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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127097, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488101

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (or BPA) is a toxic endocrine disrupting chemical that is released into the environment through modern manufacturing practices. BPA can disrupt the production, function and activity of endogenous hormones causing irregularity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal glands and also the pituitary-adrenal function. BPA has immuno-suppression activity and can downregulate T cells and antioxidant genes. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of BPA is paramount and therefore, there is an immediate need to properly detect and remediate its influence. In this review, we discuss the toxic effects of BPA on different metabolic systems in the human body, followed by its mechanism of action. Various novel detection techniques (LC-MS, GC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, immunoassay and sensors) involving a pretreatment step (liquid-liquid microextraction and molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction) have also been detailed. Mechanisms of various remediation strategies, including biodegradation using native enzymes, membrane separation processes, photocatalytic oxidation, use of nanosorbents and thermal degradation has been detailed. An overview of the global regulations pertaining to BPA has been presented. More investigations are required on the efficiency of integrated remediation technologies rather than standalone methods for BPA removal. The effect of processing operations on BPA in food matrices is also warranted to restrict its transport into food products.

2.
Cancer Discov ; 11(11): 2679-2681, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725089

RESUMO

Anoikis is a critical barrier to cancer cell metastasis. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Zhang and colleagues identify that IL1 receptor accessory protein suppresses anoikis in Ewing sarcoma by promoting both the activity of the system Xc - cystine/glutamate antiporter and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) transcription to sustain cysteine levels for reactive oxygen species detoxification.See related article by Zhang et al., p. 2884.

3.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(11): 5336-5342, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757752

RESUMO

Rational drug design involves a task of finding ligands that would bind to a specific target protein. This work presents CHARMM-GUI Ligand Designer that is an intuitive and interactive web-based tool to design virtual ligands that match the shape and chemical features of a given protein binding site. Ligand Designer provides ligand modification capabilities with 3D visualization that allow researchers to modify and redesign virtual ligands while viewing how the protein-ligand interactions are affected. Virtual ligands can also be parameterized for further molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and free energy calculations. Using 8 targets from 8 different protein classes in the directory of useful decoys, enhanced (DUD-E) data set, we show that Ligand Designer can produce similar ligands to the known active ligands in the crystal structures. Ligand Designer also produces stable protein-ligand complex structures when tested using short MD simulations. We expect that Ligand Designer can be a useful and user-friendly tool to design small molecules in any given potential ligand binding site on a protein of interest.

4.
Clin Ther ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This double-blind, randomized, Phase III clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel divinyl sulfone cross-linked hyaluronate (YYD302) compared with the 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether cross-linked hyaluronate (Synovian) in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: A total of 184 patients with osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade I-III) were randomized to 1 of 2 study groups (YYD302 group, n = 95; Synovian group, n = 89). A single injection of YYD302 or Synovian was given to both groups, and 182 participants completed the study (YYD302 group, n = 95; Synovian group, n = 87). The primary end point was the change in weight-bearing pain (WBP) at 12 weeks after the primary single injection. Secondary end points included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score; the Patient Global Assessment and Investigator Global Assessment; the range of motion, swelling, and tenderness of the target knee; OMERACT-OARSI responder rate; WBP responder rate (the proportion of patients achieving at least 20 mm or 40% decrease in WBP); and rate of rescue medicine use and its total consumption at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Based on the efficacy results at week 12, the responders were administered an additional single injection of the same study drug at week 24, and safety and efficacy were additionally assessed at week 36. FINDINGS: Mean changes of WBP at 12 weeks after the primary injection were -31.76 mm with YYD302 and -29.74 mm with Synovian, proving noninferiority of the YYD302 group to the Synovian group as the lower bound of the 95% CI (-4.3 to 8.3) was well above the predefined margin (-10 mm). At week 2, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (total, pain, activities of daily living, and sports/recreation) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores (total, stiffness) were significantly better in the YYD302 group than in the Synovian group. There were no significant differences between the groups in all other end points. Local overall adverse events (pain, heat, erythema, or swelling) at the injection site were observed in 48.4% of the YYD302 group and in 47.7% of the Synovian group. No serious reactions were reported. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups regarding re-injected patients (YYD302 group, n = 54; Synovian group, n = 46) in any of the efficacy outcomes at week 36. IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study support that YYD302 is comparable to Synovian in terms of the efficacy and safety of the intra-articular injection treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Furthermore, YYD302 provided faster improvements in some efficacy assessments compared with Synovian. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03561779.

5.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 12(5): 324-332, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), its prognostic significance, and the correlation between YAP1 and telomerase in various cancers. METHODS: The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis database was used to analyze RNA sequencing data and the survival rate of patients with various cancers in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. PrognoScan was used to analyze the prognostic value of YAP1 expression in various cancers. Tumor Immune Estimation Resource was used to determine the correlation between YAP1 expression and telomerase in various cancer types based on TCGA data. RESULTS: The analysis suggested that YAP1 was differentially expressed between tissues of various cancers and non-tumor tissues. High YAP1 expression was also related to a poor prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma, bladder urothelial carcinoma, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Moreover, YAP1 expression was correlated with the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase and telomerase RNA component in various cancer types. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that YAP1 is a potential biomarker with prognostic significance and relevance for oncogene research in various cancer types. The correlation between the expression of YAP1 and telomere-associated genes will help to understand their cancer-promoting mechanisms and interactions.

6.
Knee Surg Relat Res ; 33(1): 41, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many surgeons have determined the surgical transepicondylar axis (sTEA) after distal femur resection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, in most navigation systems, the registration of the sTEA precedes the distal femur resection. This sequential difference can influence the accuracy of intraoperative determination for sTEA when considering the proximal location of the anatomical references for sTEA and the arthritic environment. We compared the accuracy and precision in determinations of the sTEA between before and after distal femur resection during navigation-assisted TKA. METHODS: Ninety TKAs with Attune posterior-stabilized prostheses were performed under imageless navigation. The sTEA was registered before distal femur resection, then reassessed and adjusted after distal resection. The femoral component was implanted finally according to the sTEA determined after distal femur resection. Computed tomography (CT) was performed postoperatively to analyze the true sTEA (the line connecting the tip of the lateral femoral epicondyle to the lowest point of the medial femoral epicondylar sulcus on axial CT images) and femoral component rotation (FCR) axis. The FCR angle after distal femur resection (FCRA-aR) was defined as the angle between the FCR axis and true sTEA on CT images. The FCR angle before distal resection (FCRA-bR) could be presumed to be the value of FCRA-aR minus the difference between the intraoperatively determined sTEAs before and after distal resection as indicated by the navigation system. It was considered that the FCRA-bR or FCRA-aR represented the differences between the sTEA determined before or after distal femur resection and the true sTEA, respectively. RESULTS: The FCRA-bR was -1.3 ± 2.4° and FCRA-aR was 0.3 ± 1.7° (p < 0.001). The range of FCRA-bR was from -6.6° to 4.1° and that of FCRA-aR was from -2.7° to 3.3°. The proportion of appropriate FCRA (≤ ±3°) was significantly higher after distal femur resection than that before resection (91.1% versus 70%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The FCR was more appropriate when the sTEA was determined after distal femur resection than before resection in navigation-assisted TKA. The reassessment and adjusted registration of sTEA after distal femur resection could improve the rotational alignment of the femoral component in navigation-assisted TKA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769034

RESUMO

Gelatin has excellent biological properties, but its poor physical properties are a major obstacle to its use as a biomaterial ink. These disadvantages not only worsen the printability of gelatin biomaterial ink, but also reduce the dimensional stability of its 3D scaffolds and limit its application in the tissue engineering field. Herein, biodegradable suture fibers were added into a gelatin biomaterial ink to improve the printability, mechanical strength, and dimensional stability of the 3D printed scaffolds. The suture fiber reinforced gelatin 3D scaffolds were fabricated using the thermo-responsive properties of gelatin under optimized 3D printing conditions (-10 °C cryogenic plate, 40-80 kPa pneumatic pressure, and 9 mm/s printing speed), and were crosslinked using EDC/NHS to maintain their 3D structures. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the morphologies of the 3D printed scaffolds maintained their 3D structure after crosslinking. The addition of 0.5% (w/v) of suture fibers increased the printing accuracy of the 3D printed scaffolds to 97%. The suture fibers also increased the mechanical strength of the 3D printed scaffolds by up to 6-fold, and the degradation rate could be controlled by the suture fiber content. In in vitro cell studies, DNA assay results showed that human dermal fibroblasts' proliferation rate of a 3D printed scaffold containing 0.5% suture fiber was 10% higher than that of a 3D printed scaffold without suture fibers after 14 days of culture. Interestingly, the supplement of suture fibers into gelatin biomaterial ink was able to minimize the cell-mediated contraction of the cell cultured 3D scaffolds over the cell culture period. These results show that advanced biomaterial inks can be developed by supplementing biodegradable fibers to improve the poor physical properties of natural polymer-based biomaterial inks.

8.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126289, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748979

RESUMO

With industrialization, anthropogenic mishandlings have resulted in the discharge of abundant amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. This has triggered an unnatural warming that has dramatically increased the Earth's temperature in a short duration. This problem can be addressed by the biological conversion of CO2; several studies have been conducted using H. pluvialis culture that produces high value-added materials, such as astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids. However, although H. pluvialis has a high market value, the market size is quite small. Because H. pluvialis cells are susceptible to contamination due to its slow growth rate, hence large-scale culture of H. pluvialis without reliable contamination control strategies poses significant risks. This review comprehensively discusses the contamination that occurs during the culturing of H. pluvialis in various culture systems under different culture conditions. The review also discusses the strategies in controlling the biotic contaminants, such as bacteria and fungi.

9.
Cancer Lett ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798195

RESUMO

The monotherapy of mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) in cancer clinical practice has achieved limited success due to the concomitant activation of compensatory pathways, such as Akt signaling and cytoprotective autophagy. Thus, the combination of mTORi and the inhibitors of these pro-survival pathways has been considered a promising therapeutic strategy. Herein, we report the synergistic effects of a natural anti-cancer agent Jolkinolide B (JB) and mTORi (temsirolimus, rapamycin, and everolimus) for the effective treatment of bladder cancer. A mechanistic study revealed that JB induced a dual inhibition of Akt feedback activation and cytoprotective autophagy, potentiating the anti-proliferative efficacy of mTORi in both PTEN-deficient and cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells. Meanwhile, mTORi augmented the pro-apoptotic and pro-paraptotic effects of JB by reinforcing JB-activated endoplasmic reticulum stress and MAPK pathways. These synergistic mechanisms were related to cellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. Our study suggests that dual inhibition of Akt feedback activation and cytoprotective autophagy is an effective strategy in mTORi-based therapy, and JB + mTORi combination associated with multiple anti-cancer mechanisms and good tolerance in mouse models may serve as a promising treatment for bladder cancer.

10.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793286

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH) raises the risk of subsequent stroke or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the general population. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database records from 2002 to 2013. Of 1,025,340 individuals in the database, we included 703,090 aged ≥ 20 years old without any history of SCH, cerebrovascular diseases, and ischemic heart diseases in the analyses. Of these, we identified 46,251 cases of incident SCH and regarded it as a time-varying covariate. We performed sensitivity analyses using 1:4 propensity score (PS)-based matched controls. To adjust for potential confounders, we investigated Cox regression models using defined demographic information, comorbidities, co-medications, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index score. RESULTS: The SCH group showed higher incidence probability of stroke or AMI than the general population (3.17% versus 2.71%, respectively; p < .001); however, when compared to the PS-based matched controls, there was no difference (3.17% versus 3.03%, respectively; p = .76). Time-varying covariate Cox regression analyses without adjusting for confounders showed that SCH was associated with increased risk of subsequent stroke or AMI; however, after adjusting for confounders, SCH did not increase the risk of stroke or AMI. CONCLUSION: This population-based cohort study showed that SCH itself is not a risk factor for stroke or AMI. Clinicians could reassure patients with SCH that it would not increase the risk for stroke or AMI. We recommend attentive evaluation of underlying diseases for patients with SCH for identifying risk factors of stroke or AMI.

11.
J Knee Surg ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794197

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess continuous gaps in the replaced knee throughout the full range of motion (ROM) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a joint stability graph, and to analyze the gap laxity in the mid-flexion range. Ninety-three TKAs were performed using imageless navigation with a joint stability graph. While positioning guides for each respective cut, the surgeon can safely preview the resection's impact for the resulting joint gaps and control the soft tissue balance at the knee flexion of 0° (extension) and 90° (flexion). The gaps between the femoral component and insert were evaluated throughout the full ROM using the joint stability graph. The mechanical axis (MA) and change of joint line height were radiographically evaluated. Posthoc power analyses using a significant α value of 0.05 were performed on the proportion of the mid-flexion instability as a primary outcome to determine whether the sample had sufficient power. The power was determined to be sufficient (100%). The flexion-extension gap differences in each medial and lateral compartment and the mediolateral gap differences in flexion and extension were all ≤3 mm. None of the knees had mid-flexion instability, which is defined by a peak mid-flexion gap that is 3 mm greater than the smaller value of flexion or extension gap. The average MA was well corrected from varus 11.4° to varus 1.0° postoperatively. The proportion of postoperative well-aligned knees (MA ≤ 3°) was 87.1%. The joint line height was well preserved (14.7 vs. 14.8 mm, p = 0.751). The joint stability graph in TKA using the navigation can effectively evaluate the continuous gap throughout the ROM, including the mid-flexion range. Mid-flexion instability was uncommon in primary TKAs with appropriate alignment and proper preservation of the joint line. The Level of evidence for the study is IV.

12.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126255, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757226

RESUMO

Owing to its strong antioxidant properties, astaxanthin has a high market price in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical fields, and its demand is increasing. Furthermore, with an increase in the demand for green technology, astaxanthin production through direct CO2 conversion using the autotrophic green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis as a bio-platform has received much attention. Large-scale outdoor cultivation of H. pluvialis using waste CO2 sources and sunlight can secure sustainability and improve economic efficiency. However, low strain performance, reduced light utilization because of increased cell density, and inefficient transfer of gaseous CO2 into liquid culture broth hinder its large-scale commercialization of astaxanthin. Herein, we presented a multifaceted strategy, including the development of high-efficiency strains, a culture system for astaxanthin accumulation, and astaxanthin extraction from biomass, for economically producing astaxanthin from H. pluvialis through direct CO2 conversion. Future perspectives were presented by comparing and analyzing various previous studies conducted using the latest technology.

13.
Epidemiol Health ; : e2021097, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773936

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the real-world incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection through the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM). Methods: Patients with endophthalmitis developing within 6 weeks after intravitreal anti-VEGF injections were identified in three large OMOP CDM databases. Results: We identified 23,490 patients who received 128,123 intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. The incidence rates of endophthalmitis were 15.75 per 10,000 patients and 2.97 per 10,000 injections. The incidence rates of endophthalmitis for bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept (per 10,000 injections) were 3.65, 1.39, and 0.76, respectively. The annual incidences have been below 5.00 per 10,000 injections since 2011 although the number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections have been increasing. Bevacizumab presented a higher incidence rate for endophthalmitis than ranibizumab and aflibercept (incidence rate ratio = 3.17; P value = 0.021). Conclusion: The incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-VEGF injections have been stabilized since 2011 despite the explosive increase of anti-VEGF injections. The off-label use of bevacizumab raised more endophthalmitis significantly. The OMOP CDM, which includes off-label uses, laboratory data, and scalable standardized database, could provide a novel strategy to reveal real-world evidence especially in ophthalmic fields.

14.
J Pathol Transl Med ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775733

RESUMO

Background: Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a serine/threonine protein kinase located in the centriole of the chromosome during the cell cycle. PLK4 overexpression has been described in a variety of many common human epithelial tumors. Conversely, PLK4 acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in some situations, highlighting the importance of strict regulation of PLK4 expression, activity, and function. Meanwhile, the importance of chemoradiation resistance in rectal cancer is being emphasized more than ever. We aimed to analyze PLK4 expression and the tumor regression grade (TRG) in patients with rectal cancer, treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 102 patients with rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT. Immunohistochemistry for PLK4 in paraffin-embedded tissue was performed from the biopsy and surgical specimens. Results: We found significant association between high expression of PLK4 and poor response to neoadjuvant CRT (according to both Mandard and The Korean Society of Pathologists TRG systems) in the pre-CRT specimens. Other clinicopathologic parameters did not reveal any correlation with PLK4 expression. Conclusion: This study revealed an association between high expression of PLK4 in the pre-CRT specimens and TRG. Our results indicated that PLK4 could potentially be a new predictor for CRT effect in patients with rectal cancer.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index is a reliable indicator of insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate the TyG index in relation to cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs and mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study included 114,603 subjects. The TyG index was categorized into four quartiles by sex: Q1, <8.249 and <8.063; Q2, 8.249‒<8.614 and 8.063‒<8.403; Q3, 8.614‒< 8.998 and 8.403‒<8.752; and Q4, ≥8.998 and ≥8.752, in men and women, respectively. To calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the primary outcomes (CCVDs and all-cause mortality) and secondary outcomes (cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], cerebrovascular diseases [CbVDs], CCVD-related deaths, or all-cause deaths), Cox proportional hazards regression models were adopted. RESULTS: Compared to Q1, the HRs (95% CIs) for the primary outcomes of Q2, Q3, and Q4 were 1.062 (0.981‒1.150), 1.110 (1.024-1.204), and 1.151 (1.058-1.252) in men and 1.099 (0.986-1.226), 1.046 (0.938-1.166), and 1.063 (0.954-1.184) in women, respectively, after adjusted for age, smoking status, drinking status, physical activity, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, economic status, and anti-hypertensive medications. Fully adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for CVDs of Q2, Q3, and Q4 were 1.114 (0.969-1.282), 1.185 (1.031-1.363), and 1.232 (1.068-1.422) in men and 1.238 (1.017-1.508), 1.183 (0.971-1.440), and 1.238 (1.018-1.505) in women, respectively. The adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for ischemic CbVDs of Q2, Q3, and Q4 were 1.005 (0.850-1.187), 1.225 (1.041-1.441), and 1.232 (1.039-1.460) in men and 1.040 (0.821-1.316), 1.226 (0.981-1.532), and 1.312 (1.054-1.634) in women, respectively, while the TyG index was negatively associated with hemorrhagic CbVDs in women but not in men. The TyG index was not significantly associated with CCVD-related death or all-cause death in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated TyG index was positively associated with the primary outcomes (CCVDs and all-cause mortality) in men and predicted higher risk of CVDs and ischemic CbVDs in both sexes.

16.
Brain Tumor Res Treat ; 9(2): 111-116, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725994

RESUMO

A 25-year-old female presented with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. She had no previous history of seizures. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a solitary enhancing mass in the right fronto-parietal cortex. During surgery, the mass was noted to be pure cortical with no connection to the ventricular lining. The tumor was completely resected. After surgery, the patient had no further seizures. The biopsy result showed a supratentorial ependymoma, which was C11orf95-RELA-fusionpositive.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674512

RESUMO

Objective: Despite the usefulness of pterional craniotomy (PC), its cosmetic outcome is questionable. Electrocautery (EC) causes injuries to adjacent structures, and it could be a factor that affects the cosmetic outcome. Evaluation of cosmetic outcome is difficult because it is often determined by patient's subjective criteria. The objective of this study is to compare the cosmetic outcome after EC versus non-electrocautery (NEC) dissection of the temporalis muscle for PC by analyzing long-term follow-up data determined from both physician and patient's aspects. Methods: Patients at follow-ups between January 2014 and April 2021 after PCs were enrolled. The keyhole (KH) site, the inferior margin of the temporal line of the frontal bone (ITL), the mid-temporal (mid-T) area, and the posterior incision line (PIL) were inspected by a physician to check the presence of depressions. Patient's cosmetic satisfaction was categorized into satisfactory, intermediate, or unsatisfactory by a survey. The presence of osteolysis was checked from the radiological images. Patients were classified into two groups; one with EC dissection and another with NEC retrograde dissection using a double-ended dissector. Results: The incidences of depression at the mid-T area and osteolysis were higher in the EC group (p=0.001, p<0.001). The percentage of satisfactory cosmetic outcome was lower in the EC group (p=0.002). The presences of depression at the mid-T area and osteolysis were related with lower rate of satisfactory outcomes (p<0.001, p<0.001). Conclusions: NEC dissection causes less destruction to adjacent structures and brings better cosmetic outcome after PC.

18.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(12)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675142

RESUMO

Prodigiosin as a high-valued compound, which is a microbial secondary metabolite, has the potential for antioxidant and anticancer effects. However, the large-scale production of functionally active Hahella chejuensis-derived prodigiosin by fermentation in a cost-effective manner has yet to be achieved. In the present study, we established carbon source-optimized medium conditions, as well as a procedure for producing prodigiosin by fermentation by culturing H. chejuensis using 10 L and 200 L bioreactors. Our results showed that prodigiosin productivity using 250 mL flasks was higher in the presence of glucose than other carbon sources, including mannose, sucrose, galactose, and fructose, and could be scaled up to 10 L and 200 L batches. Productivity in the glucose (2.5 g/L) culture while maintaining the medium at pH 6.89 during 10 days of cultivation in the 200 L bioreactor was measured and increased more than productivity in the basal culture medium in the absence of glucose. Prodigiosin production from 10 L and 200 L fermentation cultures of H. chejuensis was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses for more accurate identification. Finally, the anticancer activity of crude extracted prodigiosin against human cancerous leukemia THP-1 cells was evaluated and confirmed at various concentrations. Conclusively, we demonstrate that culture conditions for H. chejuensis using a bioreactor with various parameters and ethanol-based extraction procedures were optimized to mass-produce the marine bacterium-derived high purity prodigiosin associated with anti-cancer activity.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640993

RESUMO

Human-robot interaction has received a lot of attention as collaborative robots became widely utilized in many industrial fields. Among techniques for human-robot interaction, collision identification is an indispensable element in collaborative robots to prevent fatal accidents. This paper proposes a deep learning method for identifying external collisions in 6-DoF articulated robots. The proposed method expands the idea of CollisionNet, which was previously proposed for collision detection, to identify the locations of external forces. The key contribution of this paper is uncertainty-aware knowledge distillation for improving the accuracy of a deep neural network. Sample-level uncertainties are estimated from a teacher network, and larger penalties are imposed for uncertain samples during the training of a student network. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for improving the performance of collision identification.


Assuntos
Robótica , Destilação , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Incerteza
20.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641158

RESUMO

This work introduces a facile geometry-controlled method for the fabrication of embossed and engraved polymeric moth-eye-inspired nanostructures in imprinting molds using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, resulting in a novel anti-reflective transparent coating. The moth-eye nanostructures are prepared directly on the surface of a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. As a prerequisite procedure, a UV-curable polyurethane acrylate resin is spun on the PET. The shape of the moth-eye nanostructures can then be adjusted by controlling the size and shape of the nanopores in the AAO templates. Both embossed and concaved polymer moth-eye nanostructures were successfully mounted on a PET substrate. Embossed polymer replica molds were prepared using the AAO master templates in combination with an imprinting process. As revealed by field-emission electron microscope (FE-SEM) images, conical nanopatterns in the AAO template with a diameter of ~90 nm and a depth of ~100 nm, create a homogeneous embossed morphology in the polymer moth-eye nanostructure. The polymeric molds with the depths of 300 and 500 nm revealed the amalgamated structures in their apexes. In addition, a dip-imprinting process of the polymeric layers was implemented to yield a concaved mold by assembly on the surface of the 100 nm embossed polymer mold substrate. Considering that the embossed structures may be crumbled due to their protuberant shapes, the concaved geometries can have an advantage of stability in a certain application concerning physical degradation along with a higher transmission by ~2%, despite somewhat nonuniform structure. The experimental and theoretical results of this study indicate that this polymer layer has the potential for use in anti-reflective coating applications in transparent films.

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