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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 612-620, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626929

RESUMO

Clinical exome sequencing (CES) has become the preferred diagnostic platform for complex pediatric disorders with suspected monogenic etiologies. Despite rapid advancements, the major challenge still resides in identifying the casual variants among the thousands of variants detected during CES testing, and thus establishing a molecular diagnosis. To improve the clinical exome diagnostic efficiency, we developed Phenoxome, a robust phenotype-driven model that adopts a network-based approach to facilitate automated variant prioritization. Phenoxome dissects the phenotypic manifestation of a patient in concert with their genomic profile to filter and then prioritize variants that are likely to affect the function of the gene (potentially pathogenic variants). To validate our method, we have compiled a clinical cohort of 105 positive patient samples that represent a wide range of genetic heterogeneity. Phenoxome identifies the causative variants within the top 5, 10, or 25 candidates in more than 50%, 71%, or 88% of these exomes, respectively. Furthermore, we show that our method is optimized for clinical testing by outperforming the current state-of-art method. We have demonstrated the performance of Phenoxome using a clinical cohort and showed that it enables rapid and accurate interpretation of clinical exomes. Phenoxome is available at https://phenoxome.chop.edu/ .

2.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(1): 38-48, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577886

RESUMO

Clinical exome sequencing (CES) has a reported diagnostic yield of 20% to 30% for most clinical indications. The ongoing discovery of novel gene-disease and variant-disease associations are expected to increase the diagnostic yield of CES. Performing systematic reanalysis of previously nondiagnostic CES samples represents a significant challenge for clinical laboratories. Here, we present the results of a novel automated reanalysis methodology applied to 300 CES samples initially analyzed between June 2014 and September 2016. Application of our reanalysis methodology reduced reanalysis variant analysis burden by >93% and correctly captured 70 of 70 previously identified diagnostic variants among 60 samples with previously identified diagnoses. Notably, reanalysis of 240 initially nondiagnostic samples using information available on July 1, 2017, revealed 38 novel diagnoses, representing a 15.8% increase in diagnostic yield. Modeling monthly iterative reanalysis of 240 nondiagnostic samples revealed a diagnostic rate of 0.57% of samples per month. Modeling the workload required for monthly iterative reanalysis of nondiagnostic samples revealed a variant analysis burden of approximately 5 variants/month for proband-only and approximately 0.5 variants/month for trio samples. Approximately 45% of samples required evaluation during each monthly interval, and 61.3% of samples were reevaluated across three consecutive reanalyses. In sum, automated reanalysis methods can facilitate efficient reevaluation of nondiagnostic samples using up-to-date literature and can provide significant value to clinical laboratories.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1641-1649, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311378

RESUMO

ClinVar provides open access to variant classifications shared from many clinical laboratories. Although most classifications are consistent across laboratories, classification differences exist. To facilitate resolution of classification differences on a large scale, clinical laboratories were encouraged to reassess outlier classifications of variants with medically significant differences (MSDs). Outliers were identified by first comparing ClinVar submissions from 41 clinical laboratories to detect variants with MSDs between the laboratories (650 variants). Next, MSDs were filtered for variants with ≥3 classifications (244 variants), of which 87.6% (213 variants) had a majority consensus in ClinVar, thus allowing for identification of outlier classifications in need of reassessment. Laboratories with outlier classifications were sent a custom report and encouraged to reassess variants. Results were returned for 204 (96%) variants, of which 62.3% (127) were resolved. Of those 127, 64.6% (82) were resolved due to reassessment prompted by this study and 35.4% (45) resolved by a previously completed reassessment. This study demonstrates a scalable approach to classification resolution and capitalizes on the value of data sharing within ClinVar. These activities will help the community move toward more consistent variant classifications, which will improve the care of patients with, or at risk for, genetic disorders.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1890-1896, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152016

RESUMO

Xia-Gibbs syndrome (XGS) is a recently described neurodevelopmental disorder due to heterozygous loss-of-function AHDC1 mutations. XGS is characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and sleep abnormalities. Here we report the clinical phenotype of five of six individuals with XGS identified prospectively at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, a tertiary children's hospital in the USA. Although all five patients demonstrated common clinical features characterized by developmental delay and characteristic facial features, each of our patients showed unique clinical manifestations. Patient one had craniosynostosis; patient two had sensorineural hearing loss and bicuspid aortic valve; patient three had cutis aplasia; patient four had soft, loose skin; and patient five had a lipoma. Differential diagnoses considered for each patient were quite broad, and included craniosynostosis syndromes, connective tissue disorders, and mitochondrial disorders. Exome sequencing identified a heterozygous, de novo AHDC1 loss-of-function mutation in four of five patients; the remaining patient has a 357kb interstitial deletion of 1p36.11p35.3 including AHDC1. Although it remains unknown whether these unique clinical manifestations are rare symptoms of XGS, our findings indicate that the diagnosis of XGS should be considered even in individuals with additional non-neurological symptoms, as the clinical spectrum of XGS may involve such non-neurological manifestations. Adding to the growing literature on XGS, continued cohort studies are warranted in order to both characterize the clinical spectrum of XGS as well as determine standard of care for patients with this diagnosis.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 305-316, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057029

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies. FBXO11 encodes a member of the F-Box protein family, constituting a subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. This complex is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus in controlling critical biological processes by regulating protein turnover. The identified de novo aberrations comprise two large deletions, ten likely gene disrupting variants, and eight missense variants distributed throughout FBXO11. Structural modeling for missense variants located in the CASH or the Zinc-finger UBR domains suggests destabilization of the protein. This, in combination with the observed spectrum and localization of identified variants and the lack of apparent genotype-phenotype correlations, is compatible with loss of function or haploinsufficiency as an underlying mechanism. We implicate de novo missense and likely gene disrupting variants in FBXO11 in a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable intellectual disability and various other features.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 768-788, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100089

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(6): 895-906, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552198

RESUMO

With advances in genomic sequencing technology, the number of reported gene-disease relationships has rapidly expanded. However, the evidence supporting these claims varies widely, confounding accurate evaluation of genomic variation in a clinical setting. Despite the critical need to differentiate clinically valid relationships from less well-substantiated relationships, standard guidelines for such evaluation do not currently exist. The NIH-funded Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) has developed a framework to define and evaluate the clinical validity of gene-disease pairs across a variety of Mendelian disorders. In this manuscript we describe a proposed framework to evaluate relevant genetic and experimental evidence supporting or contradicting a gene-disease relationship and the subsequent validation of this framework using a set of representative gene-disease pairs. The framework provides a semiquantitative measurement for the strength of evidence of a gene-disease relationship that correlates to a qualitative classification: "Definitive," "Strong," "Moderate," "Limited," "No Reported Evidence," or "Conflicting Evidence." Within the ClinGen structure, classifications derived with this framework are reviewed and confirmed or adjusted based on clinical expertise of appropriate disease experts. Detailed guidance for utilizing this framework and access to the curation interface is available on our website. This evidence-based, systematic method to assess the strength of gene-disease relationships will facilitate more knowledgeable utilization of genomic variants in clinical and research settings.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Neurol Genet ; 3(1): e130, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28180185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ATAD1 encodes Thorase, a mediator of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA) receptor recycling; in this work, we characterized the phenotype resulting from ATAD1 mutations and developed a targeted therapy in both mice and humans. METHODS: Using exome sequencing, we identified a novel ATAD1 mutation (p.E276X) as the etiology of a devastating neurologic disorder characterized by hypertonia, seizures, and death in a consanguineous family. We postulated that pathogenesis was a result of excessive AMPA receptor activity and designed a targeted therapeutic approach using perampanel, an AMPA-receptor antagonist. RESULTS: Perampanel therapy in ATAD1 knockout mice reversed behavioral defects, normalized brain MRI abnormalities, prevented seizures, and prolonged survival. The ATAD1 patients treated with perampanel showed improvement in hypertonicity and resolution of seizures. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates that identification of novel monogenic neurologic disorders and observation of response to targeted therapeutics can provide important insights into human nervous system functioning.

10.
Genet Med ; 19(6): 715-718, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27763634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: RASopathies include disorders generally characterized by developmental delay, specific heart defects, short stature, cardiac hypertrophy, and facial dysmorphisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based panels have widespread acceptance as a diagnostic tool for RASopathies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The first 126 patients evaluated by clinical examination and the NGS RASopathy panel at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were enrolled. We calculated diagnosis rate, correlated reported clinical findings with positive or negative test results, and identified final molecular diagnoses in 28/96 patients who tested negative for RASopathies. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients had pathogenic variants on the RASopathy panel, for a diagnostic yield of 19%. Reported features of pulmonic stenosis and ptosis were significantly correlated with a positive test result; no reported features were significantly correlated with a negative test result. We identified 27 different alternative diagnoses for patients originally suspected of having RASopathies. DISCUSSION: This study provides information that can assist in guiding differential diagnosis and genetic testing for patients suspected of having a RASopathy disorder.Genet Med advance online publication 20 October 2016.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Costello/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Síndrome LEOPARD/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
11.
Hum Genomics ; 9: 15, 2015 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26187847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conditions associated with sudden cardiac arrest/death (SCA/D) in youth often have a genetic etiology. While SCA/D is uncommon, a pro-active family screening approach may identify these inherited structural and electrical abnormalities prior to symptomatic events and allow appropriate surveillance and treatment. This study investigated the diagnostic utility of exome sequencing (ES) by evaluating the capture and coverage of genes related to SCA/D. METHODS: Samples from 102 individuals (13 with known molecular etiologies for SCA/D, 30 individuals without known molecular etiologies for SCA/D and 59 with other conditions) were analyzed following exome capture and sequencing at an average read depth of 100X. Reads were mapped to human genome GRCh37 using Novoalign, and post-processing and analysis was done using Picard and GATK. A total of 103 genes (2,190 exons) related to SCA/D were used as a primary filter. An additional 100 random variants within the targeted genes associated with SCA/D were also selected and evaluated for depth of sequencing and coverage. Although the primary objective was to evaluate the adequacy of depth of sequencing and coverage of targeted SCA/D genes and not for primary diagnosis, all patients who had SCA/D (known or unknown molecular etiologies) were evaluated with the project's variant analysis pipeline to determine if the molecular etiologies could be successfully identified. RESULTS: The majority of exons (97.6 %) were captured and fully covered on average at minimum of 20x sequencing depth. The proportion of unique genomic positions reported within poorly covered exons remained small (4 %). Exonic regions with less coverage reflect the need to enrich these areas to improve coverage. Despite limitations in coverage, we identified 100 % of cases with a prior known molecular etiology for SCA/D, and analysis of an additional 30 individuals with SCA/D but no known molecular etiology revealed a diagnostic answer in 5/30 (17 %). We also demonstrated 95 % of 100 randomly selected reported variants within our targeted genes would have been picked up on ES based on our coverage analysis. CONCLUSIONS: ES is a helpful clinical diagnostic tool for SCA/D given its potential to successfully identify a molecular diagnosis, but clinicians should be aware of limitations of available platforms from technical and diagnostic perspectives.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Exoma/genética , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Adolescente , Alelos , Criança , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 148(6): 2560-6, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25282659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is a determinant of neurologic recovery after brain ischemia and traumatic brain injury. The APOE ε2 allele has been associated with worse neurodevelopmental (ND) outcome after repair of congenital heart defects (CHD) in infancy. Replication of this finding in an independent cohort is essential to validate the observed genotype-phenotype association. METHODS: The association of APOE genotype with ND outcomes was assessed in a combined cohort of patients with single-ventricle CHD enrolled in the Single Ventricle Reconstruction and Infant Single Ventricle trials. ND outcome was assessed at 14 months using the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Stepwise multivariable regression was performed to develop predictive models for PDI and MDI scores. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 298 of 435 patients. After adjustment for preoperative and postoperative covariates, the APOE ε2 allele was associated with a lower PDI score (P = .038). Patients with the ε2 allele had a PDI score approximately 6 points lower than those without the risk allele, explaining 1.04% of overall PDI variance, because the ε2 allele was present in only 11% of the patients. There was a marginal effect of the ε2 allele on MDI scores (P = .058). CONCLUSIONS: These data validate the association of the APOE ε2 allele with adverse early ND outcomes after cardiac surgery in infants, independent of patient and operative factors. Genetic variants that decrease neuroresilience and impair neuronal repair after brain injury are important risk factors for ND dysfunction after surgery for CHD.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
13.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e103491, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25058678

RESUMO

Targeted DNA enrichment coupled with next generation sequencing has been increasingly used for interrogation of select sub-genomic regions at high depth of coverage in a cost effective manner. Specificity measured by on-target efficiency is a key performance metric for target enrichment. Non-specific capture leads to off-target reads, resulting in waste of sequencing throughput on irrelevant regions. Microdroplet-PCR allows simultaneous amplification of up to thousands of regions in the genome and is among the most commonly used strategies for target enrichment. Here we show that carryover of single-stranded template genomic DNA from microdroplet-PCR constitutes a major contributing factor for off-target reads in the resultant libraries. Moreover, treatment of microdroplet-PCR enrichment products with a nuclease specific to single-stranded DNA alleviates off-target load and improves enrichment specificity. We propose that nuclease treatment of enrichment products should be incorporated in the workflow of targeted sequencing using microdroplet-PCR for target capture. These findings may have a broad impact on other PCR based applications for which removal of template DNA is beneficial.


Assuntos
DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Microfluídica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(1): 166-71, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23225330

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by the loss of paternal gene expression on 15q11.2-q13.2, and one of the mechanisms resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome phenotype is maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. Various mechanisms including trisomy rescue, monosomy rescue, and post fertilization errors can lead to uniparental disomy, and its mechanism can be inferred from the pattern of uniparental hetero and isodisomy. Detection of a mosaic cell line provides a unique opportunity to understand the mechanism of uniparental disomy; however, mosaic uniparental disomy is a rare finding in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. We report on two infants with Prader-Willi syndrome caused by mosaic maternal uniparental disomy 15. Patient 1 has mosaic uniparental isodisomy of the entire chromosome 15, and Patient 2 has mosaic uniparental mixed iso/heterodisomy 15. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism array was able to demonstrate the presence of chromosomally normal cell line in the Patient 1 and trisomic cell line in Patient 2, and provide the evidence that post-fertilization error and trisomy rescue as a mechanism of uniparental disomy in each case, respectively. Given its ability of detecting small percent mosaicism as well as its capability of identifying the loss of heterozygosity of chromosomal regions, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism array should be utilized as an adjunct to the standard methylation analysis in the evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mosaicismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Genoma , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Análise em Microsséries , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Trissomia , Proteínas Centrais de snRNP/genética
15.
Mol Genet Metab ; 101(2-3): 238-45, 2010 Oct-Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20675166

RESUMO

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by reduced amounts of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Frataxin levels in research studies are typically measured via Western blot analysis from patient fibroblasts, lymphocytes, or muscle biopsies; none of these is ideal for rapid detection in large scale clinical studies. Recently, a rapid, noninvasive lateral flow immunoassay was developed to accurately measure picogram levels of frataxin protein and shown to distinguish lymphoblastoid cells from FRDA carriers, patients and controls. We expanded the immunoassay to measure frataxin directly in buccal cells and whole blood from a large cohort of controls, known carriers and patients typical of a clinical trial population. The assay in buccal cells shared a similar degree of variability with previous studies conducted in lymphoblastoid cells (~10% coefficient of variation in controls). Significant differences in frataxin protein quantity were seen between the mean group values of controls, carriers, and patient buccal cells (100, 50.2, and 20.9% of control, respectively) and in protein extracted from whole blood (100, 75.3, and 32.2%, respectively), although there was some overlap between the groups. In addition, frataxin levels were inversely related to GAA repeat length and correlated directly with age of onset. Subjects with one expanded GAA repeat and an identified frataxin point mutation also carried frataxin levels in the disease range. Some patients displaying an FRDA phenotype but carrying only a single identifiable mutation had frataxin levels in the FRDA patient range. One patient from this group has a novel deletion that included exons 2 and 3 of the FXN gene based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of the FXN gene. The lateral flow immunoassay may be a useful means to noninvasively assess frataxin levels repetitively with minimal discomfort in FRDA patients in specific situations such as clinical trials, and as a complementary diagnostic tool to aid in identification and characterization of atypical patients.


Assuntos
Ataxia de Friedreich/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/análise , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
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