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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 18, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study explored the relationship between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and offspring's risk behavior in adolescence contributing to an extremely scarce literature about the impacts of maternal depression trajectories on offspring risk behaviors. METHODS: We included 3437 11-year-old adolescents from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were constructed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) from age 3 months to 11 years. We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: "low" "moderate low", "increasing", "decreasing", and "chronic high". The following adolescent outcomes were identified via self-report questionnaire and analyzed as binary outcome -yes/no: involvement in fights and alcohol use at age 11. We used logistic regression models to examine the effects of trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms on offspring's risk behavior adjusting for potential confounding variable. RESULTS: Alcohol use and/or abuse as well as involvement in fights during adolescence, were not significantly associated with any specific trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms neither in the crude nor in the adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: Alcohol use and involvement in fights at age 11 were not associated with any specific trajectory of maternal depression.

2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(3): 318-326, May-June 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1135033

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: Enuresis may have a negative impact on the self-image in childhood and adolescence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between enuresis and psychiatric disorders at 6 and 11 years of age. Method: 3,356 children of a birth cohort were evaluated. A standard questionnaire on urinary habits and mental health (Development and Well-Being Assessment [DAWBA]), was used. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders pursuant to the existence of enuresis and its subtypes (monosymptomatic and non-monosymptomatic), stratified by sex, was described. A logistic regression was used for adjusted analysis. Results: The prevalence of enuresis at age 6 years was of 10.2% (9% non-monosymptomatic) and, at 11 years old, of 5.4% (4.5% non-monosymptomatic). At age 6 years, boys with non-monosymptomatic enuresis showed more hyperactivity disorders than those without enuresis (6.2% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.017). At 11 years old, after adjustment, among the boys with non-monosymptomatic enuresis, the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder, hyperactivity disorders, and oppositional disorders was, respectively, 3.2, 3.4, and 2.6 times higher than in boys without enuresis; and, among the girls with non-monosymptomatic enuresis, the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder and oppositional disorders was, respectively, 4 and 5.5 times higher than among girls without enuresis. Conclusion: There is a strong association between non-monosymptomatic enuresis and psychiatric disorders at 6 and 11 years old.


Resumo Objetivo: A enurese pode ter grande impacto negativo na autoimagem na infância e adolescência. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre enurese e transtornos psiquiátricos aos 6 e 11 anos de idade. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 3.356 crianças de uma coorte de nascimentos. Foi usado questionário padronizado sobre hábitos urinários e saúde mental (Development and Well-Being Assesment - DAWBA). Foi descrita a prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos conforme a presença de enurese e seus subtipos (monossintomática e não monossintomática), estratificados por sexo. Para análise ajustada usou-se regressão logística. Resultados: A prevalência de enurese aos 6 anos foi 10,2% (9% não monossintomática) e aos 11 anos, 5,4% (4,5% não monossintomática). Aos 6 anos, meninos com enurese não monossintomática apresentaram mais transtornos de hiperatividade, em comparação com os não enuréticos (6,2% x 2,7%, p = 0,017). Aos 11 anos, após ajuste, entre os meninos com enurese não monossintomática, a prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos, de hiperatividade e de oposição foi, respectivamente, 3,2, 3,4 e 2,6 vezes maior do que nos meninos não enuréticos; e entre as meninas com enurese não monossintomática, a prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos e de oposição foi, respectivamente, 4 e 5,5 vezes maior do que entre meninas não enuréticas. Conclusões: Há uma forte associação entre enurese não-monossintomática e transtornos psiquiátricos aos 6 e 11 anos de idade.

3.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-13, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed at evaluating the association of maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status with offspring anthropometry and body composition. We also evaluated whether these associations were modified by gender, diet and physical activity and mediated by birth weight. DESIGN: Birth cohort study. SETTING: Waist circumference was measured with an inextensible tape, and fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for possible confounders and allele score of BMI. We carried out mediation analysis using G-formula. PARTICIPANTS: In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all maternity hospitals in Pelotas (South Brazil) were visited daily and all live births whose families lived in the urban area of the city were evaluated. These subjects have been followed up at different ages. RESULTS: Offspring of obese mothers had on average higher BMI, waist circumference and fat mass index than those of normal weight mothers, and these differences were higher among daughters. The magnitudes of the association were similar in the cohorts, except for height, where the association pattern was not clear. In the 1982 cohort, further adjustment for a BMI allele score had no material influence on the magnitude of the associations. Mediation analyses showed that birth weight captured part of this association. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status is positively associated with offspring BMI and adiposity in offspring. And this association is higher among daughters whose mother was overweight or obese and, birth weight explains part of this association.

4.
Child Youth Serv Rev ; 118: 105418, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162629

RESUMO

Parent training programmes have significant potential to improve the quality of children's early environments and thereby their development and life-course outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify and explain the extent to which parents engaged in two group-based training programmes, offered to high-risk families enrolled in a randomized controlled trial study called PIÁ in Southern Brazil. The programmes were: (1) ACT: Raising Safe Kids, a 9-week programme aiming to reduce harsh parenting and maltreatment and improve positive parenting practices; (2) Dialogic book-sharing (DBS), an 8-week programme aiming to promote parental sensitivity and improve child cognitive development and social understanding. Of the 123 mothers randomly allocated to the ACT programme, 64.2% (n = 79) completed the course, and of 124 mothers allocated to DBS, 76.6% (n = 95) completed the course. After the interventions, mothers were very positive about the experience of both programmes but highlighted practical difficulties in attending. In adjusted regression analyses, only two variables significantly predicted ACT course completion (maternal age and distance between the intervention site and household); no significant predictor was found for DBS attendance. We conclude that although high completion rates are possible, there are important challenges to engaging parents of young children in training programmes, and practical difficulties occurring during training courses may be more important for attendance than baseline participant characteristics.

5.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(5): 496-502, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132128

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence and homotypic and heterotypic continuity of psychiatric disorders between ages 6 and 11. Methods: In 2004, all live births in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, were recorded (n=4,231). Psychiatric disorders were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). SDQ subscale scores (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer relationship problems) were categorized as normal or abnormal. To examine associations between problems over time, odds ratios were computed using logistic regression. Results: Any SDQ difficulty was observed in 350 children (10.4%, 95%CI 9.4-11.5) at age 6 and 476 (14.2%, 95%CI 13.0-15.4) at age 11, with a higher prevalence among boys at both ages. Between ages 6 and 11, there was a 50 and a 45% increase in the prevalence of emotional and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms, respectively. Among those who had any SDQ difficulty at age 6, that status persisted in 81% at age 11. We found homotypic continuity of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer relationship problems. Conclusions: Our results indicate an increasing incidence of psychiatric disorders in this age group, with rates of disorders and continuity patterns similar to those observed in other studies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098444

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that adolescent positive attributes and social aptitudes are associated with beneficial outcomes, including higher educational attainment and lower risk of later psychiatric disorder. Although maternal depression is a well-known risk factor for a variety of offspring adverse outcomes, less is known on its repercussion on children's positive behavioral traits. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of maternal depression trajectories on offspring positive attributes and social aptitudes, testing sex-moderated models for the studied association. The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort is an ongoing cohort originally comprised by 4231 live births from Brazil. We included 3465 11-year-old adolescents (48.6% female; maternal self-reported skin color: 27.0% non-white). Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at all follow-ups. Adolescent positive attributes and social aptitudes were ascertained by specific subscales of Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the effect of maternal depression trajectories on offspring's outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Moderation was assessed with interaction terms. Adolescents from mothers who presented high-chronic levels of depressive symptoms during offspring's life have lower scores of positive attributes and social aptitudes. Boys exposed to maternal depression during their lifetime are more affected than girls regarding positive attributes, but this sex difference was not observed for social aptitudes. Interventions targeting the promotion of adaptive behavioral traits may represent an effective way to buffer the adverse impact of maternal depression on offspring development, especially for vulnerable groups such as male adolescents.

7.
Int J Public Health ; 65(9): 1635-1645, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess time trends in unplanned pregnancy, stratified by sociodemographic status, reproductive history, and inequalities in family income and women's skin color, in Pelotas, Brazil. METHODS: Data from mothers of participants of the 1993 (N = 5264), 2004 (N = 4243), and 2015 (N = 4268) Pelotas birth cohorts were analyzed. Unplanned pregnancy was investigated in the perinatal period, with tests to assess changes over time among different sociodemographic and reproductive history subgroups and inequalities as a function of family income and skin color. RESULTS: The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was 62.7% (3299/ 5264), 65.9% (2794/ 4243), and 52.2% (2226/ 4268) in the 1993, 2004, and 2015 cohorts, respectively. Black or brown women and women of lower socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of unplanned pregnancy in all cohorts. The overall rate of unplanned pregnancy decreased over time in most subgroups. Inequality as a function of family income and skin color increased during the time frame of assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of unplanned pregnancies decreased in the period analyzed, but it is still unjustifiably high. Efforts aimed at reducing unplanned pregnancy are vital and will require special attention to the most vulnerable groups.

8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra-processed food consumption and obesity have been highlighted as an important relationship to public health. We aimed to evaluate the association between ultra-processed food consumption and body fat from 6 to 11 years of age. METHODS: We assessed the association between ultra-processed food consumption (from food frequency questionnaires) and body fat (measured by air displacement plethysmography) between 6 and 11 years of age among participants of the Pelotas-Brazil 2004 Birth Cohort. The NOVA classification was used to classify foods according to the processing degree. Body fat was evaluated relative to the height using fat mass index (FMI). Generalized estimating equations were used to answer the main research question and mediation analyses were run to assess the direct and indirect effect of ultra-processed food in body fat. RESULTS: At fully adjusted analysis, an increase of 100 g in contribution from ultra-processed food to daily food intake at between 6 and 11 years of age was associated with a gain of 0.14 kg/m² in FMI in the same period; 58% of the total effect of ultra-processed food intake at 6 years (in grams) over the change in FMI from 6 to 11 years was mediated by its calorie content. CONCLUSIONS: Ultra-processed food consumption was associated with an increase in body fat from childhood to early adolescence, and this association was not just due to the effect of ultra-processed food on calorie content.

9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809017

RESUMO

Child growth standards are commonly used to derive age- and sex-standardized anthropometric indices, but are often inappropriately applied to preterm-born children (<37 weeks of gestational age (GA)) in epidemiology studies. Using the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort, we examined the impact of correcting for GA in the application of child growth standards on the magnitude and direction of associations in two a priori selected exposure-outcome scenarios: infant length-for-age z score (LAZ) and mid-childhood body mass index (scenario A), and infant LAZ and mid-childhood intelligence quotient (scenario B). GA was a confounder that had a strong (scenario A) or weak (scenario B) association with the outcome. Compared to uncorrected postnatal age, using GA-corrected postnatal age attenuated the magnitude of associations, particularly in early infancy, and changed inferences for associations at birth. Although differences in the magnitude of associations were small when GA was weakly associated with the outcome, model fit was meaningfully improved using corrected postnatal age. When estimating population-averaged associations with early childhood growth in studies where preterm- and term-born children are included, incorporating heterogeneity in GA at birth in the age-scale used to standardize anthropometric indices postnatally provides a useful strategy to reduce standardization errors.

11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(7): e00120019, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638880

RESUMO

Although most childbirth care in Brazil is financed by the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), there are out-of-pocket expenditures (private personal costs) involved in births. This study aims to compare maternal out-of-pocket expenditures in births of children from the Pelotas Birth Cohorts of 2004 and 2015. The study drew on information collected right after birth and at three months of age. The target variables include sociodemographic and economic data, private health plan coverage, and expenditures related to the birth. Values from 2004 were adjusted to 2015 by the general price index. There was an increase in private health plan coverage from 33.4% (95%CI: 31.9-34.9) to 45.1% (95%IC: 43.6-46.7) in the target period, directly associated with the families' socioeconomic status (p < 0.001). There was an increase in mean expenditures on hospitalization for the birth, from BRL 60.38 (SD = 288.66) to BRL 171.15 (SD = 957.07), and in additional medical expenditures, from BRL 191.60 (SD = 612.86) to BRL 1,424.80 (SD = 4,459.16) among mothers admitted to hospital under their private health plans (and there was no significant difference in these expenditures for mothers that opted for direct payment). There was an important increase in expenditures for childbirth care, especially among mothers admitted to hospital under private health plans.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Assistência Perinatal , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Parto , Gravidez
12.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(15): 2711-2716, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the validity of a portable anthropometer against the gold standard among 2-year-old infants from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. DESIGN: Birth cohort study. SETTING: A fixed Harpenden® infant anthropometer was considered as the gold standard for measuring infant length due to its greater precision and stability. The portable SANNY® (model ES2000) anthropometer was the instrument to be validated. The acceptable mean difference in length between the anthropometers was 0·5 cm. In order to compare length estimates, the interviewers carried out two length measures for each of the anthropometers (fixed and portable) and for each child. The mean of the two lengths was calculated for each anthropometer, and their difference was calculated. PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 252 24-month-old members of the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. RESULTS: Children's mean age was 23·5 months. According to Bland-Altman plot, there were no differences in overall lengths between the portable and the fixed anthropometers, or in lengths according to sex. There was a high overall concordance between the length estimates of the fixed and portable anthropometers (ρ = 0·94; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·95). CONCLUSIONS: The portable anthropometer proved to be accurate to measure the length of 24-month-old infants, being applicable to studies using the same standardised protocol used in the present study.

13.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(1): e2019219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate maternal intention to breastfeed, duration of breastfeeding up to 24 months-of-age and reasons for weaning in the first year of life. METHODS: this was a cohort study conducted in Pelotas, RS, Brazil, with participants from the Multi-Center Body Composition Study; a life table was used to analyze duration of breastfeeding. RESULTS: of the 1377 mothers screened, 74.3% reported intending to exclusively breastfeed up until 6 months, while 91.1% intended to prolong breastfeeding until at least 12 months; 58.0% of children were breastfed up to at least 6 months; median breastfeeding duration was 10.8 months (IQR: 5.8 - 23.0); the main reasons reported for weaning were insufficient breast milk (57.3%), return to work/school (45.5%), and unexplained refusal by the baby (40.1%). CONCLUSION: the results show that despite the intention to breastfeed, there are still structural and social barriers that interfere with successful breastfeeding, especially those related to working mothers.

14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To identify the Brazilian cohorts that started either in the prenatal period or at birth, to describe their characteristics and the explored variables, and to map the cohorts with potential for studies on early determinants on health and the risk of falling ill on later stages of the life cycle. METHODS A scoping review was carried out. The articles were searched in the electronic databases PubMed and Virtual Health Library (VHL). The descriptors used were [((("Child" OR "Child, Preschool" OR "Infant" OR "Infant, Newborn") AND (Cohort Studies" OR "Longitudinal Studies")) AND "Brazil")]. The inclusion criteria were Brazilian cohorts that started the baseline in the prenatal period or at birth and with at least two follow-ups with the participants. In order to meet the concept of LCE, we excluded those cohorts whose follow-ups were restricted to the first year of life, as well as those that did not address biological, behavioral and psychosocial aspects, and cohorts with data collection of a single stage of the life cycle. RESULTS The search step identified 5,010 articles. Eighteen cohorts were selected for descriptive synthesis. The median number of baseline participants was 2,000 individuals and the median age at the last follow-up was 9 years. Sample loss at the last follow-up ranged from 9.2 to 87.5%. Most cohorts monitored two phases of the life cycle (the perinatal period and childhood). The Southern region had the highest number of cohorts. The main variables collected were sociodemographic and environmental aspects of the family, morbidity aspects, nutritional practices and lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS We recommend the continuity of these cohorts, the approach to different social contexts and the performance of follow-ups with participants in different phases of the life cycle for the strengthening and expansion of life course epidemiology analyses in Brazil.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
15.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(5): 496-502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556000

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and homotypic and heterotypic continuity of psychiatric disorders between ages 6 and 11. METHODS: In 2004, all live births in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, were recorded (n=4,231). Psychiatric disorders were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). SDQ subscale scores (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer relationship problems) were categorized as normal or abnormal. To examine associations between problems over time, odds ratios were computed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Any SDQ difficulty was observed in 350 children (10.4%, 95%CI 9.4-11.5) at age 6 and 476 (14.2%, 95%CI 13.0-15.4) at age 11, with a higher prevalence among boys at both ages. Between ages 6 and 11, there was a 50 and a 45% increase in the prevalence of emotional and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms, respectively. Among those who had any SDQ difficulty at age 6, that status persisted in 81% at age 11. We found homotypic continuity of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer relationship problems. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an increasing incidence of psychiatric disorders in this age group, with rates of disorders and continuity patterns similar to those observed in other studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(6): 754-763, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the influence of biological characteristics on the occurrence of malocclusion. This study aimed to investigate the association between preterm birth and primary-dentition malocclusion and how breastfeeding and the use of pacifiers are related to this association. METHODS: A representative sample (n = 1129) of children from the 2004 Pelotas, Brazil birth cohort study underwent a dental examination at age 5 years. Malocclusions were diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria, and the outcome was considered as the presence of moderate or severe malocclusion (MSM). Questionnaires including the children's oral health information were completed by the mothers. Data on socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and preterm birth were obtained from previous follow-ups. Poisson regression analysis was conducted, followed by an interaction test. RESULTS: The prevalence of MSM was 26.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.6%-29.1%) in the total sample, 24.1% (95% CI, 21.5%-26.9%) in full-term births, and 42.2% (95% CI, 39.1%-45.3%) in preterm births. After adjustment, the prevalence of MSM was 42% higher in preterm births. Breastfeeding duration and pacifier use up to age 4 years modified the effect of gestational age on MSM. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm birth is associated with the development of MSM. Breastfeeding reduces the effect of preterm birth on MSM, and pacifier use strengthens this association. Dentists should be aware that preterm birth may be a risk factor for malocclusion in primary dentition. The findings reinforce the benefits of breastfeeding on occlusal development and the negative consequences of pacifier use.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Má Oclusão , Chupetas , Nascimento Prematuro , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dentição , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Dente Decíduo
17.
Br J Nutr ; 124(6): 620-630, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381141

RESUMO

Complementary feeding (CF) and overweight relationships during early childhood are inconsistent in the literature. We described the association of CF during the first year of life with risk of overweight at 24 months of age in the population-based 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohorts (2004c and 2015c). CF introduction was evaluated at the 3 and 12 months' follow-ups by asking mothers using a list of foods. Risk of overweight at 24 months of age was BMI-for-age z-score above +1sd from the median of the WHO 2006 growth standards. Our analyses included 3823 (2004c) and 3689 (2015c) children. Early introduction CF (before 6 months of age) prevalence in 2004c was 93·3 (95 % CI 92·5, 94·1) % and in 2015c was 87·2 (95 % CI 86·1, 88·2) %. Tea was the item introduced earlier in both 2004c (68·8 %) and 2015c (55·7 %). At 6 months of age, vegetable mash was the most introduced food in 2004c (33·5 %) and 2015c (47·9 %). Between 2004c and 2015c, the introduction of fresh milk decreased 82·1 to 60·5 % and yogurt from 94·4 to 78·1 % during the first year. Risk of overweight prevalence at 24 months was 33·0 (95 % CI 31·6, 34·5) % in 2004c and 32·0 (95 % CI 30·5, 33·5) % in 2015c. In 2015c, the adjusted odds of risk of overweight at 24 months were increased 1·66 and 1·50 times with the early introduction of fresh/powdered milk: plus water, tea or juice, and plus semi-solid/solid food groups, respectively. It is essential to reinforce the adherence to global recommendations on timely feeding introduction and encourage exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months of age to prevent child overweight.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Sleep Res ; : e13047, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285520

RESUMO

This study used data from 2,222 mothers and infants participating in a population-based birth cohort to verify whether maternal depression in the perinatal period was associated with poor infant sleep. Mothers who scored ≥13 points on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 16-24 weeks of gestation and/or 3 months after delivery were considered perinatally depressed. The main outcome variable was poor infant sleep at 12 months of age, defined as >3 night wakings, nocturnal wakefulness >1 hr or total sleep duration <9 hr. Infant sleep data were obtained with the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) and 24-hr actigraphy monitoring. Prevalence of perinatal depression in the sample was 22.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.5-24.0). After Poisson regression, infants of depressed mothers showed an adjusted relative risk (RR) of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.00-2.08; p = .04) for >3 night wakings with questionnaire-derived data. When actigraphy data were analysed, no association was found between perinatal depression and poor infant sleep (adjusted RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.82-1.74; p = .35). In conclusion, although mothers in the depressed group were more likely to report more night wakings, objective data from actigraphy did not replicate this finding. Dysfunctional cognition, maternal behavioural factors and sleep impairment associated with perinatal depression may affect the mother's impression of her infant's sleep.

19.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(3): e00074919, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215511

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate sleep disorders and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. A census of university students was carried out. Questions extracted from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire investigated: insufficient sleep duration (< 6 hours/day for < 65 years and < 5 hours/day for other ages), long latency (> 30 minutes), low self-rated sleep quality, nocturnal awakenings (involuntary, in the middle of the night), and daytime sleepiness (difficulty concentrating). Independent variables included sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Adjusted analyses were performed with Poisson regression. Of the 1,865 students, 32% exhibited insufficient sleep on class days, 8.2% insufficient sleep on weekends, 18.6% long latency on class days, 17.2% long latency on weekends, 30% low self-rated sleep quality, 12.7% nocturnal awakenings, and 32.2% daytime sleepiness. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with insufficient sleep duration and long latency on class days, low quality sleep, awakenings, and daytime sleepiness. Smoking was associated with insufficient sleep duration on weekends, awakenings, and low-quality sleep. Black and brown skin color were associated with insufficient sleep duration on class days, low-quality sleep, and awakenings. Morning classes were associated with insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness. Female gender was associated with low-quality sleep and awakenings. The most frequent sleep disorders were insufficient sleep on class days, low self-rated quality of sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Alcohol consumption and smoking and black and brown skin color were the principal factors associated with sleep disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Universidades , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Sono , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the consumption of ultra-processed foods according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in three birth cohorts. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Data from the 2004, 1993 and 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohorts were used at 11, 22 and 30 years, respectively, collected between 2012 and 2015. Outcome was the relative contribution of ultra-processed foods from the total daily energy intake. Maternal-independent variables were self-reported skin colour, schooling, age and family income (obtained in the perinatal study), and variables of the cohort member, sex, skin colour, schooling and current family income (the last two obtained at the 11-, 22- and 30-year follow-ups of the respective cohorts). We calculated crude and adjusted means of the outcome for the whole cohorts and according to the independent variables. PARTICIPANTS: 11-, 22- and 30-year-old individuals. RESULTS: Daily energetic contribution from ultra-processed foods was higher in the younger cohort (33·7, 29·8 and 25·1 % at 11, 22 and 30 years, respectively). Maternal schooling and family income at birth showed an inverse dose-response relationship at 11 and 22 years, but a positive dose-response at 30 years. Female sex, lower schooling and family income at 22 years and higher schooling at 30 years were associated to a higher contribution from ultra-processed foods in the daily energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Information from food and nutrition policies needs a higher dissemination, mostly among women and population groups of lower income and schooling, including its promotion in media and health services, aiming for a decreased consumption of ultra-processed foods.

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