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1.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594036

RESUMO

For approximately 80 drugs, widely recognized pharmacogenetics dosing guidelines are available. However, the use of these guidelines in clinical practice remains limited as only a fraction of patients is subjected to pharmacogenetic screening. We investigated the feasibility of repurposing whole exome sequencing (WES) data for a panel of 42 variants in 11 pharmacogenes to provide a pharmacogenomic profile. Existing diagnostic WES-data from child-parent trios totalling 1,583 individuals were used. Results were successfully extracted for 39 variants. No information could be extracted for three variants, located in CYP2C19, UGT1A1 and CYP3A5, and for CYP2D6 copy number. At least one actionable phenotype was present in 86% of the individuals. Haplotype phasing proved relevant for CYP2B6 assignments as 1.5% of the phenotypes were corrected after phasing. In conclusion, repurposing WES-data can yield meaningful pharmacogenetic profiles for 7 out of 11 important pharmacogenes which can be used to guide drug treatment.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 493-508, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447100

RESUMO

Histones mediate dynamic packaging of nuclear DNA in chromatin, a process that is precisely controlled to guarantee efficient compaction of the genome and proper chromosomal segregation during cell division and to accomplish DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Due to the important structural and regulatory roles played by histones, it is not surprising that histone functional dysregulation or aberrant levels of histones can have severe consequences for multiple cellular processes and ultimately might affect development or contribute to cell transformation. Recently, germline frameshift mutations involving the C-terminal tail of HIST1H1E, which is a widely expressed member of the linker histone family and facilitates higher-order chromatin folding, have been causally linked to an as-yet poorly defined syndrome that includes intellectual disability. We report that these mutations result in stable proteins that reside in the nucleus, bind to chromatin, disrupt proper compaction of DNA, and are associated with a specific methylation pattern. Cells expressing these mutant proteins have a dramatically reduced proliferation rate and competence, hardly enter into the S phase, and undergo accelerated senescence. Remarkably, clinical assessment of a relatively large cohort of subjects sharing these mutations revealed a premature aging phenotype as a previously unrecognized feature of the disorder. Our findings identify a direct link between aberrant chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and accelerated aging.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2966, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273213

RESUMO

Mutations in genes encoding components of BAF (BRG1/BRM-associated factor) chromatin remodeling complexes cause neurodevelopmental disorders and tumors. The mechanisms leading to the development of these two disease entities alone or in combination remain unclear. We generated mice with a heterozygous nervous system-specific partial loss-of-function mutation in a BAF core component gene, Smarcb1. These Smarcb1 mutant mice show various brain midline abnormalities that are also found in individuals with Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) caused by SMARCB1, SMARCE1, and ARID1B mutations and in SMARCB1-related intellectual disability (ID) with choroid plexus hyperplasia (CPH). Analyses of the Smarcb1 mutant animals indicate that one prominent midline abnormality, corpus callosum agenesis, is due to midline glia aberrations. Our results establish a novel role of Smarcb1 in the development of the brain midline and have important clinical implications for BAF complex-related ID/neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Corpo Caloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Face/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/patologia , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpo Caloso/citologia , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião de Mamíferos , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Micrognatismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroglia/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células
5.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2656-2657, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105272
6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1077-1083, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066130

RESUMO

Increasing use of next-generation sequencing technologies in clinical diagnostics allows large-scale discovery of genetic variants, but also results in frequent identification of variants of unknown significance (VUSs). Their classification into disease-causing and neutral variants is often hampered by the absence of robust functional tests. Here, we demonstrate that a luciferase reporter assay, in combination with ChIP-qPCR, reliably separates pathogenic ZBTB24 missense variants in the context of immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome from natural variants in healthy individuals and patients of other diseases. Application of our assay to two published ZBTB24 missense VUSs indicates that they are likely not to cause ICF2 syndrome. Furthermore, we show that rare gnomAD ZBTB24 missense variants in key residues of the C2H2-ZF domain lead to a loss of function phenotype that resembles ICF2, suggesting that these individuals are carriers of ICF syndrome. In summary, we have developed a robust functional test to validate missense variants in ZBTB24.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2303-2310, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918357

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exome sequencing (ES) is an efficient tool to diagnose genetic disorders postnatally. Recent studies show that it may have a considerable diagnostic yield in fetuses with structural anomalies on ultrasound. We report on the clinical impact of the implementation of prenatal ES (pES) for ongoing pregnancies in routine care. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the impact of pES on pregnancy outcome and pre- or perinatal management in the first 22 patients counseled for pES because of one or more structural anomalies on fetal ultrasound. RESULTS: In two cases, a diagnosis was made by chromosomal microarray analysis after ES counseling. The remaining 20 cases were divided in three groups: (1) pES to aid parental decision making (n = 12), (2) pES in the context of late pregnancy termination requests (n = 5), and (3) pES to guide pre- or perinatal management (n = 3). pES had a clinical impact in 75% (9/12), 40% (2/5), and 100% (3/3) respectively, showing an overall clinical impact of pES of 70% (14/20). CONCLUSION: We show that clinical implementation of pES is feasible and affects parental decision making or pre- and perinatal management supporting further implementation of ES in the prenatal setting.

8.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(4): e00576, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a chorioretinal disease characterized by fluid accumulation between the neuroretina and retinal pigment epithelium with unknown etiology. Family studies have suggested a heritable component for CSC with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Therefore, exome sequencing was performed on familial cCSC to indentify the genetic components contributing to familial cCSC. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on 72 individuals of 18 families with CSC. In these families, we determined whether rare genetic variants (minor allele frequency < 1%) were segregated with CSC and also performed familial gene-burden analysis. RESULTS: In total, 11 variants segregated in two out of 18 families. One of these variants, c.4145C>T; p.T1382I (rs61758735) in the PTPRB gene, was also associated with CSC in a large case-control cohort sequenced previously (p = 0.009). Additionally, in 28 genes two or more different heterozygous variants segregated in two or more families, but no gene showed consistent associations in both the family gene-burden results and gene-burden analysis in the case-control cohort. CONCLUSION: We identified potential candidate genes for familial CSC and managed to exclude Mendelian inheritance of variants in one or a limited number of genes. Instead, familial CSC may be a heterogeneous Mendelian disease caused by variants in many different genes, or alternatively CSC may represent a complex disease to which both environmental factors and genetics contribute.


Assuntos
Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/genética , Frequência do Gene , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 3 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149092

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency of the chromatin remodeling factor ARID1B leads to autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Several independent research groups, including our own, recently examined the effects of heterozygous deletion of Arid1b in mice and reported severe behavioral abnormalities reminiscent of autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability as well as marked changes in gene expression and decreased body size. Arid1b heterozygous mice also display significant cortical excitatory/inhibitory imbalance due to altered GABAergic neuron numbers and impaired inhibitory synaptic transmission. Abnormal epigenetic modifications, including histone acetylation and methylation, are additionally associated with Arid1b haploinsufficiency in the brain. Treating adult Arid1b mutant mice with a positive GABA allosteric modulator, however, rescues multiple behavioral abnormalities, such as cognitive and social impairments, as well as elevated anxiety. While treating Arid1b haploinsufficient mice with recombinant mouse growth hormone successfully increases body size, it has no effect on aberrant behavior. Here we summarize the recent findings regarding the role of ARID1B in brain development and behavior and discuss the utility of the Arid1b heterozygous mouse model in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric research. We also discuss some of the opportunities and potential challenges in developing translational applications for humans and possible avenues for further research into the mechanisms of ARID1B pathology in the brain.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(3): 455-465, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552425

RESUMO

X-inactivation is a well-established dosage compensation mechanism ensuring that X-chromosomal genes are expressed at comparable levels in males and females. Skewed X-inactivation is often explained by negative selection of one of the alleles. We demonstrate that imbalanced expression of the paternal and maternal X-chromosomes is common in the general population and that the random nature of the X-inactivation mechanism can be sufficient to explain the imbalance. To this end, we analyzed blood-derived RNA and whole-genome sequencing data from 79 female children and their parents from the Genome of the Netherlands project. We calculated the median ratio of the paternal over total counts at all X-chromosomal heterozygous single-nucleotide variants with coverage ≥10. We identified two individuals where the same X-chromosome was inactivated in all cells. Imbalanced expression of the two X-chromosomes (ratios ≤0.35 or ≥0.65) was observed in nearly 50% of the population. The empirically observed skewing is explained by a theoretical model where X-inactivation takes place in an embryonic stage in which eight cells give rise to the hematopoietic compartment. Genes escaping X-inactivation are expressed from both alleles and therefore demonstrate less skewing than inactivated genes. Using this characteristic, we identified three novel escapee genes (SSR4, REPS2, and SEPT6), but did not find support for many previously reported escapee genes in blood. Our collective data suggest that skewed X-inactivation is common in the general population. This may contribute to manifestation of symptoms in carriers of recessive X-linked disorders. We recommend that X-inactivation results should not be used lightly in the interpretation of X-linked variants.


Assuntos
População/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Septinas/genética
12.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several studies have reported diagnostic yields up to 57% for rapid exome or genome sequencing (rES/GS) as a single test in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients, but the additional yield of rES/GS compared with other available diagnostic options still remains unquantified in this population. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all genetic NICU consultations in a 2-year period. RESULTS: In 132 retrospectively evaluated NICU consultations 27 of 32 diagnoses (84.4%) were made using standard genetic workup. Most diagnoses (65.6%) were made within 16 days. Diagnostic ES yield was 5/29 (17.2%). Genetic diagnoses had a direct effect on clinical management in 90.6% (29/32) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that exome sequencing has a place in NICU diagnostics, but given the associated costs and the high yield of alternative diagnostic strategies, we recommend to first perform clinical genetic consultation.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

14.
Neurology ; 89(23): 2341-2350, 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative gene in a large Dutch family with familial cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy (FCMTE). METHODS: We performed exome sequencing for 3 patients of our FCMTE family. Next, we performed knock-down (shRNA) and rescue experiments by overexpressing wild-type and mutant human δ-catenin (CTNND2) proteins in cortical mouse neurons and compared the results with morphologic abnormalities in the postmortem FCMTE brain. RESULTS: We identified a missense mutation, p.Glu1044Lys, in the CTNND2 gene that cosegregated with the FCMTE phenotype. The knock-down of Ctnnd2 in cultured cortical mouse neurons revealed increased neurite outgrowth that was rescued by overexpression of wild-type, but not mutant, CTNND2 and was reminiscent of the morphologic abnormalities observed in cerebellar Purkinje cells from patients with FCMTE. CONCLUSIONS: We propose CTNND2 as the causal gene in FCMTE3. Functional testing of the mutant protein revealed abnormal neuronal sprouting, consistent with the abnormal cerebellar Purkinje cell morphology in patients with FCMTE.


Assuntos
Cateninas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Tremor Essencial/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Exoma , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Linhagem , Células de Purkinje/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Neurosci ; 20(8): 1043-1051, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628100

RESUMO

Although de novo missense mutations have been predicted to account for more cases of autism than gene-truncating mutations, most research has focused on the latter. We identified the properties of de novo missense mutations in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and highlight 35 genes with excess missense mutations. Additionally, 40 amino acid sites were recurrently mutated in 36 genes, and targeted sequencing of 20 sites in 17,688 patients with NDD identified 21 new patients with identical missense mutations. One recurrent site substitution (p.A636T) occurs in a glutamate receptor subunit, GRIA1. This same amino acid substitution in the homologous but distinct mouse glutamate receptor subunit Grid2 is associated with Lurcher ataxia. Phenotypic follow-up in five individuals with GRIA1 mutations shows evidence of specific learning disabilities and autism. Overall, we find significant clustering of de novo mutations in 200 genes, highlighting specific functional domains and synaptic candidate genes important in NDD pathology.


Assuntos
Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Receptores de Glutamato/genética
17.
Genet Med ; 19(1): 45-52, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27195816

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Truncating mutations in the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, which is located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-13, have recently been reported to cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome, a Prader-Willi-like disease that manifests as developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and autism spectrum disorder. The causality of the reported variants in the context of the patients' phenotypes was questioned, as MAGEL2 whole-gene deletions seem to cause little or no clinical phenotype. METHODS: Here we report a total of 18 newly identified individuals with Schaaf-Yang syndrome from 14 families, including 1 family with 3 individuals found to be affected with a truncating variant of MAGEL2, 11 individuals who are clinically affected but were not tested molecularly, and a presymptomatic fetal sibling carrying the pathogenic MAGEL2 variant. RESULTS: All cases harbor truncating mutations of MAGEL2, and nucleotides c.1990-1996 arise as a mutational hotspot, with 10 individuals and 1 fetus harboring a c.1996dupC (p.Q666fs) mutation and 2 fetuses harboring a c.1996delC (p.Q666fs) mutation. The phenotypic spectrum of Schaaf-Yang syndrome ranges from fetal akinesia to neurobehavioral disease and contractures of the small finger joints. CONCLUSION: This study provides strong evidence for the pathogenicity of truncating mutations of the paternal allele of MAGEL2, refines the associated clinical phenotypes, and highlights implications for genetic counseling for affected families.Genet Med 19 1, 45-52.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/fisiopatologia
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(1): 91-104, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939640

RESUMO

Identification of over 500 epigenetic regulators in humans raises an interesting question regarding how chromatin dysregulation contributes to different diseases. Bromodomain and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) is a multivalent chromatin regulator possessing three histone-binding domains, one non-specific DNA-binding module, and several motifs for interacting with and activating three lysine acetyltransferases. Genetic analyses of fish brpf1 and mouse Brpf1 have uncovered an important role in skeletal, hematopoietic, and brain development, but it remains unclear how BRPF1 is linked to human development and disease. Here, we describe an intellectual disability disorder in ten individuals with inherited or de novo monoallelic BRPF1 mutations. Symptoms include infantile hypotonia, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, expressive language impairment, and facial dysmorphisms. Central nervous system and spinal abnormalities are also seen in some individuals. These clinical features overlap with but are not identical to those reported for persons with KAT6A or KAT6B mutations, suggesting that BRPF1 targets these two acetyltransferases and additional partners in humans. Functional assays showed that the resulting BRPF1 variants are pathogenic and impair acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 23, an abundant but poorly characterized epigenetic mark. We also found a similar deficiency in different lines of Brpf1-knockout mice. These data indicate that aberrations in the chromatin regulator gene BRPF1 cause histone H3 acetylation deficiency and a previously unrecognized intellectual disability syndrome.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Acetilação , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Cromatina/química , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 101(12): 4564-4573, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27603907

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Isolated congenital central hypothyroidism (CeH) can result from mutations in TRHR, TSHB, and IGSF1, but its etiology often remains unexplained. We identified a missense mutation in the transducin ß-like protein 1, X-linked (TBL1X) gene in three relatives diagnosed with isolated CeH. TBL1X is part of the thyroid hormone receptor-corepressor complex. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were the identification of TBL1X mutations in patients with unexplained isolated CeH, Sanger sequencing of relatives of affected individuals, and clinical and biochemical characterization; in vitro investigation of functional consequences of mutations; and mRNA expression in, and immunostaining of, human hypothalami and pituitary glands. DESIGN: This was an observational study. SETTING: The study was conducted at university medical centers. PATIENTS: Nineteen individuals with and seven without a mutation participated in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures included sequencing results, clinical and biochemical characteristics of mutation carriers, and results of in vitro functional and expression studies. RESULTS: Sanger sequencing yielded five additional mutations. All patients (n = 8; six males) were previously diagnosed with CeH (free T4 [FT4] concentration below the reference interval, normal thyrotropin). Eleven relatives (two males) also carried mutations. One female had CeH, whereas 10 others had low-normal FT4 concentrations. As a group, adult mutation carriers had 20%-25% lower FT4 concentrations than controls. Twelve of 19 evaluated carriers had hearing loss. Mutations are located in the highly conserved WD40-repeat domain of the protein, influencing its expression and thermal stability. TBL1X mRNA and protein are expressed in the human hypothalamus and pituitary. CONCLUSIONS: TBL1X mutations are associated with CeH and hearing loss. FT4 concentrations in mutation carriers vary from low-normal to values compatible with CeH.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/genética , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Hipófise/metabolismo , Tiroxina/sangue , Transducina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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