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1.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(3): 321-326, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533161

RESUMO

AIM: Following discharge from a hospital avoidance program, to examine the prevalence of patient mortality, demographic characteristics associated with risk of mortality up to 33 months, patient demographic and health characteristics associated with mortality within 1 year. METHODS: A retrospective data linkage study of older adults with mean age of 80.5 years discharged from a hospital avoidance program between January 2017 and January 2018. The prevalence of death at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 33 months was calculated. Patient demographic and health characteristics associated with participant mortality within 12 (n = 195) and 33 (n = 185) months of discharge was examined using Cox multivariable regression for patients with complete health characteristic data. RESULTS: The mortality prevalence was 17% at 6 months and cumulative prevalence at 1 year, 18 months and 33 months post-discharge were 24%, 29% and 36% respectively. Characteristics associated with mortality within 12 months of discharge were lower cognition, increased burden of comorbidity, decreased physical function, weight <55 kg and male sex. The same variables were associated with death up to 33 months as well as age, interaction between household arrangement and time, and albumin. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of potential risk indicators allows greater specificity for identifying older people at risk of dying in the next 12 months and an opportunity to discuss their advanced care planning. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; ••: ••-••.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Mortalidade , Alta do Paciente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e012732, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973599

RESUMO

Background Intravenous thrombolytic therapy (IVT) with tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke is underutilized in many parts of the world. Randomized trials to test the effectiveness of thrombolysis implementation strategies are limited. Methods and Results This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent, multidisciplinary tissue plasminogen activator implementation package in increasing the proportion of thrombolyzed cases while maintaining accepted benchmarks for low rates of intracranial hemorrhage and high rates of functional outcomes at 3 months. A cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 hospitals in the early stages of thrombolysis implementation across 3 Australian states was undertaken. Monitoring of IVT rates during the baseline period allowed hospitals (the unit of randomization) to be grouped into 3 baseline IVT strata-very low rates (0% to ≤4.0%); low rates (>4.0% to ≤10.0%); and moderate rates (>10.0%). Hospitals were randomized to an implementation package (experimental group) or usual care (control group) using a 1:1 ratio. The 16-month intervention was based on behavioral theory and analysis of the steps, roles, and barriers to rapid assessment for thrombolysis eligibility and involved comprehensive strategies addressing individual and system-level change. The primary outcome was the difference in tissue plasminogen activator proportions between the 2 groups postintervention. The absolute difference in postintervention IVT rates between intervention and control hospitals adjusted for baseline IVT rate and stratum was not significant (primary outcome rate difference=1.1% (95% CI -1.5% to 3.7%; P=0.38). Rates of intracranial hemorrhage remained below international benchmarks. Conclusions The implementation package resulted in no significant change in tissue plasminogen activator implementation, suggesting that ongoing support is needed to sustain initial modifications in behavior. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.anzctr.org.au Unique identifiers: ACTRN12613000939796 and U1111-1145-6762.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/tendências , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Benchmarking/tendências , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Fam Pract ; 36(4): 473-478, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The detection of harmful alcohol use and the delivery of brief advice in primary care are less than optimal. Given limited health care resources, deciding where best to allocate funding to optimize health outcomes is imperative. A simple data-based tool could be useful when access to specialist health economic advice is unavailable. This study aimed to examine the utility of a simple data-based calculator to facilitate priority setting in general practice for reducing alcohol-related harm. METHODS: A simple algorithm was developed within Microsoft Excel to allow comparison of hypothetical intervention scenarios that aimed to increase detection and brief advice for harmful alcohol use in general practice. The calculator accommodated varying implementation costs, size of effect and reach for each scenario created. The incremental costs of the intervention scenarios, the incremental number of successes (i.e. abstinence or drinking at safe levels) and the incremental costs-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated for each hypothetical scenario and compared with a usual care scenario. RESULTS: In the hypothetical scenarios modelled, increasing both the detection of harmful alcohol consumption and the provision of brief advice produced the greatest number of incremental successes above baseline. Increasing detection alone produced fewer incremental successes but was the most cost-effective approach, as indicated by the lowest ICER. DISCUSSION: The data-based calculator provides a simple method of exploring reach and cost-effectiveness outcomes without the need for any specific skills. Although this approach has limitations, the calculator can be used by decision makers to guide intervention planning.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Atenção à Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alocação de Recursos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ann Hematol ; 97(7): 1283-1292, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525897

RESUMO

Due to fewer cancer services in rural locations, rural survivors may have unique unmet needs compared to urban survivors. This study compared among rural and urban haematological cancer survivors the most common "high/very high" unmet supportive care needs and the unmet need scores for five domains (information, financial concerns, access and continuity of care, relationships and emotional health). Survivors' socio-demographics, rurality, cancer history and psychological factors associated with each unmet need domain were also explored. A total of 1511 haematological cancer survivors were recruited from five Australian state cancer registries and 1417 (1145 urban, 272 rural) allowed extraction of their residential postcode from registry records. A questionnaire that contained the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey was mailed to survivors. Dealing with feeling tired was the most common "high/very high" unmet need for rural (15.2%) and urban (15.5%) survivors. The emotional health domain had the highest mean unmet need score for rural and urban survivors. Rurality was associated with a decreased unmet emotional health domain score whereas travelling for more than 1 h to treatment was associated with increased unmet financial concerns and unmet access and continuity of care. Depression, anxiety and stress were associated with increased unmet need scores for all five domains. Unmet need domain scores generally did not differ by rurality. Travelling for more than 1 h to treatment was associated with increased unmet need scores on two domains. Telemedicine and increased financial assistance with travel and accommodation may help those travelling long distances for treatment.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Neoplasias Hematológicas , População Rural , Sobreviventes , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente/economia , Assistência ao Convalescente/psicologia , Idoso , Austrália , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Emoções , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Telemedicina , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562704

RESUMO

The Institute of Medicine has recommended that improvements are needed in patient-centered care. This study examined hematological cancer patients' perceptions of which aspects of cancer care were being delivered well and areas that required improvement, and whether patient characteristics, or the treatment center they attended, were associated with quality of patient-centered care. Participants were recruited via three Australian hematological cancer treatment centers and completed a paper-and-pen survey assessing sociodemographic, disease, and psychological and treatment characteristics at recruitment. A second survey that contained the Quality of Patient-Centered Cancer Care measure was completed one month after recruitment (n = 215). The most frequently delivered feature of patient-centered cancer care was hospital staff showing respect for patients (91.0%). The area of care reported most commonly as not being delivered was hospital staff helping the patient find other cancer patients to talk to (29.8%). Patients without depression reported higher perceived quality of treatment decision-making, co-ordinated and integrated care, emotional support, follow-up care, respectful communication, and cancer information than patients with depression. The treatment center that was attended was associated only with the quality of cancer information patients received. Privacy issues may hinder staff connecting patients directly but this could be overcome via referrals to cancer organizations that offer peer support services.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer/normas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Idoso , Austrália , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/normas , Respeito , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 125, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is highly prevalent yet often poorly detected and treated among cancer patients. In light of the move towards evidence-based healthcare policy, we have developed a simple tool that can assist policy makers, organisations and researchers to logically think through the steps involved in improving patient outcomes, and to help guide decisions about where to allocate resources. METHODS: The model assumes that a series of filters operate to determine outcomes and cost-effectiveness associated with depression care for cancer patients, including: detection of depression, provider response to detection, patient acceptance of treatment, and effectiveness of treatment provided. To illustrate the utility of the model, hypothetical data for baseline and four scenarios in which filter outcomes were improved by 15% were entered into the model. RESULTS: The model provides outcomes including: number of people successfully treated, total costs per scenario, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per scenario compared to baseline. The hypothetical data entered into the model illustrate the relative effectiveness (in terms of the number of additional incremental successes) and relative cost-effectiveness (in terms of cost per successful outcome and total cost) of making changes at each step or filter. CONCLUSIONS: The model provides a readily accessible tool to assist decision makers to think through the steps involved in improving depression outcomes for cancer patents. It provides transparent guidance about how to best allocate resources, and highlights areas where more reliable data are needed. The filter model presents an opportunity to improve on current practice by ensuring that a logical approach, which takes into account the available evidence, is applied to decision making.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias/psicologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos
7.
Trials ; 18(1): 137, 2017 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28335809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Australia, rural and remote communities have high rates of diabetes-related death and hospitalisation. General practitioners (GPs) play a major role in diabetes detection and management. Education of GPs could optimise diabetes management and improve patient outcomes at a population level. The study aimed to describe the uptake of a continuing medical education intervention for rural GPs and its impact on the viability of a cluster randomised controlled trial of the effects of continuing medical education on whole-town diabetes monitoring and control. METHOD: Trial design: the cluster randomised controlled trial involved towns as the unit of allocation and analysis with outcomes assessed by de-identified pathology data (not reported here). The intervention programme consisted of an online active learning module, direct electronic access to specialist advice and performance feedback. Multiple rounds of invitation were used to engage GPs with the online intervention content. Evidence-based strategies (e.g. pre-notification, rewards, incentives) were incorporated into the invitations to enrol in the programme. Recruitment to the programme was electronically monitored through the hosting software package during the study intervention period. RESULTS: Eleven matched pairs of towns were included in the study. There were 146 GPs in the 11 intervention towns, of whom 34 (23.3%) enrolled in the programme, and 8 (5.5%) completed the online learning module. No town had more than 10% of the resident GPs complete the learning module. There were no contacts made by GPs regarding requests for specialist advice. Consequently, the trial was discontinued. CONCLUSION: There is an ongoing need to engage primary care physicians in improving diabetes monitoring and management in rural areas. Online training options, while notionally attractive and accessible, are not likely to have high levels of uptake, even when evidence-based recruitment strategies are implemented. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, identifier: ACTRN12611000553976 . Retrospectively registered on 31 May 2011.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Clínicos Gerais/educação , Internet , Médicos de Atenção Primária/educação , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/educação , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Tamanho da Amostra , Austrália , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/psicologia , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia
8.
J Oncol Pract ; 12(6): e746-54, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221990

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study assessed the association between oncology outpatients' quality improvement preferences and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Implementation of specific initiatives preferred by patients with lower HRQoL may be a strategic approach to enhancing care for potentially vulnerable patients. METHODS: English-speaking adults were recruited from five outpatient chemotherapy clinics located in New South Wales, Australia. Using touch screen devices, participants selected up to 25 initiatives that would improve their experiences and completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) survey. The logistic odds of selecting an initiative according to FACT-G scores were calculated to determine whether preferences were associated with HRQoL after controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 411 eligible outpatients approached to participate, 263 (64%) completed surveys. Commonly selected initiatives were up-to-date information on treatment and condition progress (19.8%), access to or information on financial assistance (18.3%), and reduced clinic wait times (17.5%). For those with relatively lower FACT-G scores, the adjusted odds of selecting five initiatives illustrated an increasing trend: convenient appointment scheduling systems (+23% [P = .002]), reduced wait times (+15% [P = .01]), information on medical emergencies (+14% [P = .04]), access to or information on financial assistance (+15% [P = .009]), help to maintain daily living activities (+18% [P = .007]). CONCLUSION: Two areas of improvement were commonly selected: easily accessible health services and information and support for self-management. Although the results suggest an association between a few quality improvement preferences and HRQoL, a wider spectrum of patient characteristics must be considered when targeting quality improvement to patient subgroups.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , New South Wales , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Aust J Rural Health ; 24(6): 371-377, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27086673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To indicate levels of monitoring of type 2 diabetes in rural and regional Australia by examining patterns of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood lipid testing. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis of pathology services data from twenty regional and rural towns in eastern Australia over 24 months. PARTICIPANTS: Of 13 105 individuals who had either a single HbA1c result ≥7.0% (53 mmol mol-1 ); or two or more HbA1c tests within the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of testing of HbA1c and blood lipids (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides) were compared with guideline recommendations. RESULTS: About 58.3% of patients did not have the recommended 6-monthly HbA1c tests and 30.6% did not have annual lipid testing. For those who did not receive tests at the recommended interval, the mean between-test interval was 10.5 months (95% CI = 7.5-13.5) rather than 6 months for HbA1c testing; and 15.7 (95% CI = 13.3-18.1) months rather than annually for blood lipids. For those with at least one out-of-range test result, 77% of patients failed to receive a follow-up HbA1c test and 86.5% failed to receive a follow-up blood lipid test within the recommended 3 months. Patients less than 50 years of age, living in a more remote area and with poor diabetes control were less likely to have testing at the recommended intervals (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although poor diabetes testing is not limited to rural areas, more intensive diabetes monitoring is likely to be needed for patients living in non-metropolitan areas, particularly for some subgroups.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Lipídeos/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 9: 831-5, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26150703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) identified patient-centeredness as crucial to quality health care. The IOM endorsed six patient-centeredness dimensions that stipulated that care must be: respectful to patients' values, preferences, and expressed needs; coordinated and integrated; provide information, communication, and education; ensure physical comfort; provide emotional support; and involve family and friends. Patient-reported measures examine the patient's perspective and are essential to the accurate assessment of patient-centered care. This article's objectives are to: 1) use the six IOM-endorsed patient-centeredness dimensions as a framework to outline why patient-reported measures are crucial to the reliable measurement of patient-centered care; and 2) to identify existing patient-reported measures that assess each patient-centered care dimension. METHODS: For each IOM-endorsed patient-centeredness dimension, the published literature was searched to highlight the essential role of patients in assessing patient-centered care and informing quality improvement efforts. Existing literature was also searched to identify examples of patient-reported measures that assess each patient-centeredness dimension. CONCLUSION: Patient-reported measures are arguably the best way to measure patient-centeredness. For instance, patients are best positioned to determine whether care aligns with patient values, preferences, and needs and the Measure of Patient Preferences is an example of a patient-reported measure that does so. Furthermore, only the patient knows whether they received the level of information desired, and if information was understood and can be recalled. Patient-reported measures that examine information provision include the Lung Information Needs Questionnaire and the EORTC QLQ-INFO25. In relation to physical comfort, only patients can report the severity of physical symptoms and whether medications provide adequate relief. Patient-reported measures that investigate physical comfort include the Pain Care Quality Survey and the Brief Pain Inventory. Using patient-reported measures to regularly measure patient-centered care is critical to identifying areas of health care where improvements are needed.

12.
Cancer ; 121(14): 2383-92, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25877682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended 6 objectives for achieving patient-centered care. However, most patient-reported outcome measures developed with cancer populations fail to address all 6 patient-centeredness dimensions. The Quality of Patient-Centered Cancer Care (QPCCC) measure was developed on the basis of IOM recommendations, and the measure's validity, reliability, and floor and ceiling effects were examined. METHODS: The development of the QPCCC measure included interviews with hematological cancer survivors and feedback from hematologists and cancer patients. To evaluate the measure's psychometric properties, hematological cancer survivors were identified via 2 cancer registries and were mailed the QPCCC measure. To examine test-retest reliability, a second QPCCC measure was mailed to survivors 7 to 14 days after they had returned the first measure. RESULTS: Overall, 545 hematological cancer survivors completed the 48-item QPCCC measure. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 10-factor structure with factor loadings > 0.40. The subscales were labeled Treatment Delivery, Treatment Decision Making, Coordinated and Integrated Care, Emotional Support, Timely Care, Follow-Up Care, Respectful Communication, Patient Preferences and Values, Cancer Information, and Equitable Care. The QPCCC measure demonstrated acceptable internal consistency for all subscales (Cronbach's α = .73-.94). When test-retest reliability was assessed, 4 items demonstrated substantial agreement (κ > 0.60), whereas 40 items showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.41-0.60). Ceiling effects were present for 8 subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The QPCCC measure has acceptable face and content validity, construct validity, and internal consistency. However, the measure's discriminant validity and test-retest reliability could be improved. The QPCCC measure could be used to improve patient-centered cancer care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Psicometria , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos
13.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 17(6): 746-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25634937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Guidelines recommend assessment of smoking status, with advice and support for smoking cessation, as a routine and integral part of antenatal care. Approximately 50% of pregnant Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women smoke through pregnancy, 3 times the rate of other pregnant Australian women. This study describes smoking cessation assessment and support reported by pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. METHODS: Surveys of 261 pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in New South Wales and the Northern Territory, Australia assessed women's reports of assessment, advice and support for smoking cessation from antenatal providers. RESULTS: The majority of women (90%, 95% CI = 85, 93) reported being asked their smoking status; 81% (95% CI = 73, 87) of smokers reported being advised to stop smoking and 62% (95% CI = 53, 71) of smokers reported being offered support to quit. CONCLUSIONS: Despite most pregnant women who smoke reporting advice and support to quit, the persisting high prevalence of smoking suggests that this support is insufficient to overcome the many factors pushing women to smoke. Improving the support provided to women will require empowering the antenatal providers with adequate skills, appropriate resources and effective interventions. Current guidelines are based on research from non-Indigenous populations, as there are no published effective interventions for Indigenous pregnant women. Trials of interventions designed specifically for pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are urgently needed, as are approaches aimed at reducing uptake of smoking.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/terapia , Tabagismo/terapia , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , New South Wales , Gravidez , Gestantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychooncology ; 24(7): 796-803, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25504965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that assess the quality of patient-centred cancer care have failed to measure all six patient-centredness dimensions endorsed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). This study is the first to use the Quality of Patient-Centered Cancer Care (QPCCC) measure that covers all six IOM patient-centredness dimensions to examine haematological cancer survivors' perceptions of care and characteristics associated with perceived quality of care. METHODS: Haematological cancer survivors diagnosed in the last 6 years and aged 18-80 years were recruited from two Australian state population-based cancer registries. Survivors were mailed the 48-item QPCCC measure. RESULTS: Overall, 545 haematological cancer survivors completed the measure. Areas of care most commonly identified as delivered were hospital staff showing respect to survivors (93%) and making sure the correct treatment was received (93%). Aspects of care most frequently nominated as not delivered were hospital staff helping family and friends (34%) or the survivor (32%) to find other people with similar experiences to talk to. Characteristics associated with survivors perceiving higher quality care was delivered included being employed, having private health insurance, being younger, a Non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis and more recent diagnosis. Being depressed or stressed was associated with perceived lower quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of peer support programs that allow haematological cancer survivors and families and friends to talk to others in similar situations could be improved. Using PROMs to identify areas where cancer survivors perceive improvements are needed is essential to quality improvement efforts.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Sistema de Registros , Sobreviventes , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 14: 34, 2014 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24739205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal Australians experience significantly worse health and a higher burden of chronic disease than non-Aboriginal Australians. Electronic self-report data collection is a systematic means of collecting data about health risk factors which could help to overcome screening barriers and assist in the provision of preventive health care. Yet this approach has not been tested in an Aboriginal health care setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a health risk questionnaire administered on a touch screen laptop computer for patients attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). METHODS: In 2012, consecutive adult patients attending an ACCHS in rural New South Wales, Australia, were asked to complete a health risk survey on a touch screen computer. Health risk factors assessed in the questionnaire included smoking status, body mass index, and level of physical activity. The questionnaire included visual cues to improve accuracy and minimise literacy barriers and was completed while participants were waiting for their appointment. RESULTS: A total of 188 participants completed the questionnaire, with a consent rate of 71%. The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was less than 12 minutes. Over 90% of participants agreed that: the questionnaire instructions were easy to follow; the touch screen computer was easy to use; they had enough privacy; the questions were easy to understand; they felt comfortable answering all the questions. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that the use of a touch screen questionnaire to collect information from patients about health risk factors affecting Aboriginal Australians is feasible and acceptable in the ACCHS setting. This approach has potential to improve identification and management of at-risk individuals, therein providing significant opportunities to reduce the burden of disease among Aboriginal Australians.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/etnologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Autorrelato/normas
16.
Implement Sci ; 9: 38, 2014 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24666591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability internationally. One of the three effective interventions in the acute phase of stroke care is thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), if given within 4.5 hours of onset to appropriate cases of ischaemic stroke. OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of a multi-component multidisciplinary collaborative approach compared to usual care as a strategy for increasing thrombolysis rates for all stroke patients at intervention hospitals, while maintaining accepted benchmarks for low rates of intracranial haemorrhage and high rates of functional outcomes for both groups at three months. METHODS AND DESIGN: A cluster randomised controlled trial of 20 hospitals across 3 Australian states with 2 groups: multi- component multidisciplinary collaborative intervention as the experimental group and usual care as the control group. The intervention is based on behavioural theory and analysis of the steps, roles and barriers relating to rapid assessment for thrombolysis eligibility; it involves a comprehensive range of strategies addressing individual-level and system-level change at each site. The primary outcome is the difference in tPA rates between the two groups post-intervention. The secondary outcome is the proportion of tPA treated patients in both groups with good functional outcomes (modified Rankin Score (mRS <2) and the proportion with intracranial haemorrhage (mRS ≥2), compared to international benchmarks. DISCUSSION: TIPS will trial a comprehensive, multi-component and multidisciplinary collaborative approach to improving thrombolysis rates at multiple sites. The trial has the potential to identify methods for optimal care which can be implemented for stroke patients during the acute phase. Study findings will include barriers and solutions to effective thrombolysis implementation and trial outcomes will be published whether significant or not. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000939796.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Comportamento Cooperativo , Difusão de Inovações , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Triagem/métodos
17.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 41, 2014 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24460829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has endorsed six dimensions of patient-centredness as crucial to providing quality healthcare. These dimensions outline that care must be: 1) respectful to patients' values, preferences, and expressed needs; 2) coordinated and integrated; 3) provide information, communication, and education; 4) ensure physical comfort; 5) provide emotional support-relieving fear and anxiety; and 6) involve family and friends. However, whether patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) comprehensively cover these dimensions remains unexplored. This systematic review examined whether PROMs designed to assess the quality of patient-centred cancer care addressed all six IOM dimensions of patient-centred care and the psychometric properties of these measures. METHODS: Medline, PsycINFO, Current Contents, Embase, CINAHL and Scopus were searched to retrieve published studies describing the development and psychometric properties of PROMs assessing the quality of patient-centred cancer care. Two authors determined if eligible PROMs included the six IOM dimensions of patient-centred care and evaluated the adequacy of psychometric properties based on recommended criteria for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, face/content validity, construct validity and cross-cultural adaptation. RESULTS: Across all 21 PROMs, the most commonly included IOM dimension of patient-centred care was "information, communication and education" (19 measures). In contrast, only five measures assessed the "involvement of family and friends." Two measures included one IOM-endorsed patient-centred care dimension, two measures had two dimensions, seven measures had three dimensions, five measures had four dimensions, and four measures had five dimensions. One measure, the Indicators (Non-small Cell Lung Cancer), covered all six IOM dimensions of patient-centred care, but had adequate face/content validity only. Eighteen measures met the recommended adequacy criteria for construct validity, 15 for face/content validity, seven for internal consistency, three for cross-cultural adaptation and no measure for test-retest reliability. CONCLUSIONS: There are no psychometrically rigorous PROMs developed with cancer patients that capture all six IOM dimensions of patient-centred care. Using more than one measure or expanding existing measures to cover all six patient-centred care dimensions could improve assessment and delivery of patient-centred care. Construction of new comprehensive measures with acceptable psychometric properties that can be used with the general cancer population may also be warranted.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Oncologia/normas , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Neoplasias/terapia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
18.
Annu Rev Public Health ; 35: 9-27, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24387088

RESUMO

The need to provide sound evidence of the costs and benefits of real-world public health interventions has driven advances in the development and analysis of designs other than the controlled trial in which individuals are randomized to an experimental condition. Attention to methodological quality is of critical importance to ensure that any evaluation can accurately answer three fundamental questions: (a) Has a change occurred, (b) did the change occur as a result of the intervention, and (c) is the degree of change significant? A range of alternatives to the individual randomized controlled trial (RCT) can be used for evaluating such interventions, including the cluster RCT, stepped wedge design, interrupted time series, multiple baseline, and controlled prepost designs. The key features and complexities associated with each of these designs are explored.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , Causalidade , Análise Custo-Benefício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 134: 44-50, 2014 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24095245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antenatal substance use poses significant risks to the unborn child. We examined use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women; and compared characteristics of women by the number of substances reported. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with 257 pregnant Indigenous women attending antenatal services in two states of Australia. Women self-reported tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use (current use, ever use, changes during pregnancy); age of initiation of each substance; demographic and obstetric characteristics. RESULTS: Nearly half the women (120; 47% (95%CI:40%, 53%) reported no current substance use; 119 reported current tobacco (46%; 95%CI:40%, 53%), 53 (21%; 95%CI:16%, 26%) current alcohol and 38 (15%; 95%CI:11%, 20%) current cannabis use. Among 148 women smoking tobacco at the beginning of pregnancy, 29 (20%; 95%CI:14%, 27%) reported quitting; with 80 of 133 (60%; 95%CI:51%, 69%) women quitting alcohol and 25 of 63 (40%; 95%CI:28%, 53%) women quitting cannabis. Among 137 women reporting current substance use, 77 (56%; 95%CI:47%, 65%) reported one and 60 (44%; 95%CI:35%, 53%) reported two or three. Women using any one substance were significantly more likely to also use others. Factors independently associated with current use of multiple substances were years of schooling and age of initiating tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: While many women discontinue substance use when becoming pregnant, there is clustering of risk among a small group of disadvantaged women. Programmes should address risks holistically within the social realities of women's lives rather than focusing on individual tobacco smoking. Preventing uptake of substance use is critical.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Fumar Maconha/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Fumar/etnologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/terapia , Austrália/etnologia , Cannabis , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Fumar Maconha/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med J Aust ; 199(1): 39-41, 2013 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23829261

RESUMO

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are more than three times more likely to smoke during pregnancy than non-Indigenous women, greatly increasing the risk of poor birth outcomes. Our systematic review found that there is currently no evidence for interventions that are effective in supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking, which impedes development and implementation of evidence-informed policy and practice. There is an urgent need for methodologically rigorous studies to test innovative approaches to addressing this problem.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/etnologia , Austrália , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez
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