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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 97, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466199

RESUMO

Introduction: an estimated 25% of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2017, new tuberculosis cases were estimated at 10 million, while 1.6 million tuberculosis related deaths were recorded, 25% residing in Africa. Treatment outcomes of multi drug resistant Tuberculosis patients in Zimbabwe has been well documented but the role of bacteriological monitoring on treatment outcomes has not been systematically evaluated. The objective of the study was to determine the role of bacteriological monitoring using culture and drug susceptibility tests on treatment outcomes among patients with multi drug resistant tuberculosis. Methods: a retrospective, secondary data analysis was conducted using routinely collected data of patients with multi drug resistant TB in Zimbabwe. Frequencies were used to summarize categorical variables and a generalized linear model with a log-link function and a Poisson distribution was used to assess factors associated with unfavourable outcomes. The level of significance was set at P-Value<0.05. Results: about the study collected data from 473 records of patients with an average age of 36.35 years. Forty-nine percent (49%) were male and 51% were female. Results showed that when a patient has baseline culture result missing, has no culture conversion result, regardless of having a follow up culture and drug susceptibility test result, the risk of developing unfavourable outcomes increase by 3.9 times compared to a patient who has received all the three (3) bacteriological monitoring tests. Conclusion: results highlights the need for consistent bacteriological monitoring of patients to avert unfavourable treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527144

RESUMO

Introduction: Zimbabwe is one of the 30 countries globally with a high burden of multidrug-resistant TB or rifampicin-resistant TB. The World Health Organization recommended that patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB be treated with 20-24 month standardized second-line drugs since 2010. However, factors associated with mortality and treatment success have not been systematically evaluated in Zimbabwe. The Objective of the study was to assess factors associated with Mortality and treatment success among multidrug-resistant-TB patients registered and treated under the National Tuberculosis programme in Zimbabwe. Methods: the study was conducted using secondary data routinely collected from the National tuberculosis (TB) programme. Categorical variables were summarised using frequencies and a generalized linear model with a log-link function and a Poisson distribution was used to assess factors associated with mortality and treatment success. The level of significance was set at P-Value < 0.05. Results: patient antiretroviral therapy (ART) status was a significant associated factor of treatment success or failure (RRR = 3.92, p < 0.001). Patients who were not on ART had a high risk of death by 3.92 times compared to patients who were on ART. In the age groups 45 - 54 years (relative risk ratios (RRR) = 1.41, p = 0.048), the risk of death was increased by 1.41 times compared to other age groups. Patients aged 55 years and above (RRR = 1.55, p = 0.017), had a risk of dying increased by 1.55 times compared to other age groups. Diagnosis time duration of 8 - 30 days (RRR = 0.62, p = 0.022) was found to be protective, a shorter diagnosis time duration between 8 to 30 days reduced the risk of TB deaths by 0.62 times compared to longer periods. Missed TB doses of > 10% (RRR = 2.03, p < 0.001) increased the risk of MDR/RR-TB deaths by 2.03 times compared to missing TB doses of ≤ 10%. Conclusion: not being on ART when HIV positive was a major significant predictor of mortality. Improving ART uptake among those ART-naïve and strategies aimed at improving treatment adherence are important in improving treatment success rates.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
3.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(10): 1248-1255, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and major drivers of catastrophic costs among TB-affected households in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative health facility-based survey with random cluster sampling among consecutively enrolled drug-susceptible (DS-TB) and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) patients. Costs incurred and income lost due to TB illness were captured using an interviewer-administered standardised questionnaire. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the risk factors for experiencing catastrophic costs. RESULTS: A total of 841 patients were enrolled and were weighted to 900 during data analysis. There were 500 (56%) males and 46 (6%) DR-TB patients. Thirty-five (72%) DR-TB patients were HIV co-infected. Overall, 80% (95% CI: 77-82) of TB patients and their households experienced catastrophic costs. The major cost driver pre-TB diagnosis was direct medical costs. Nutritional supplements were the major cost driver post-TB diagnosis, with a median cost of US$360 (IQR: 240-600). Post-TB median diagnosis costs were three times higher among DR-TB (US$1,659 [653-2,787]) than drug DS-TB-affected households (US$537 [204-1,134]). Income loss was five times higher among DR-TB than DS-TB patients. In multivariable analysis, household wealth was the only covariate that remained significantly associated with catastrophic costs: The poorest households had 16 times the odds of incurring catastrophic costs versus the wealthiest households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR: 15.7 95% CI: 7.5-33.1]). CONCLUSION: The majority of TB-affected households, especially those affected by DR-TB, experienced catastrophic costs. Since the major cost drivers fall outside the healthcare system, multi-sectoral approaches to TB control and linking TB patients to social protection may reduce catastrophic costs.

4.
Int J STD AIDS ; : 9564624211014404, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978529

RESUMO

We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) uptake and explored factors associated with IPT non-uptake among people living with HIV (PLHIV) using nationally representative data from the Zimbabwe Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (ZIMPHIA) 2015-2016. This was a cross-sectional study of 3418 PLHIV ZIMPHIA participants eligible for IPT, aged ≥15 years and in HIV care. Logistic regression modeling was performed to assess factors associated with self-reported IPT uptake. All analyses accounted for multistage survey design. IPT uptake among PLHIV was 12.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.4-14.1). After adjusting for sex, age, rural/urban residence, TB screening at the last clinic visit, and hazardous alcohol use, rural residence was the strongest factor associated with IPT non-uptake (adjusted OR (aOR): 2.39, 95% CI: 1.82-3.12). Isoniazid preventive therapy non-uptake having significant associations with no TB screening at the last HIV care (aOR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.54-2.78) and with hazardous alcohol use only in urban areas (aOR: 10.74, 95% CI: 3.60-32.0) might suggest suboptimal IPT eligibility screening regardless of residence, but more so in rural areas. Self-reported IPT use among PLHIV in Zimbabwe was low, 2 years after beginning national scale-up. This shows the importance of good TB screening procedures for successful IPT implementation.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accurate mapping of spatial heterogeneity in tuberculosis (TB) cases is critical for achieving high impact control as well as guide resource allocation in most developing countries. The main aim of this study was to explore the spatial patterns of TB occurrence at district level in Zimbabwe from 2015 to 2018 using GIS and spatial statistics as a preamble to identifying areas with elevated risk for prioritisation of control and intervention measures. METHODS: In this study Getis-Ord Gi* statistics together with SaTscan were used to characterise TB hotspots and clusters in Zimbabwe at district level from 2015 to 2018. GIS software was used to map and visualise the results of cluster analysis. RESULTS: Results show that TB occurrence exhibits spatial heterogeneity across the country. The TB hotspots were detected in the central, western and southern part of the country. These areas are characterised by artisanal mining activities as well as high poverty levels. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Results of this study are useful to guide TB control programs and design effective strategies which are important in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development goals (UNSDGs).


Assuntos
Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Software , Análise Espacial , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(8): 893-900, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The isoniazid-resistant TB poses a threat to TB control efforts. Zimbabwe, one of the high TB burden countries, has not explored the burden of isoniazid resistant TB. Hence among all bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients diagnosed in Bulawayo City during March 2017 and December 2018, we aimed to assess the proportion with isoniazid resistant TB and associated factors. Also, we aimed to describe the TB treatment outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A cohort study involving routinely collected data by the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTBRL) in Bulawayo City and National TB programme of Zimbabwe. The percentage with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to express the proportion with isoniazid-resistant TB. The modified Poisson regression was used to assess the association of demographic and clinical characteristics with isoniazid mono-resistant TB. RESULTS: Of 2160 bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients, 1612 (74.6%) had their sputum received at the NTBRL and 743 (46.1%) had culture growth. Among those with culture growth, 34 (4.6%, 95% CI: 3.5-6.7) had isoniazid mono-resistant TB, 25 (3.3%, 95% CI: 2.2-4.9) had MDR-TB. Thus, 59 (7.9%, 95% CI: 6.1-10.1) had isoniazid-resistant TB. Children < 15 years had a higher prevalence of isoniazid mono-resistant TB (aPR= 3.93; 95% CI: 1.24-12.45). Among those with rifampicin sensitive TB, patients with isoniazid-sensitive TB had higher favourable treatment outcomes compared to those with isoniazid-resistant TB (86.3% versus 75.5%, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of isoniazid-resistant TB was low compared to neighbouring countries with high burden of TB-HIV. However, Zimbabwe should consider reviewing treatment guidelines for isoniazid mono-resistant TB due to the observed poor treatment outcomes.

7.
J Trop Med ; 2020: 4761051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518566

RESUMO

Globally, childhood tuberculosis (TB among those aged <15 years) is a neglected component of national TB programmes in high TB burden countries. Zimbabwe, a country in southern Africa, is a high burden country for TB, TB-HIV, and drug-resistant TB. In this study, we assessed trends in annual childhood TB notifications in Harare (the capital of Zimbabwe) from 2009 to 2018 and the demographic, clinical profiles, and treatment outcomes of childhood TB patients notified from 2015-2017 by reviewing the national TB programme records and reports. Overall, there was a decline in the total number of TB patients (all ages) from 5,943 in 2009 to 2,831 in 2018. However, the number of childhood TB patients had declined exponentially 6-fold from 583 patients (117 per 100,000 children) in 2009 to 107 patients (18 per 100,000 children) in 2018. Of the 615 childhood TB patients notified between 2015 and 2017, 556 (89%) patient records were available. There were 53% males, 61% were aged <5 years, 92% were new TB patients, 85% had pulmonary TB, and 89% were treated for-drug sensitive TB, 3% for drug-resistant TB, and 40% were HIV positive (of whom 59% were on ART). Although 58% had successful treatment outcomes, the treatment outcomes of 40% were unknown (not recorded or not evaluated), indicating severe gaps in TB care. The disproportionate decline in childhood TB notifications could be due to the reduction in the TB burden among HIV positive individuals from the scale up of antiretroviral therapy and isoniazid preventive therapy. However, the country is experiencing economic challenges which could also contribute to the disproportionate decline in childhood TB notification and gaps in quality of care. There is an urgent need to understand the reasons for the declining trends and the gaps in care.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230848, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe is one of the thirty countries globally with a high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB). Since 2010, patients diagnosed with MDR/RR-TB are being treated with 20-24 months of standardized second-line drugs (SLDs). The profile, management and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes of MDR/RR TB have not been systematically evaluated in Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment outcomes and factors associated with unfavourable outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients registered and treated under the National Tuberculosis Programme in all the district hospitals and urban healthcare facilities in Zimbabwe between January 2010 and December 2015. METHODS: A cohort study using routinely collected programme data. The 'death', 'loss to follow-up' (LTFU), 'failure' and 'not evaluated' were considered as "unfavourable outcome". A generalized linear model with a log-link and binomial distribution or a Poisson distribution with robust error variances were used to assess factors associated with "unfavourable outcome". The unadjusted and adjusted relative risks were calculated as a measure of association. A 𝑝value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 473 patients in the study, the median age was 34 years [interquartile range, 29-42] and 230 (49%) were males. There were 352 (74%) patients co-infected with HIV, of whom 321 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Severe adverse events (SAEs) were recorded in 118 (25%) patients; mostly hearing impairments (70%) and psychosis (11%). Overall, 184 (39%) patients had 'unfavourable' treatment outcomes [125 (26%) were deaths, 39 (8%) were lost to follow-up, 4 (<1%) were failures and 16 (3%) not evaluated]. Being co-infected with HIV but not on ART [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.33-5.09] was independently associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: The high unfavourable treatment outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients on standardized SLDs were coupled with a high occurrence of SAEs in this predominantly HIV co-infected cohort. Switching to individualized all oral shorter treatment regimens should be considered to limit SAEs and improve treatment outcomes. Improving the ART uptake and timeliness of ART initiation can reduce unfavourable outcomes.


Assuntos
Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e034721, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are known to have a tuberculosis (TB) protective effect at the individual level among people living with HIV (PLHIV). In Zimbabwe where TB is driven by HIV infection, we have assessed whether there is a population-level association between IPT and ART scale-up and annual TB case notification rates (CNRs) from 2000 to 2018. DESIGN: Ecological study using aggregate national data. SETTING: Annual aggregate national data on TB case notification rates (stratified by TB category and type of disease), numbers (and proportions) of PLHIV in ART care and of these, numbers (and proportions) ever commenced on IPT. RESULTS: ART coverage in the public sector increased from <1% (8400 PLHIV) in 2004 to ~88% (>1.1 million PLHIV patients) by December 2018, while IPT coverage among PLHIV in ART care increased from <1% (98 PLHIV) in 2012 to ~33% (373 917 PLHIV) by December 2018. These HIV-related interventions were associated with significant declines in TB CNRs: between the highest CNR prior to national roll-out of ART (in 2004) to the lowest recorded CNR after national IPT roll-out from 2012, these were (1) for all TB case (510 to 173 cases/100 000 population; 66% decline, p<0.001); (2) for those with new TB (501 to 159 cases/100 000 population; 68% decline, p<0.001) and (3) for those with new clinically diagnosed PTB (284 to 63 cases/100 000 population; 77.8% decline, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the population-level impact of the continued scale-up of ART among PLHIV and the national roll-out of IPT among those in ART care in reducing TB, particularly clinically diagnosed TB which is largely associated with HIV. There are further opportunities for continued mitigation of TB with increasing coverage of ART and in particular IPT which still has a low coverage.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 119-125, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of resistance to rifampicin alone; rifampicin and isoniazid, and second-line anti-TB drugs among sputum smear-positive tuberculosis patients in Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A health facility-based cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: In total, 1114 (87.6%) new and 158 (12.4%) retreatment TB patients were enrolled. MTB was confirmed by Xpert MTB/RIF among 1184 (93%) smear-positive sputum samples. There were 64 samples with Xpert MTB/RIF-determined rifampicin resistance. However, two were rifampicin susceptible on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The prevalence of RR-TB was [4.0% (95% CI, 2.9, 5.4%), n=42/1043) and 14.2% (95% CI, 8.9, 21.1%; n=20/141) among new and retreatment patients, respectively. The prevalence of MDR-TB was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.3, 3.1%) and 6.4% (95% CI, 2.4, 10.3%) among new and retreatment TB patients, respectively. Risk factors for RR-TB included prior TB treatment, self-reported HIV infection, travel outside Zimbabwe for ≥one month (univariate), and age <15 years. Having at least a secondary education was protective against RR-TB. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MDR-TB in Zimbabwe has remained stable since the 1994 subnational survey. However, the prevalence of rifampicin mono-resistance was double that of MDR-TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Prevalência , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 81: 236-243, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients who accessed second-line drug susceptibility testing (SL-DST) results following introduction of the Hain technology in southern provinces, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: Cohort study using secondary data. RESULTS: Xpert MTB/RIF results were used to identify 133 RR-TB patients for this study. Their mean age (SD) was 37.9 (11.1) years, 83 (62%) were males and 106 (80%) were HIV-infected. There were 6 (5%) participants who had pre-treatment attrition. Of the 133 pulmonary TB (PTB) patients, 117 (80%) had additional sputum specimens collected; 96 (72%) specimens reached the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTBRL); 95 (71%) were processed; 68 (51%) had SL-DST results. Only 53 (40%) SL-DST results reached the peripheral facilities. Median time from specimen reception at the NTBRL to SL-DSTs was 40 days, interquartile range (IQR: 28-67). Median time from presumptive diagnosis of RR-TB by health care worker to SL-DST results was 50days (IQR: 39-80), and increased to 79days (IQR: 39-101) in facilities >250km from the NTBRL. The proportion with any fluoroquinolone resistance was 9 (13.2%). CONCLUSION: Although RR-TB patients with PTB were initiated timely on treatment, access to SL-DSTs by facilities needs improvement. Health inequities exist as remote areas are less likely to get SL-DST results in time.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
12.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 112(10): 450-457, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032237

RESUMO

Background: Intensified TB case finding is recommended for all HIV-infected persons regularly attending HIV care and treatment clinics. The authors aimed to determine how well this system worked among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with presumptive TB in 14 health facilities of Harare province, Zimbabwe, between January and December 2016. Methods: Retrospective review using routine programme records. Results: Of 47 659 HIV-infected persons enrolled in HIV care, 102 were identified with presumptive TB through the programmatic electronic database. Of these, 23% (23/102) were recorded in presumptive TB registers and, of these 65% (15/23) were traced to laboratory registers. Of 79 patients not recorded in presumptive TB registers, 9% (7/79) were traced to laboratory registers. Of 22 patients in the laboratory register, all had negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli and 45% (10/22) had Xpert MTB/RIF assays with one positive result. Six patients altogether started anti-tuberculosis treatment, the median time from presumptive tuberculosis diagnosis to treatment being 12 days. The only significant risk factor for loss-to-follow-up between presumptive TB diagnosis and laboratory registration was not being recorded in presumptive TB registers. Conclusions: Follow-up mechanisms for presumptive TB cases diagnosed in HIV care clinics in Harare city need strengthening, particularly through improved documentation in presumptive TB registers and better Xpert MTB/RIF use.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
13.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 112(6): 285-293, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992299

RESUMO

Background: In Zimbabwe, while the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is being used for diagnosing tuberculosis and rifampicin-resistance, re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) patients are still expected to have culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) performed at national reference laboratories for confirmation. The study aim was to document the Xpert MTB/RIF assay scale-up and assess how the CDST system functioned for re-treatment TB patients. Methods: We performed an ecologic study using national aggregate data. Results: Use of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay increased from 11 829 to 68 153 between 2012 and 2016. Xpert assays worked well, with successful tests in more than 90% of cases, TB detection rates at 15-17% and rifampicin resistance in <10%. During Xpert scale-up, the number of sputum specimens from re-treatment TB patients reaching national reference laboratories for CDST increased from 12% to 51%. In terms of laboratory performance, culture contamination increased from 3% to 17%, positive cultures from 13% to 17% and successful CDST from 6% to 14%: the proportion of CDST showing any resistance to rifampicin averaged 44%. From 2009 to 2016, the proportion of notified re-treatment TB patients with successful CDST increased from <1% to 7%. Conclusions: While components of Zimbabwe's CDST system for re-treatment TB patients showed some changes during the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, overall performance was poor. The country must either invest in improving CDST performance or in advanced molecular diagnostic technology.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Saúde Pública , Rifampina/farmacologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/economia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/economia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
14.
Tuberc Res Treat ; 2017: 6232071, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352474

RESUMO

Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46-282). Overall, 428 (22%) TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35-4.55)], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10-1.63)], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44-2.42)] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22-0.29)]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART.

15.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 575, 2015 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26475610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) has remained one of the major public health problems in Zimbabwe with an estimated incidence rate of 552 per 100,000 persons in 2013. The aim of this study was to describe the trends in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) sputum-smear positive (SSP) TB overall and within subpopulations for the period during 2008-2011 in Zimbabwe. Results of this study will contribute towards the evaluation and implementation of targeted TB control interventions. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to analyze 40, 110 SSP TB patient records routinely collected during 2008-2011. Incidence trends of SSP TB were described by province, sex, and age group. A Mantel-Haenszel Chi Statistic was calculated to compare each provincial SSP TB notification rate to the national SSP TB notification rate. RESULTS: SSP TB notification rates were higher in the two main urban provinces, the western provinces and Manicaland. The 25-44 year age group accounted for the largest proportion of notified SSP TB. However, the 55-64 year and 65+ age groups had SSP TB notification rates in 2011 higher than the 2008 value. Finally, the average SSP TB notification rate in males was 23% higher than in females. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that TB control has successfully decreased the notification rate of SSP TB in Zimbabwe during 2008-2011. However, the disproportionate distribution of SSP TB among different regions and subpopulations of the country highlights the need for more targeted interventions to accelerate the decline of TB in Zimbabwe.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 29, 2015 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25631667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed presentation of pulmonary TB (PTB) patients for treatment from onset of symptoms remains a threat to controlling individual disease progression and TB transmission in the community. Currently, there is insufficient information about treatment delays in Zimbabwe, and we therefore determined the extent of patient and health systems delays and their associated factors in patients with microbiologically confirmed PTB. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was administered at 47 randomly selected health facilities in Zimbabwe by trained health workers to all patients aged ≥18 years with microbiologically confirmed PTB who were started on TB treatment and entered in the health facility TB registers between 01 January and 31 March 2013. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between patient/health system characteristics and patient delay >30 days or health system delay >4 days. RESULTS: Of the 383 recruited patients, 211(55%) were male with an overall median age of 34 years (IQR, 28-43). There was a median of 28 days (IQR, 21-63) for patient delays and 2 days (IQR, 1-5) for health system delays with 184 (48%) and 118 (31%) TB patients experiencing health system delays >30 days and health system delays >4 days respectively. Starting TB treatment at rural primary healthcare vs district/mission facilities [aOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.27-5.75, p = 0.01] and taking self-medication [aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.23-4.43, p = 0.01] were associated with encountering patient delays. Associated with health system delays were accessing treatment from lower level facilities [aOR 2.67, 95% CI 1.18-6.07, p = 0.019], having a Gene Xpert TB diagnosis [aOR 0.21, 95% CI 0.07-0.66, p = 0.008] and >4 health facility visits prior to TB diagnosis [(aOR) 3.34, 95% CI 1.11-10.03, p = 0.045]. CONCLUSION: Patient delays were longer and more prevalent, suggesting the need for strategies aimed at promoting timely seeking of appropriate medical consultation among presumptive TB patients. Health system delays were uncommon, suggesting a fairly efficient response to microbiologically confirmed PTB cases. Identified risk factors should be explored further and specific strategies aimed at addressing these factors should be identified in order to lessen patient and health system delays.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Administração de Instituições de Saúde , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 20(1): 135-7, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24377879

RESUMO

To estimate prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Harare, Zimbabwe, in 2012, we performed microbiologic testing on acid-fast bacilli smear-positive sputum samples from patients previously treated for TB. Twenty (24%) of 84 specimens were consistent with MDR TB. A national drug-resistance survey is needed to determine MDR TB prevalence in Zimbabwe.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 12: 981, 2012 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23150928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe is among the 22 Tuberculosis (TB) high burden countries worldwide and runs a well-established, standardized recording and reporting system on case finding and treatment outcomes. During TB treatment, patients transfer-out and transfer-in to different health facilities, but there are few data from any national TB programmes about whether this process happens and if so to what extent. The aim of this study therefore was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of TB patients that transferred into Harare City health department clinics under the national TB programme. Specific objectives were to determine i) the proportion of a cohort of TB patients registered as transfer-in, ii) the characteristics and treatment outcomes of these transfer-in patients and iii) whether their treatment outcomes had been communicated back to their respective referral districts after completion of TB treatment. METHODS: Data were abstracted from patient files and district TB registers for all transfer-in TB patients registered from January to December 2010 within Harare City. Descriptive statistics were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 7,742 registered TB patients in 2010, 263 (3.5%) had transferred-in: 148 (56%) were males and overall median age was 33 years (IQR, 26-40). Most transfer-in patients (74%) came during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and 58% were from rural health-facilities. Of 176 patients with complete data on the time period between transfer-in and transfer-out, only 85 (48%) arrived for registration in Harare from referral districts within 1 week of being transferred-out. Transfer-in patients had 69% treatment success, but in 21% treatment outcome status was not evaluated. Overall, 3/212 (1.4%) transfer-in TB patients had their TB treatment outcomes reported back to their referral districts. CONCLUSION: There is need to devise better strategies of following up TB patients to their referral Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) centres from TB diagnosing centres to ensure that they arrive promptly and on time. Recording and reporting of information must improve and this can be done through training and supervision. Use of mobile phones and other technology to communicate TB treatment outcomes back to the referral districts would seem the obvious way to move forward on these issues.


Assuntos
Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Resultado do Tratamento , Zimbábue
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