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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209137

RESUMO

D-Pinitol (DPIN) is a natural occurring inositol capable of activating the insulin pathway in peripheral tissues, whereas this has not been thoroughly studied in the central nervous system. The present study assessed the potential regulatory effects of DPIN on the hypothalamic insulin signaling pathway. To this end we investigated the Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B (Akt) signaling cascade in a rat model following oral administration of DPIN. The PI3K/Akt-associated proteins were quantified by Western blot in terms of phosphorylation and total expression. Results indicate that the acute administration of DPIN induced time-dependent phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and its related substrates within the hypothalamus, indicating an activation of the insulin signaling pathway. This profile is consistent with DPIN as an insulin sensitizer since we also found a decrease in the circulating concentration of this hormone. Overall, the present study shows the pharmacological action of DPIN in the hypothalamus through the PI3K/Akt pathway when giving in fasted animals. These findings suggest that DPIN might be a candidate to treat brain insulin-resistance associated disorders by activating insulin response beyond the insulin receptor.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucagon/sangue , Homeostase , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Inositol/sangue , Inositol/química , Inositol/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065168

RESUMO

Increasing evidence links metabolic disorders with neurodegenerative processes including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Late AD is associated with amyloid (Aß) plaque accumulation, neuroinflammation, and central insulin resistance. Here, a humanized AD model, the 5xFAD mouse model, was used to further explore food intake, energy expenditure, neuroinflammation, and neuroendocrine signaling in the hypothalamus. Experiments were performed on 6-month-old male and female full transgenic (Tg5xFAD/5xFAD), heterozygous (Tg5xFAD/-), and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) littermates. Although histological analysis showed absence of Aß plaques in the hypothalamus of 5xFAD mice, this brain region displayed increased protein levels of GFAP and IBA1 in both Tg5xFAD/- and Tg5xFAD/5xFAD mice and increased expression of IL-1ß in Tg5xFAD/5xFAD mice, suggesting neuroinflammation. This condition was accompanied by decreased body weight, food intake, and energy expenditure in both Tg5xFAD/- and Tg5xFAD/5xFAD mice. Negative energy balance was associated with altered circulating levels of insulin, GLP-1, GIP, ghrelin, and resistin; decreased insulin and leptin hypothalamic signaling; dysregulation in main metabolic sensors (phosphorylated IRS1, STAT5, AMPK, mTOR, ERK2); and neuropeptides controlling energy balance (NPY, AgRP, orexin, MCH). These results suggest that glial activation and metabolic dysfunctions in the hypothalamus of a mouse model of AD likely result in negative energy balance, which may contribute to AD pathogenesis development.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Resistina/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842637

RESUMO

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the main cause of female infertility. It is a multifactorial disorder with varying clinical manifestations including metabolic/endocrine abnormalities, hyperandrogenism, and ovarian cysts, among other conditions. D-Chiro-inositol (DCI) is the main treatment available for PCOS in humans. To address some of the mechanisms of this complex disorder and its treatment, this study examines the effect of DCI on reproduction during the development of different PCOS-associated phenotypes in aged females and two mouse models of PCOS. Aged females (8 months old) were treated or not (control) with DCI for 2 months. PCOS models were generated by treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on Days 16, 17, and 18 of gestation, or by testosterone propionate (TP) treatment on the first day of life. At two months of age, PCOS mice were treated with DCI for 2 months and their reproductive parameters analyzed. No effects of DCI treatment were produced on body weight or ovary/body weight ratio. However, treatment reduced the number of follicles with an atretic cyst-like appearance and improved embryo development in the PCOS models, and also increased implantation rates in both aged and PCOS mice. DCI modified the expression of genes related to oocyte quality, oxidative stress, and luteal sufficiency in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) obtained from the aged and PCOS models. Further, the phosphorylation of AKT, a main metabolic sensor activated by insulin in the liver, was enhanced only in the DHT group, which was the only PCOS model showing glucose intolerance and AKT dephosphorylation. The effect of DCI in the TP model seemed mediated by its influence on oxidative stress and follicle insufficiency. Our results indicate that DCI works in preclinical models of PCOS and offer insight into its mechanism of action when used to treat this infertility-associated syndrome.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Infertilidade Feminina/tratamento farmacológico , Inositol/farmacologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Envelhecimento , Animais , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Células do Cúmulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Di-Hidrotestosterona/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Intolerância à Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Oócitos/fisiologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Propionato de Testosterona/toxicidade
4.
Biomedicines ; 8(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825356

RESUMO

Inositols are sugar-like compounds that are widely distributed in nature and are a part of membrane molecules, participating as second messengers in several cell-signaling processes. Isolation and characterization of inositol phosphoglycans containing myo- or d-chiro-inositol have been milestones for understanding the physiological regulation of insulin signaling. Other functions of inositols have been derived from the existence of multiple stereoisomers, which may confer antioxidant properties. In the brain, fluctuation of inositols in extracellular and intracellular compartments regulates neuronal and glial activity. Myo-inositol imbalance is observed in psychiatric diseases and its use shows efficacy for treatment of depression, anxiety, and compulsive disorders. Epi- and scyllo-inositol isomers are capable of stabilizing non-toxic forms of ß-amyloid proteins, which are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive dementia in Down's syndrome, both associated with brain insulin resistance. However, uncertainties of the intrinsic mechanisms of inositols regarding their biology are still unsolved. This work presents a critical review of inositol actions on insulin signaling, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction, and its potential for either preventing or delaying cognitive impairment in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The biomedical uses of inositols may represent a paradigm in the industrial approach perspective, which has generated growing interest for two decades, accompanied by clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650579

RESUMO

To characterize the metabolic actions of D-Pinitol, a dietary inositol, in male Wistar rats, we analyzed its oral pharmacokinetics and its effects on (a) the secretion of hormones regulating metabolism (insulin, glucagon, IGF-1, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin), (b) insulin signaling in the liver and (c) the expression of glycolytic and neoglucogenesis enzymes. Oral D-Pinitol administration (100 or 500 mg/Kg) resulted in its rapid absorption and distribution to plasma and liver compartments. Its administration reduced insulinemia and HOMA-IR, while maintaining glycaemia thanks to increased glucagon activity. In the liver, D-Pinitol reduced the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase and decreased the phosphorylation of the enzymes AKT and GSK-3. These observations were associated with an increase in ghrelin concentrations, a known inhibitor of insulin secretion. The profile of D-Pinitol suggests its potential use as a pancreatic protector decreasing insulin secretion through ghrelin upregulation, while sustaining glycaemia through the liver-based mechanisms of glycolysis control.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Grelina/sangue , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressão Química , Grelina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Glicólise , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Inositol/isolamento & purificação , Inositol/farmacocinética , Inositol/farmacologia , Masculino , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
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