food preservation patterns were identified. The Spanish traditional pattern (positively correlated with boiling and sautéing, brining, and light frying) tends to be cardio-metabolically beneficial (with a reduction in C-reactive protein (-7.69%)), except for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), insulin levels, and anthropometrics. The health-conscious pattern (negatively correlated with battering, frying, and stewing) tends to improve renal function (with a reduction in urine albumin (-9.60%) and the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (-4.82%)). The youth-style pattern (positively correlated with soft drinks and distilled alcoholic drinks and negatively with raw food consumption) tends to be associated with good cardio-metabolic health except, for lower HDL-c (-6.12%), higher insulin (+6.35%), and higher urine albumin (+27.8%) levels. The social business pattern (positively correlated with the consumption of fermented alcoholic drinks, food cured with salt or smoke, and cured cheese) tends to be detrimental for the lipid profile (except HDL-c), renal function (urine albumin +8.04%), diastolic blood pressure (+2.48%), and anthropometrics. Cooking and food preservation patterns showed a relationship with inflammatory and cardio-metabolic health biomarkers. The Spanish traditional pattern and the health-conscious pattern were associated with beneficial effects on health and should be promoted. The youth-style pattern calls attention to some concerns, and the social business pattern was the most detrimental one. These findings support the influence of cooking and preservation patterns on health.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Culinária , Inflamação/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Humanos
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1301-1311, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 5-color Nutri-Score (5-CNS) front-of-package labeling system classifies products according to their nutritional quality, so healthier choices are easier when shopping. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between 5-CNS-based food consumption and long-term mortality in a Spanish, adult population. METHODS: We recruited 12,054 individuals, representative of the Spanish population aged ≥18 years, in 2008-10 and followed up with them to 2017. Habitual food consumption was collected at baseline with a validated computerized dietary history, conducted by trained interviewers. Based on nutritional quality, foods consumed were categorized into 5 labels [A/Green (best quality), B, C, D, and E/Red (worst quality)] using an established algorithm. For each individual, a 5-CNS dietary index (DI) was calculated by summing up the amount of g/day from the foods consumed by their corresponding nutritional quality rate (e.g., A rated 1 and E rated 5) and dividing it by kg of weight. The associations between baseline 5-CNS DI and mortality were analyzed using multivariate-adjusted Cox models. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 514 deaths occurred (140 cardiovascular and 144 cancer deaths). The all-cause mortality HR for the highest versus the lowest quartile of baseline 5-CNS DI was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.34-2.79; P-trend, 0.001). The association was slightly higher for cardiovascular mortality and was similar for cancer. Those with the highest intake of foods labeled as D or E also had a higher all-cause mortality risk than those with the lowest intake (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.56-2.97; P-trend < 0.001). Further, the isocaloric replacement of food products labeled as D or E with fresh foods decreases the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of poor nutritional quality 5-CNS-labeled food products was associated with higher mortality in Spain. Pending further studies, these findings provide additional evidence to reinforce food policies on the use of this simple labeling tool at a country level.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Avaliação Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525613

RESUMO

Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. However, little is known on the UPF effect on renal function. The aim of this study is to assess prospectively the association between consumption of UPF and renal function decline. This is a prospective cohort study of 1312 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 and older recruited during 2008-2010 and followed up to December 2015. At baseline, a validated dietary history was obtained. UPF was identified according to NOVA classification. At baseline and at follow-up, serum creatinine (SCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels were ascertained and changes were calculated. A combined end-point of renal decline was considered: SCr increase or eGFR decreased beyond that expected for age. Logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders was performed. During follow-up, 183 cases of renal function decline occurred. The fully adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of renal function decline across terciles of percentage of total energy intake from UPF were 1.56 (1.02-2.38) for the second tercile, and 1.74 (1.14-2.66) for the highest tercile; p-trend was 0.026. High UPF consumption is independently associated with an increase higher than 50% in the risk of renal function decline in Spanish older adults.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Renal , Rim/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Intervalos de Confiança , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Age Ageing ; 50(1): 213-219, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to examine the association of general and abdominal obesity with falls, falls requiring medical care and falls with fractures in older women. DESIGN: a population-based prospective cohort of 1,185 women aged ≥60 in Spain, followed up from 2008 to 2010 through 2012. MEASURES: weight, height and waist circumference were measured at baseline using standardised techniques. Participants were classified according to body mass index as normal weight (<25), overweight (25-29.9) and general obesity (≥30). Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference >88 cm. In 2012, participants reported the falls experienced in the previous year. Logistic regression models were mutually adjusted for general and abdominal obesity and for main confounders. RESULTS: in this cohort of older women, a total of 336 women experienced falls, 168 of them had falls requiring medical care and 64 falls with fractures. For falls, no association was found with general obesity nor abdominal obesity. However, compared with normal weight, overweight women had a decreased risk for falls requiring medical care [odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.94] and for falls with fractures (OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.12-0.63). The corresponding values for general obesity were 0.44 (0.24-0.81) and 0.30 (0.11-0.82). Abdominal obesity was positively associated with falls requiring medical care (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.12-2.94) and falls with fractures (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.18-6.44). CONCLUSIONS: in older women, general obesity may protect from falls requiring medical care and falls with fractures. On the contrary, abdominal obesity increased the risk of suffering from types of falls.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
9.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784758

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time in the literature, the prospective association between UPF consumption and the incidence of abdominal obesity (AO) in older adults. METHODS: The study sample consists of 652 participants in the Seniors Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain: Seniors-ENRICA-1 study, (mean age 67, 44% women). At baseline, standardized anthropometric measurements were collected (including abdominal circumference). After a median follow-up of six years, the abdominal circumference was measured again, and the incidence of abdominal obesity (AO) was calculated, defined as an abdominal perimeter ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women. At baseline, dietary information was collected using a computerized and validated dietary history. Information was obtained on the usual diet in the previous year. A total number of 880 foods were classified according to their degree of processing following the NOVA classification. Foods or drinks formulated mostly or entirely from substances derived from foods, with little or no presence of the unaltered original food were classified as UPF. For each participant, the percentage of energy from UPF was derived and sex-specific tertiles were calculated. Logistic regression models were built and adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, morbidity, and drug treatment variables. RESULTS: Among those participants without AO at baseline, 177 developed AO during follow-up. The average consumption of UPF was 17% of total energy (7% in the first tertile; 29% in the third tertile). The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident AO risk when compared to the lowest tertile was: 1.55 (0.99-2.44) for the second tertile of UPF consumption and 1.62 (1.04-2.54) for the third tertile; p for linear trend: 0.037. Results remained statistically significant after adjusting for potential dietary confounding factors such as fiber consumption, the intake of very long chain omega-3 fatty acids and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. CONCLUSIONS: A higher UPF consumption is positively associated with incident AO in older adults in Spain. These findings extend the current evidence of the detrimental effect of UPF consumption on cardiometabolic health.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 235, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption, which is increasing worldwide, has recently been associated with an increased risk of death and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess whether consumption of UPF is directly associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in middle-aged men. METHODS: A computed tomography scan was performed on 1876 men from the Aragon Workers' Health Study, recruited from January 2011 to December 2014, to assess coronary calcium. All participants were free of coronary heart disease. Dietary intake was collected by a validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. UPF was defined according to the NOVA classification. Associations between consumption of total energy-adjusted UPF and Coronary Calcium Agatston Score (CACS)-categorized into CACS of 0, > 0 and < 100, and ≥ 100-were cross-sectionally assessed by generalized ordered logistic regression adjusted for main confounders. RESULTS: No coronary calcium was detected in 60.2% of the participants, whereas 10.2% had a CACS ≥ 100. A significant dose-response association was observed between energy-adjusted UPF consumption and the risk of having a CACS ≥ 100, when compared with those in the lowest CACS categories (CACS of 0 together with CACS > 0 and < 100). The fully adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having a CACS ≥ 100 across quartiles of energy-adjusted UPF consumption (approximately 100 g/day in the lowest quartile (ref.) and 500 g/day in the highest) were 1.00 (ref.), 1.50 (0.93, 2.42), 1.56 (0.96, 2.52), and 2.00 (1.26, 3.16), p trend .005. CONCLUSION: In this middle-aged worker's sample, approximately 500 g/day of UPF consumption was associated with a 2-fold greater prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis than consuming only 100 g/day, independently of total energy intake and other well-established cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 131: 9-15, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical evidence suggests reduced efficacy of anticancer treatment in patients exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics. It is hypothesised that this phenomenon may be explained by the effects of antibiotics on the composition of the microbiota. To assess this in a clinical setting, we analysed the impact of antibiotics in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) treated with curative intent with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective data for LAHNC patients treated with curative intent (245 induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation [CRT], 17 surgery followed by post-operative CRT, six CRT, three RT alone and one RT with concurrent cetuximab) were analysed. We evaluated the impact of antibiotics prescribed during primary anti-cancer treatment on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates by multivariate Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 272 patients, those receiving antibiotics between within 1 week before and 2 weeks after treatment (N = 124) progressed significantly earlier and had lower OS and DSS rates. In the multivariate analysis, administration of antibiotics was independently associated with reduced PFS (hazards ratio [HR] 1.98, P = 0.001), OS (HR 1.85, P = 0.001) and DSS (HR 1.95, P = 0.004). This effect was maintained with independence of reason for prescription, type and time of antibiotic prescription. The negative impact was greater for patients who received two or more courses of antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment was correlated with increased risk of locoregional relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a negative impact of antibiotic therapy on treatment outcomes following CRT with curative intent in patients with LAHNC. This potential harm should be considered when prescribing broad-spectrum and prophylactic antibiotics for such patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2575, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054928

RESUMO

Our aim was to assess whether airborne particle counting is an immediate indicator of biocontamination in controlled environment rooms with HEPA filters in a hospital. A prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital between 2016 and 2018. The study was divided in two periods and the measurements were performed in different controlled environment rooms with HEPA filters. The Environmental Biosafety Criterion (EBC) was defined as the absence of fungal and bacterial contamination. In the training period, the area under the ROC curve (aROC) of airborne particle counting and EBC was calculated for each particle size as well as the cut-off points that optimize the combination of sensitivity and specificity in the association between them. aROC is created by plotting sensitivity against 1-specificity. In the testing period, the cut-off points previously selected were validated. 328 measurements were carried out in the training period and 301 in the testing period. In the training period, an association was found between airborne particle counting and EBC. An aROC = 0.760, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 0.695-0.825 was observed for 0.3 µm particles; an aROC = 0.797 (95% CI 0.734-0.860) for 0.5 µm particles; and an aROC = 0.751 (95% CI 0.673-0.829) for 5 µm particles. The cut-off points that optimized the combination of sensitivity and specificity were 9.0 × 103 for 0.3 µm particles, 3.6 × 103 particles for 0.5 µm, and 3.2 × 102 particles for 5 µm. In the testing period, the previous cut-off points were validated. We conclude that airborne particle counting is a useful, immediate, and preliminary measure to identify the presence of biocontamination in controlled environment rooms with HEPA filters.

13.
Environ Int ; 136: 105433, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence has revealed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins directly impairs endothelial function and induces atherosclerosis progression. In the general population, despite a small number of recent studies finding a link between PCBs, and stroke and myocardial infraction, the association with early coronary atherosclerosis has not been examined yet. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether dietary exposure to PCBs and dioxins is associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in a middle-aged men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis comprising 1844 men in their 50 s and free of cardiovascular disease, who participated in the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS). Individual dietary exposures to PCBs and dioxins were estimated by the contaminant's concentration in food coupled with the corresponding consumption and then participants were classified into quartiles of consumption. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was assessed by computerized tomography. We conducted ordered logistic regressions to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for progression to the categories of more coronary artery calcium, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among the participants, coronary calcium was not shown in 60.1% (n = 1108), 29.8% had a CACS > 0 and <100 (n = 550), and the remaining 10.1% (n = 186) had a CACS ≥ 100. Compared with those in the first quartile of PCBs exposure, those in the fourth one had an increased odds for having coronary calcium (OR 2.02, 95% CI [1.18, 3.47], p trend 0.019) and for having progressed to categories of more intense calcification (OR 2.03, 95% CI [1.21, 3.40], p trend 0.012). However, no association was found between dietary dioxins exposure and prevalent coronary artery calcium. CONCLUSIONS: In this general male population, dietary exposure to PCBs, but not to dioxins, was associated with a higher prevalence of coronary calcium and to more intense subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. PCBs exposure seems to increase the risk of coronary disease in men from the very early stages.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Dieta , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade
14.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(5): 710.e1-710.e9, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the short- and long-term association of 6 healthy behaviors (not smoking, vigorous to moderate physical activity, healthy diet, adequate sleeping duration, not being sedentary, and daily social interaction) with incident frailty and disability. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: In 2001, 4008 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥60 years in Spain were recruited. Participants were followed up until 2003, when a short-term phone interview of the remaining 3235 individuals was performed. Then, the participants were followed up until 2009, when a long-term phone interview was conducted with 1309 participants. MEASURES: At baseline, a home interview and a physical examination were conducted to assess healthy behaviors. At baseline and at follow-ups, we ascertained frailty and 4 domains of disability: limitation in instrumental activities of daily living, restriction in daily activities, limitation in mobility, and self-care limitation. RESULTS: In the short-term analyses, vigorous to moderate physical activity and not being sedentary were associated with a reduction in frailty, multivariable odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence interval) 0.55 (0.35-0.85) and 0.43 (0.26-0.72). Vigorous to moderate physical activity and adequate sleeping duration decreased instrumental activities of daily living limitation OR 0.63 (0.44-0.91) and 0.69 (0.53-0.89) as well as self-care limitation OR 0.62 (0.41-0.92) and 0.65 (0.45-0.94). Adequate sleep duration and not being sedentary decreased restriction in daily activities OR 0.67 (0.49-0.90) and 0.57 (0.36-0.91). Vigorous to moderate physical activity and healthy diet decreased limitation in mobility OR 0.58 (0.35-0.96) and 0.73 (0.54-0.97). Considering these 5 healthy behaviors, participants who scored 5 (vs ≤ 2) in the combined score had a lower risk of frailty and disability. In the long-term analyses, results showed the same direction as in short-term analyses. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The combination of healthy behaviors is associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of frailty and of most disability outcomes in older adults.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
15.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(6): 1126-1133, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra-processed food intake has been associated with chronic conditions and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between ultra-processed food intake and incident frailty in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 1,822 individuals aged at least 60 years who were recruited during 2008-2010 in Spain. At baseline, food consumption was obtained using a validated computerized face-to-face dietary history. Ultra-processed foods were identified according to the nature and extent of their industrial processing (NOVA classification). In 2012, incident frailty was ascertained based on Fried's criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for the main potential confounders. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, 132 cases of frailty were identified. The fully adjusted risks of frailty across increasing quartiles of the percentage of total energy intake from ultra-processed foods were the following: 0.04 (0.02-0.05), 0.05 (0.03-0.07), 0.09 (0.07-0.12), and 0.11 (0.08-0.14). Results were similar when food consumption was expressed as gram per day/body weight. Regarding ultra-processed food groups, the highest versus the lowest tertiles of consumption of yogurts and fermented milks, cakes and pastries, as well as nonalcoholic beverages (instant coffee and cocoa, packaged juices, and other nonalcoholic drinks, excluding soft drinks) were also significantly related to incident frailty. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of ultra-processed foods is strongly associated with frailty risk in older adults. Substituting unprocessed or minimally processed foods for ultra-processed foods would play an important role in the prevention of age-related frailty. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02804672.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2178-2188, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective association between ultra-processed food consumption and all-cause mortality and to examine the effect of theoretical iso-caloric non-processed foods substitution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A population-based cohort of 11,898 individuals (mean age 46.9 years, and 50.5% women) were selected from the ENRICA study, a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized Spanish population. Dietary information was collected by a validated computer-based dietary history and categorized according to their degree of processing using NOVA classification. Total mortality was obtained from the National Death Index. Follow-up lasted from baseline (2008-2010) to mortality date or December 31th, 2016, whichever was first. The association between quartiles of consumption of ultra-processed food and mortality was analyzed by Cox models adjusted for the main confounders. Restricted cubic-splines were used to assess dose-response relationships when using iso-caloric substitutions. RESULTS: Average consumption of ultra-processed food was 385 g/d (24.4% of the total energy intake). After a mean follow-up of 7.7 years (93,599 person-years), 440 deaths occurred. The hazard ratio (and 95% CI) for mortality in the highest versus the lowest quartile of ultra-processed food consumption was 1.44 (95% CI, 1.01-2.07; P trend=.03) in percent of energy and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-2.05; P trend=.03) in grams per day per kilogram. Isocaloric substitution of ultra-processed food with unprocessed or minimally processed foods was associated with a significant nonlinear decrease in mortality. CONCLUSION: A higher consumption of ultra-processed food was associated with higher mortality in the general population. Furthermore, the theoretical iso-caloric substitution ultra-processed food by unprocessed or minimally processed foods would suppose a reduction of the mortality risk. If confirmed, these findings support the necessity of the development of new nutritional policies and guides at the national and international level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01133093.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
17.
Environ Int ; 132: 105113, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is recommended for the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). FVs are also an important source of exposure to pesticide residues. Whether the relations of FV intake with CHD differ according to pesticide residue status is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with the risk of CHD. METHODS: We followed 145,789 women and 24,353 men free of cardiovascular disease and cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) at baseline and participating in three ongoing prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS: 1998-2012), the NHS-II (1999-2013), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS: 1998-2012). FV intake was assessed via food frequency questionnaires. We categorized FVs as having high- or low-pesticide-residues using a validated method based on pesticide surveillance data from the US Department of Agriculture. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of CHD in relation to high- and low-pesticide-residue FV intake. RESULTS: A total of 3707 incident CHD events were identified during 2,241,977 person-years of follow-up. In multivariable-adjusted models, a greater intake of low-pesticide-residue FVs was associated with a lower risk of CHD whereas high-pesticide-residue FV intake was unrelated to CHD risk. Specifically, compared with individuals consuming <1 serving/day of low-pesticide-residue FVs, those consuming ≥4 servings/day had 20% (95CI: 4%, 33%) lower risk of CHD. The corresponding HR (comparing ≥4 servings/day to <1 serving/day) for high-pesticide-residue FV intake and CHD was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.72, 1.30). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested exposure to pesticide residues through FV intake may modify some cardiovascular benefits of FV consumption. Further confirmation of these findings, especially using biomarkers for assessment of pesticide exposure, is needed.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Verduras/química , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
18.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(2): 329-335, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prospective association between protein intake and falls has been little studied. We assessed this association in a Spanish community-dwelling cohort. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 2464 men and women 60 years or older who were recruited in 2008-2010 and followed up through 2012. At baseline, the habitual protein intake was determined with a validated dietary history. At the end of follow-up, participants reported the number of falls experienced in the preceding year. Participants were stratified by an unintentional weight loss of 4.5 kg or more. Logistic regression was used after adjustment for the main confounders. RESULTS: A total of 522 participants (21.2%) experienced at least one fall. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of falling for the three increasing tertiles of total protein intake were 1.00, 0.86 (0.66-1.11), and 0.93 (0.70-1.24) (p for trend = 0.14). However, a statistically significant interaction with unintentional weight loss was observed for the association between protein intake and fall risk (p for interaction = 0.004). Among 163 participants (6.6%) who experienced unintentional weight loss, the ORs (95% CI) of falling for the three increasing tertiles of total protein intake were 1.00, 0.68 (0.21-2.23), and 0.23 (0.05-1.08) (p for trend = 0.01). CONCLUSION: No protective association between protein intake and fall risk in older adults was found. However, high total protein intake tended to confer substantial benefits to participants who experienced an unintentional weight loss of 4.5 kg or more in the preceding year. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:329-335, 2019.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Perda de Peso
19.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 71(10): 1329-34, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26946103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have assessed the association between protein intake and frailty incidence and have obtained inconsistent results. This study examined the association of protein and other macronutrient intake with the risk of frailty in older adults. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 1,822 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 and older was recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up through 2012. At baseline, food consumption was assessed with a validated, computerized face-to-face diet history. In 2012, individuals were contacted again to ascertain incident frailty, defined as the presence of at least three of the five Fried criteria: low physical activity, slowness, unintentional weight loss, muscle weakness, and exhaustion. Analyses were performed using logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including total energy intake. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, 132 persons with incident frailty were identified. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty across increasing quartiles of total protein were 1.00, 0.55 (0.32-0.93), 0.45 (0.26-0.78), and 0.41 (0.23-0.72); p trend: .001. The corresponding figures for animal protein intake were 1.00, 0.68 (0.40-1.17), 0.56 (0.32-0.97), and 0.48 (0.26-0.87), p trend: .011. And for intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), the results were 1.00, 0.66 (0.37-1.20), 0.54 (0.28-1.02), and 0.50 (0.26-0.96); p trend: .038. No association was found between intake of vegetable protein, saturated fats, long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, simple sugars, or polysaccharides and the risk of frailty. CONCLUSION: Intake of total protein, animal protein, and MUFAs was inversely associated with incident frailty. Promoting the intake of these nutrients might reduce frailty.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...