Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 83
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(8): e10316, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313878

RESUMO

Hematopoiesis, or the process of blood cell production, is a paradigm of multi-lineage cellular differentiation that has been extensively studied, yet in many aspects remains incompletely understood. Nearly all clinically measured hematopoietic traits exhibit extensive variation and are highly heritable, underscoring the importance of genetic variation in these processes. This review explores how human genetics have illuminated our understanding of hematopoiesis in health and disease. The study of rare mutations in blood and immune disorders has elucidated novel roles for regulators of hematopoiesis and uncovered numerous important molecular pathways, as seen through examples such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia and the GATA2 deficiency syndromes. Additionally, population studies of common genetic variation have revealed mechanisms by which human hematopoiesis can be modulated. We discuss advances in functionally characterizing common variants associated with blood cell traits and discuss therapeutic insights, such as the discovery of BCL11A as a modulator of fetal hemoglobin expression. Finally, as genetic techniques continue to evolve, we discuss the prospects, challenges, and unanswered questions that lie ahead in this burgeoning field.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(9): e27874, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207059

RESUMO

Growth factor-independent 1B (GFI1B) variants are a rare cause of thrombocytopenia. We report on a male child who was initially diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia. However, subtle clinical signs led to suspicion of a genetic cause of thrombocytopenia. Gene panel sequencing revealed a rare variant in GFI1B (C168F), which has recently been reported in several families with thrombocytopenia. We demonstrate that this variant significantly alters platelet parameters in population studies. This case highlights how diagnoses of exclusion, such as immune thrombocytopenia, can be confounded by genetic variation. Our understanding of blood disorders will undoubtedly evolve from an increased knowledge of human genetic variation.

3.
Cell Rep ; 27(11): 3228-3240.e7, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189107

RESUMO

Human erythropoiesis serves as a paradigm of physiologic cellular differentiation. This process is also of considerable interest for better understanding anemias and identifying new therapies. Here, we apply deep transcriptomic and accessible chromatin profiling to characterize a faithful ex vivo human erythroid differentiation system from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We reveal stage-specific transcriptional states and chromatin accessibility during various stages of erythropoiesis, including 14,260 differentially expressed genes and 63,659 variably accessible chromatin peaks. Our analysis suggests differentiation stage-predominant roles for specific master regulators, including GATA1 and KLF1. We integrate chromatin profiles with common and rare genetic variants associated with erythroid cell traits and diseases, finding that variants regulating different erythroid phenotypes likely act at variable points during differentiation. In addition, we identify a regulator of terminal erythropoiesis, TMCC2, more broadly illustrating the value of this comprehensive analysis to improve our understanding of erythropoiesis in health and disease.

5.
Science ; 364(6442)2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123111

RESUMO

Although tunable signaling by G protein-coupled receptors can be exploited through medicinal chemistry, a comparable pharmacological approach has been lacking for the modulation of signaling through dimeric receptors, such as those for cytokines. We present a strategy to modulate cytokine receptor signaling output by use of a series of designed C2-symmetric cytokine mimetics, based on the designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin) scaffold, that can systematically control erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) dimerization orientation and distance between monomers. We sampled a range of EpoR geometries by varying intermonomer angle and distance, corroborated by several ligand-EpoR complex crystal structures. Across the range, we observed full, partial, and biased agonism as well as stage-selective effects on hematopoiesis. This surrogate ligand strategy opens access to pharmacological modulation of therapeutically important cytokine and growth factor receptor systems.

6.
Elife ; 82019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070582

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of variants associated with human diseases and traits. However, the majority of GWAS-implicated variants are in non-coding regions of the genome and require in depth follow-up to identify target genes and decipher biological mechanisms. Here, rather than focusing on causal variants, we have undertaken a pooled loss-of-function screen in primary hematopoietic cells to interrogate 389 candidate genes contained in 75 loci associated with red blood cell traits. Using this approach, we identify 77 genes at 38 GWAS loci, with most loci harboring 1-2 candidate genes. Importantly, the hit set was strongly enriched for genes validated through orthogonal genetic approaches. Genes identified by this approach are enriched in specific and relevant biological pathways, allowing regulators of human erythropoiesis and modifiers of blood diseases to be defined. More generally, this functional screen provides a paradigm for gene-centric follow up of GWAS for a variety of human diseases and traits.

7.
Elife ; 82019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033440

RESUMO

Iron and heme play central roles in the production of red blood cells, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Heme-regulated eIF2α kinase (HRI) controls translation by phosphorylating eIF2α. Here, we investigate the global impact of iron, heme, and HRI on protein translation in vivo in murine primary erythroblasts using ribosome profiling. We validate the known role of HRI-mediated translational stimulation of integratedstressresponse mRNAs during iron deficiency in vivo. Moreover, we find that the translation of mRNAs encoding cytosolic and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins is substantially repressed by HRI during iron deficiency, causing a decrease in cytosolic and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The absence of HRI during iron deficiency elicits a prominent cytoplasmic unfolded protein response and impairs mitochondrial respiration. Importantly, ATF4 target genes are activated during iron deficiency to maintain mitochondrial function and to enable erythroid differentiation. We further identify GRB10 as a previously unappreciated regulator of terminal erythropoiesis.

8.
Cell ; 176(6): 1325-1339.e22, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827679

RESUMO

Lineage tracing provides key insights into the fate of individual cells in complex organisms. Although effective genetic labeling approaches are available in model systems, in humans, most approaches require detection of nuclear somatic mutations, which have high error rates, limited scale, and do not capture cell state information. Here, we show that somatic mutations in mtDNA can be tracked by single-cell RNA or assay for transposase accessible chromatin (ATAC) sequencing. We leverage somatic mtDNA mutations as natural genetic barcodes and demonstrate their utility as highly accurate clonal markers to infer cellular relationships. We track native human cells both in vitro and in vivo and relate clonal dynamics to gene expression and chromatin accessibility. Our approach should allow clonal tracking at a 1,000-fold greater scale than with nuclear genome sequencing, with simultaneous information on cell state, opening the way to chart cellular dynamics in human health and disease.

9.
J Exp Med ; 216(5): 1050-1060, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914438

RESUMO

Studies of allelic variation underlying genetic blood disorders have provided important insights into human hematopoiesis. Most often, the identified pathogenic mutations result in loss-of-function or missense changes. However, assessing the pathogenicity of noncoding variants can be challenging. Here, we characterize two unrelated patients with a distinct presentation of dyserythropoietic anemia and other impairments in hematopoiesis associated with an intronic mutation in GATA1 that is 24 nucleotides upstream of the canonical splice acceptor site. Functional studies demonstrate that this single-nucleotide alteration leads to reduced canonical splicing and increased use of an alternative splice acceptor site that causes a partial intron retention event. The resultant altered GATA1 contains a five-amino acid insertion at the C-terminus of the C-terminal zinc finger and has no observable activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate how altered splicing of GATA1, which reduces levels of the normal form of this master transcription factor, can result in distinct changes in human hematopoiesis.

10.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 683-693, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858613

RESUMO

Widespread linkage disequilibrium and incomplete annotation of cell-to-cell state variation represent substantial challenges to elucidating mechanisms of trait-associated genetic variation. Here we perform genetic fine-mapping for blood cell traits in the UK Biobank to identify putative causal variants. These variants are enriched in genes encoding proteins in trait-relevant biological pathways and in accessible chromatin of hematopoietic progenitors. For regulatory variants, we explore patterns of developmental enhancer activity, predict molecular mechanisms, and identify likely target genes. In several instances, we localize multiple independent variants to the same regulatory element or gene. We further observe that variants with pleiotropic effects preferentially act in common progenitor populations to direct the production of distinct lineages. Finally, we leverage fine-mapped variants in conjunction with continuous epigenomic annotations to identify trait-cell type enrichments within closely related populations and in single cells. Our study provides a comprehensive framework for single-variant and single-cell analyses of genetic associations.


Assuntos
Hematopoese/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Cromatina/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética
11.
Haematologica ; 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872372

RESUMO

Ubiquitination is an enzymatic post-translational modification that affects protein fate. The ubiquitin-proteasome system was first discovered in reticulocytes where it plays important roles in reticulocyte maturation. Recent studies have revealed that ubiquitination is a dynamic and reversible process and that deubiquitylases are capable of removing ubiquitin from their protein substrates. Given the fact that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is highly active in reticulocytes, it is speculated that deubiquitylases may play important roles in erythropoiesis. Yet, the role of deubiquitylases in erythropoiesis remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we report that the expression of deubiquitylase USP7 is significantly increased during human terminal erythroid differentiation. We further show that interfering with USP7 function either by shRNA mediated knockdown or USP7 specific inhibitors impaired human terminal erythroid differentiation due to decreased GATA1 level and restoration of GATA levels rescues the differentiation defect. Mechanistically, USP7 deficiency led to decreased GATA1 protein level that can be reversed by proteasome inhibitors. Furthermore, USP7 interacts directly with GATA1 and catalyzes the removal of K48-linked polyubiquitylation chains conjugated onto GATA1, thereby stabilizing GATA1 protein. Collectively, our findings have identified an important role of a deubiquitylase in human terminal erythroid differentiation by stabilizing GATA1, the master regulator of erythropoiesis.

13.
Am J Hematol ; 94(5): 522-527, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680775

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common monogenic disorder in the world. Notably, there is extensive clinical heterogeneity in SCD that cannot be fully accounted for by known factors, and in particular, the extent to which the phenotypic diversity of SCD can be explained by genetic variation has not been reliably quantified. Here, in a family-based cohort of 449 patients with SCD and 755 relatives, we first show that 5 known modifiers affect 11 adverse outcomes in SCD to varying degrees. We then utilize a restricted maximum likelihood procedure to estimate the heritability of 20 hematologic traits, including fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and white blood cell count (WBC), in the clinically relevant context of inheritance from healthy carriers to SCD patients. We report novel estimations of heritability for HbF at 31.6% (±5.4%) and WBC at 41.2% (±6.8%) in our cohort. Finally, we demonstrate shared genetic bases between HbF, WBC, and other hematologic traits, but surprisingly little overlap between HbF and WBC themselves. In total, our analyses show that HbF and WBC have significant heritable components among individuals with SCD and their relatives, demonstrating the value of using family-based studies to better understand modifiers of SCD.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503522

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare bone marrow failure disorder that affects 7 out of 1,000,000 live births and has been associated with mutations in components of the ribosome. In order to characterize the genetic landscape of this heterogeneous disorder, we recruited a cohort of 472 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of DBA and performed whole-exome sequencing (WES). We identified relevant rare and predicted damaging mutations for 78% of individuals. The majority of mutations were singletons, absent from population databases, predicted to cause loss of function, and located in 1 of 19 previously reported ribosomal protein (RP)-encoding genes. Using exon coverage estimates, we identified and validated 31 deletions in RP genes. We also observed an enrichment for extended splice site mutations and validated their diverse effects using RNA sequencing in cell lines obtained from individuals with DBA. Leveraging the size of our cohort, we observed robust genotype-phenotype associations with congenital abnormalities and treatment outcomes. We further identified rare mutations in seven previously unreported RP genes that may cause DBA, as well as several distinct disorders that appear to phenocopy DBA, including nine individuals with biallelic CECR1 mutations that result in deficiency of ADA2. However, no new genes were identified at exome-wide significance, suggesting that there are no unidentified genes containing mutations readily identified by WES that explain >5% of DBA-affected case subjects. Overall, this report should inform not only clinical practice for DBA-affected individuals, but also the design and analysis of rare variant studies for heterogeneous Mendelian disorders.

16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(4): e002178, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654098

RESUMO

The National Institutes of Health have made substantial investments in genomic studies and technologies to identify DNA sequence variants associated with human disease phenotypes. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has been at the forefront of these commitments to ascertain genetic variation associated with heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases and related clinical traits. Genome-wide association studies, exome- and genome-sequencing studies, and exome-genotyping studies of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded epidemiological and clinical case-control studies are identifying large numbers of genetic variants associated with heart, lung, blood, and sleep phenotypes. However, investigators face challenges in identification of genomic variants that are functionally disruptive among the myriad of computationally implicated variants. Studies to define mechanisms of genetic disruption encoded by computationally identified genomic variants require reproducible, adaptable, and inexpensive methods to screen candidate variant and gene function. High-throughput strategies will permit a tiered variant discovery and genetic mechanism approach that begins with rapid functional screening of a large number of computationally implicated variants and genes for discovery of those that merit mechanistic investigation. As such, improved variant-to-gene and gene-to-function screens-and adequate support for such studies-are critical to accelerating the translation of genomic findings. In this White Paper, we outline the variety of novel technologies, assays, and model systems that are making such screens faster, cheaper, and more accurate, referencing published work and ongoing work supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's R21/R33 Functional Assays to Screen Genomic Hits program. We discuss priorities that can accelerate the impressive but incomplete progress represented by big data genomic research.

17.
Blood ; 131(17): 1884-1885, 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29699995
18.
Cell ; 173(1): 90-103.e19, 2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29551269

RESUMO

Blood cell formation is classically thought to occur through a hierarchical differentiation process, although recent studies have shown that lineage commitment may occur earlier in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The relevance to human blood diseases and the underlying regulation of these refined models remain poorly understood. By studying a genetic blood disorder, Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), where the majority of mutations affect ribosomal proteins and the erythroid lineage is selectively perturbed, we are able to gain mechanistic insight into how lineage commitment is programmed normally and disrupted in disease. We show that in DBA, the pool of available ribosomes is limited, while ribosome composition remains constant. Surprisingly, this global reduction in ribosome levels more profoundly alters translation of a select subset of transcripts. We show how the reduced translation of select transcripts in HSPCs can impair erythroid lineage commitment, illuminating a regulatory role for ribosome levels in cellular differentiation.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 14(3): e1007293, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590102

RESUMO

Co-inheritance of α-thalassemia has a significant protective effect on the severity of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD), including stroke. However, little information exists on the association and interactions for the common African ancestral α-thalassemia mutation (-α3.7 deletion) and ß-globin traits (HbS trait [SCT] and HbC trait) on important clinical phenotypes such as red blood cell parameters, anemia, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a community-based cohort of 2,916 African Americans from the Jackson Heart Study, we confirmed the expected associations between SCT, HbC trait, and the -α3.7 deletion with lower mean corpuscular volume/mean corpuscular hemoglobin and higher red blood cell count and red cell distribution width. In addition to the recently recognized association of SCT with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), we observed a novel association of the -α3.7 deletion with higher HbA1c levels. Co-inheritance of each additional copy of the -α3.7 deletion significantly lowered the risk of anemia and chronic kidney disease among individuals with SCT (P-interaction = 0.031 and 0.019, respectively). Furthermore, co-inheritance of a novel α-globin regulatory variant was associated with normalization of red cell parameters in individuals with the -α3.7 deletion and significantly negated the protective effect of α-thalassemia on stroke in 1,139 patients with sickle cell anemia from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) (P-interaction = 0.0049). Functional assays determined that rs11865131, located in the major alpha-globin enhancer MCS-R2, was the most likely causal variant. These findings suggest that common α- and ß-globin variants interact to influence hematologic and clinical phenotypes in African Americans, with potential implications for risk-stratification and counseling of individuals with SCD and SCT.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , Hemoglobina Falciforme/genética , Traço Falciforme , alfa-Globinas/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Eritrócitos Anormais , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia alfa/genética
20.
J Clin Invest ; 128(4): 1597-1614, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408805

RESUMO

Ribosomal proteins (RP) regulate specific gene expression by selectively translating subsets of mRNAs. Indeed, in Diamond-Blackfan anemia and 5q- syndrome, mutations in RP genes lead to a specific defect in erythroid gene translation and cause anemia. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of selective mRNA translation and involvement of ribosomal-associated factors in this process. Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 (RNH1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that binds to and inhibits pancreatic-type ribonucleases. Here, we report that RNH1 binds to ribosomes and regulates erythropoiesis by controlling translation of the erythroid transcription factor GATA1. Rnh1-deficient mice die between embryonic days E8.5 and E10 due to impaired production of mature erythroid cells from progenitor cells. In Rnh1-deficient embryos, mRNA levels of Gata1 are normal, but GATA1 protein levels are decreased. At the molecular level, we found that RNH1 binds to the 40S subunit of ribosomes and facilitates polysome formation on Gata1 mRNA to confer transcript-specific translation. Further, RNH1 knockdown in human CD34+ progenitor cells decreased erythroid differentiation without affecting myelopoiesis. Our results reveal an unsuspected role for RNH1 in the control of GATA1 mRNA translation and erythropoiesis.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA