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1.
J Med Chem ; 61(16): 7289-7313, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067361

RESUMO

GSK3532795, formerly known as BMS-955176 (1), is a potent, orally active, second-generation HIV-1 maturation inhibitor (MI) that advanced through phase IIb clinical trials. The careful design, selection, and evaluation of substituents appended to the C-3 and C-17 positions of the natural product betulinic acid (3) was critical in attaining a molecule with the desired virological and pharmacokinetic profile. Herein, we highlight the key insights made in the discovery program and detail the evolution of the structure-activity relationships (SARs) that led to the design of the specific C-17 amine moiety in 1. These modifications ultimately enabled the discovery of 1 as a second-generation MI that combines broad coverage of polymorphic viruses (EC50 <15 nM toward a panel of common polymorphisms representative of 96.5% HIV-1 subtype B virus) with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in preclinical species.

2.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(12): 1082-1086, 2016 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27994742

RESUMO

The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is an attractive target for the treatment of schizophrenia due to its role in regulating glutamatergic signaling in association with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). We describe the synthesis of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines and their utility as mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) without inherent agonist activity. A facile and convergent synthetic route provided access to a structurally diverse set of analogues that contain neither the aryl-acetylene-aryl nor aryl-methyleneoxy-aryl elements, the predominant structural motifs described in the literature. Binding studies suggest that members of our new chemotype do not engage the receptor at the MPEP and CPPHA mGluR5 allosteric sites. SAR studies culminated in the first non-MPEP site PAM, 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine 31 (BMT-145027), to improve cognition in a preclinical rodent model of learning and memory.

3.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 26(24): 5871-5876, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856084

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a serious illness that affects millions of patients and has been associated with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. It has been demonstrated that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) enhances NMDA receptor function, suggesting the potential utility of mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Herein we describe the optimization of an mGluR5 PAM by replacement of a phenyl with aliphatic heterocycles and carbocycles as a strategy to reduce bioactivation in a biaryl acetylene chemotype. Replacement with a difluorocyclobutane followed by further optimization culminated in the identification of compound 32, a low fold shift PAM with reduced bioactivation potential. Compound 32 demonstrated favorable brain uptake and robust efficacy in mouse novel object recognition (NOR) at low doses.


Assuntos
Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxazolidinonas/síntese química , Oxazolidinonas/química , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/química , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 26(17): 4165-9, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27496211

RESUMO

Herein we describe the structure activity relationships uncovered in the pursuit of an mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) for the treatment of schizophrenia. It was discovered that certain modifications of an oxazolidinone-based chemotype afforded predictable changes in the pharmacological profile to give analogs with a wide range of functional activities. The discovery of potent silent allosteric modulators (SAMs) allowed interrogation of the mechanism-based liabilities associated with mGluR5 activation and drove our medicinal chemistry effort toward the discovery of low efficacy (fold shift) PAMs devoid of agonist activity. This work resulted in the identification of dipyridyl 22 (BMS-952048), a compound with a favorable free fraction, efficacy in a rodent-based cognition model, and low potential for convulsions in mouse.


Assuntos
Convulsivantes/química , Oxazolidinonas/química , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Convulsivantes/metabolismo , Convulsivantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxazolidinonas/metabolismo , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Ratos , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/agonistas , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/química , Recognição (Psicologia)/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 358(3): 371-86, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27411717

RESUMO

To identify novel targets for neuropathic pain, 3097 mouse knockout lines were tested in acute and persistent pain behavior assays. One of the lines from this screen, which contained a null allele of the adapter protein-2 associated kinase 1 (AAK1) gene, had a normal response in acute pain assays (hot plate, phase I formalin), but a markedly reduced response to persistent pain in phase II formalin. AAK1 knockout mice also failed to develop tactile allodynia following the Chung procedure of spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Based on these findings, potent, small-molecule inhibitors of AAK1 were identified. Studies in mice showed that one such inhibitor, LP-935509, caused a reduced pain response in phase II formalin and reversed fully established pain behavior following the SNL procedure. Further studies showed that the inhibitor also reduced evoked pain responses in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model and the rat streptozotocin model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Using a nonbrain-penetrant AAK1 inhibitor and local administration of an AAK1 inhibitor, the relevant pool of AAK1 for antineuropathic action was found to be in the spinal cord. Consistent with these results, AAK1 inhibitors dose-dependently reduced the increased spontaneous neural activity in the spinal cord caused by CCI and blocked the development of windup induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the paw. The mechanism of AAK1 antinociception was further investigated with inhibitors of α2 adrenergic and opioid receptors. These studies showed that α2 adrenergic receptor inhibitors, but not opioid receptor inhibitors, not only prevented AAK1 inhibitor antineuropathic action in behavioral assays, but also blocked the AAK1 inhibitor-induced reduction in spinal neural activity in the rat CCI model. Hence, AAK1 inhibitors are a novel therapeutic approach to neuropathic pain with activity in animal models that is mechanistically linked (behaviorally and electrophysiologically) to α2 adrenergic signaling, a pathway known to be antinociceptive in humans.


Assuntos
Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Ratos , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/enzimologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
6.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(6): 568-72, 2016 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27326328

RESUMO

HIV-1 maturation inhibition (MI) has been clinically validated as an approach to the control of HIV-1 infection. However, identifying an MI with both broad polymorphic spectrum coverage and good oral exposure has been challenging. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and preclinical characterization of a potent, orally active, second generation HIV-1 MI, BMS-955176 (2), which is currently in Phase IIb clinical trials as part of a combination antiretroviral regimen.

7.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(3): 289-93, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985317

RESUMO

Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) are of interest due to their potential therapeutic utility in schizophrenia and other cognitive disorders. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of a novel oxazolidinone-based chemotype to identify BMS-955829 (4), a compound with high functional PAM potency, excellent mGluR5 binding affinity, low glutamate fold shift, and high selectivity for the mGluR5 subtype. The low fold shift and absence of agonist activity proved critical in the identification of a molecule with an acceptable preclinical safety profile. Despite its low fold shift, 4 retained efficacy in set shifting and novel object recognition models in rodents.

8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 58(6): 3485-95, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24733465

RESUMO

BMS-791325 is an allosteric inhibitor that binds to thumb site 1 of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. BMS-791325 inhibits recombinant NS5B proteins from HCV genotypes 1, 3, 4, and 5 at 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) below 28 nM. In cell culture, BMS-791325 inhibited replication of HCV subgenomic replicons representing genotypes 1a and 1b at 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 3 nM and 6 nM, respectively, with similar (3 to 18 nM) values for genotypes 3a, 4a, and 5a. Potency against genotype 6a showed more variability (9 to 125 nM), and activity was weaker against genotype 2 (EC50, 87 to 925 nM). Specificity was demonstrated by the absence of activity (EC50s of >4 µM) against a panel of mammalian viruses, and cytotoxic concentrations (50%) were >3,000-fold above the HCV EC50. Resistance substitutions selected by BMS-791325 in genotype 1 replicons mostly mapped to a single site, NS5B amino acid 495 (P495A/S/L/T). Additive or synergistic activity was observed in combination studies using BMS-791325 with alfa interferon plus ribavirin, inhibitors of NS3 protease or NS5A, and other classes of NS5B inhibitor (palm site 2-binding or nucleoside analogs). Plasma and liver exposures in vivo in several animal species indicated that BMS-791325 has a hepatotropic disposition (liver-to-plasma ratios ranging from 1.6- to 60-fold across species). Twenty-four hours postdose, liver exposures across all species tested were ≥ 10-fold above the inhibitor EC50s observed with HCV genotype 1 replicons. These findings support the evaluation of BMS-791325 in combination regimens for the treatment of HCV. Phase 3 studies are ongoing.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Hepacivirus/enzimologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Antivirais/química , Benzazepinas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cercopithecus aethiops , Cães , Farmacorresistência Viral , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/química , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Replicase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Replicon/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Células Vero
9.
J Med Chem ; 57(5): 1708-29, 2014 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24555570

RESUMO

The discovery of BMS-605339 (35), a tripeptidic inhibitor of the NS3/4A enzyme, is described. This compound incorporates a cyclopropylacylsulfonamide moiety that was designed to improve the potency of carboxylic acid prototypes through the introduction of favorable nonbonding interactions within the S1' site of the protease. The identification of 35 was enabled through the optimization and balance of critical properties including potency and pharmacokinetics (PK). This was achieved through modulation of the P2* subsite of the inhibitor which identified the isoquinoline ring system as a key template for improving PK properties with further optimization achieved through functionalization. A methoxy moiety at the C6 position of this isoquinoline ring system proved to be optimal with respect to potency and PK, thus providing the clinical compound 35 which demonstrated antiviral activity in HCV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Descoberta de Drogas , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Sulfonamidas/química
10.
J Med Chem ; 57(5): 2013-32, 2014 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24521299

RESUMO

The biphenyl derivatives 2 and 3 are prototypes of a novel class of NS5A replication complex inhibitors that demonstrate high inhibitory potency toward a panel of clinically relevant HCV strains encompassing genotypes 1-6. However, these compounds exhibit poor systemic exposure in rat pharmacokinetic studies after oral dosing. The structure-activity relationship investigations that improved the exposure properties of the parent bis-phenylimidazole chemotype, culminating in the identification of the highly potent NS5A replication complex inhibitor daclatasvir (33) are described. An element critical to success was the realization that the arylglycine cap of 2 could be replaced with an alkylglycine derivative and still maintain the high inhibitory potency of the series if accompanied with a stereoinversion, a finding that enabled a rapid optimization of exposure properties. Compound 33 had EC50 values of 50 and 9 pM toward genotype-1a and -1b replicons, respectively, and oral bioavailabilities of 38-108% in preclinical species. Compound 33 provided clinical proof-of-concept for the NS5A replication complex inhibitor class, and regulatory approval to market it with the NS3/4A protease inhibitor asunaprevir for the treatment of HCV genotype-1b infection has recently been sought in Japan.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Cães , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Hepacivirus/enzimologia , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacocinética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
J Med Chem ; 57(5): 1855-79, 2014 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24397558

RESUMO

Described herein are structure-activity relationship studies that resulted in the optimization of the activity of members of a class of cyclopropyl-fused indolobenzazepine HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors. Subsequent iterations of analogue design and syntheses successfully addressed off-target activities, most notably human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) transactivation, and led to significant improvements in the physicochemical properties of lead compounds. Those analogues exhibiting improved solubility and membrane permeability were shown to have notably enhanced pharmacokinetic profiles. Additionally, a series of alkyl bridged piperazine carboxamides was identified as being of particular interest, and from which the compound BMS-791325 (2) was found to have distinguishing antiviral, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties that resulted in its selection for clinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Benzazepinas/química , Benzazepinas/farmacocinética , Cães , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacocinética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Pharm Res ; 30(5): 1240-51, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23319170

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To synthesize a trifluorinated bile acid that can be used for (19)F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bile acid enterohepatic circulation, characterize its in vitro transporter affinity, stability, and (19)F-MRI signal, and assess its ability to concentrate in the gallbladder of C57BL/6 mice. METHODS: Target compound CA-lys-TFA was synthesized and tested for affinity toward the apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) and the Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (hNTCP). In a pilot study, fasted mice were gavaged with vehicle control, 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg CA-lys-TFA. CA-lys-TFA in gallbladder, liver and plasma at t = 5 h was quantified. Additionally, a 24-h time course (24 mice across eight time points) was studied using 50 mg/kg CA-lys-TFA. RESULTS: CA-lys-TFA was a potent substrate of hASBT (Kt = 39.4 µM, normalized Vmax = 0.853) and hNTCP (Kt = 8.99 µM, normalized Vmax = 0.281). (19)F MRI phantom imaging showed linear signal-concentration dependence. In vivo studies showed that rapid accumulation of CA-lys-TFA in the gallbladder was maximal within 4-7 h. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that CA-lys-TFA, a fluorinated non-radioactive bile acid analogue, has potential for use in MRI to measure in vivo bile acid transport and diagnose bile acid malabsorption and other conditions associated with impaired bile acid transport.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/síntese química , Linhagem Celular , Halogenação , Humanos , Fígado/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estômago/ultraestrutura
13.
J Med Chem ; 55(23): 10644-51, 2012 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23153230

RESUMO

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists have demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of acute migraine. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and preclinical characterization of a highly potent, oral CGRP receptor antagonist BMS-927711 (8). Compound 8 has good oral bioavailability in rat and cynomolgus monkey, attractive overall preclinical properties, and shows dose-dependent activity in a primate model of CGRP-induced facial blood flow. Compound 8 is presently in phase II clinical trials.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia
14.
Assay Drug Dev Technol ; 5(2): 247-64, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17477833

RESUMO

An automated high throughput process, termed the MetFast assay, is described to assess in vitro the general microsomal cytochrome P450 beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-mediated first-pass metabolic stability of potential drug candidates as a utility for pharmaceutical profiling. Utilizing robotic protocols with a multiprobe liquid handler, compounds are incubated with liver microsomes from different species. Samples are then analyzed by in-line liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the amount of compound remaining after a certain time, which allows calculation of metabolism rates. To quantitatively assess large numbers of structurally diverse compounds by LC-MS, a strategy based on an iterative two-step process was devised. Initially compounds are qualitatively analyzed by LC-ultraviolet (UV)/MS (step 1) to determine purity (UV detection) and structural integrity (MS detection). This step ensures that only correct and verified compounds with sufficient purity are being assayed to obtain reproducible high data quality. In addition, all necessary information is gathered to automatically generate specific quantitative methods for the subsequent bioanalytical analysis of metabolic stability samples by LC-UV/MS (step 2). In-house-developed, highly flexible and sophisticated data management software, termed SmartReport, is utilized for automated qualitative and quantitative LC-MS analysis set-up, data processing, and results reporting. The integration of key aspects, inherent "universal" collision-induced dissociation settings of ion trap mass spectrometers for tandem mass spectrometric scan functions utilized for compound-specific and sensitive quantitative MS methods, generic fast-LC conditions, generic MS instrument settings, and the functionality of SmartReport software resulted in an analytical process that routinely provides reproducible high-quality metabolic stability data on structurally diverse compounds. Described here is the setup of the MetFast assay, and metabolic stability data from assay validation compounds are given.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Espectrometria de Massas , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Robótica , Software , Solventes , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
15.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 15(19): 4286-90, 2005 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16061379

RESUMO

Quinolinone 1 is a potent maxi-K potassium channel opener. In an effort to design analogs of 1 with a better inhibitory profile toward the CYP2C9 isozyme, the two acidic sites were chemically modified independently to generate a number of analogs. These analogs were evaluated as maxi-K channel openers in vitro using Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing cloned hSlo maxi-K channels. Compounds 15, 17, and 19 showed potent activity as maxi-K channel openers and were further evaluated for inhibition of the activity of the CYP2C9 isozyme. Compounds 17 and 19 showed diminished inhibitory potency against 2C9 and also against a panel of other more common CYP isozymes.


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinolonas/síntese química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9 , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Oócitos , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xenopus laevis
16.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 15(11): 2728-33, 2005 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15869878

RESUMO

In an era of increasing resistance to classical antibacterial agents, the synthetic oxazolidinone series of antibiotics has attracted much interest. Zyvoxtrade mark was the first oxazolidinone to be approved for clinical use against infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In the course of studies directed toward the discovery of novel antibacterial agents, a new series of synthetic phenyl-isoxazolinone agents that displayed potent activity against Gram-positive bacterial strains was recently discovered at Bristol-Myers Squibb. Extensive investigation of various substitutions on the phenyl ring was then undertaken. We report here, the synthesis and antibacterial activity of a series of biaryl isoxazolinone compounds.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Isoxazóis/química , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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