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1.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the consumption of ultra-processed foods according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in three birth cohorts. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Data from the 2004, 1993 and 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohorts were used at 11, 22 and 30 years, respectively, collected between 2012 and 2015. Outcome was the relative contribution of ultra-processed foods from the total daily energy intake. Maternal-independent variables were self-reported skin colour, schooling, age and family income (obtained in the perinatal study), and variables of the cohort member, sex, skin colour, schooling and current family income (the last two obtained at the 11-, 22- and 30-year follow-ups of the respective cohorts). We calculated crude and adjusted means of the outcome for the whole cohorts and according to the independent variables. PARTICIPANTS: 11-, 22- and 30-year-old individuals. RESULTS: Daily energetic contribution from ultra-processed foods was higher in the younger cohort (33·7, 29·8 and 25·1 % at 11, 22 and 30 years, respectively). Maternal schooling and family income at birth showed an inverse dose-response relationship at 11 and 22 years, but a positive dose-response at 30 years. Female sex, lower schooling and family income at 22 years and higher schooling at 30 years were associated to a higher contribution from ultra-processed foods in the daily energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Information from food and nutrition policies needs a higher dissemination, mostly among women and population groups of lower income and schooling, including its promotion in media and health services, aiming for a decreased consumption of ultra-processed foods.

2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(3): e00074919, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215511

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate sleep disorders and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. A census of university students was carried out. Questions extracted from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire investigated: insufficient sleep duration (< 6 hours/day for < 65 years and < 5 hours/day for other ages), long latency (> 30 minutes), low self-rated sleep quality, nocturnal awakenings (involuntary, in the middle of the night), and daytime sleepiness (difficulty concentrating). Independent variables included sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Adjusted analyses were performed with Poisson regression. Of the 1,865 students, 32% exhibited insufficient sleep on class days, 8.2% insufficient sleep on weekends, 18.6% long latency on class days, 17.2% long latency on weekends, 30% low self-rated sleep quality, 12.7% nocturnal awakenings, and 32.2% daytime sleepiness. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with insufficient sleep duration and long latency on class days, low quality sleep, awakenings, and daytime sleepiness. Smoking was associated with insufficient sleep duration on weekends, awakenings, and low-quality sleep. Black and brown skin color were associated with insufficient sleep duration on class days, low-quality sleep, and awakenings. Morning classes were associated with insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness. Female gender was associated with low-quality sleep and awakenings. The most frequent sleep disorders were insufficient sleep on class days, low self-rated quality of sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Alcohol consumption and smoking and black and brown skin color were the principal factors associated with sleep disorders.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that there is an association between developmental and emotional/behavioural problems in children exposed to acetaminophen during foetal development. However, few studies have focused on development and behavioural outcomes in early life. OBJECTIVES: To test the association between prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and low neurodevelopmental performance at 24 months and behavioural/emotional problems at 48 months of life. METHODS: We used data from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort, a population-based longitudinal prospective study. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months using Battelle's Developmental Inventory (BDI) (n = 3737). We assessed global function as well as each domain (personal-social, adaptative, motor, cognitive, and communication). Behavioural/emotional problems were assessed at 48 months using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) (n = 3624). We used the CBCL total, externalising, and internalising symptomatology and individual subscales (withdrawn, somatic complaints, anxious/depressed, social problems, cognitive problems, attention problems, aggressive behaviour, and rule-breaking behaviour). Acetaminophen use during pregnancy was retrospectively assessed at the perinatal follow-up. Poisson regression and multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the association, adjusting for several family and maternal sociodemographic and health factors, medication use during pregnancy, and the sex of the child. RESULTS: Acetaminophen exposure during prenatal development was not associated with low neurodevelopmental performance at 24 months assessed using the BDI or to emotional and behavioural problems assessed at 48 months using the CBCL in the adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot confirm the existence of an association between acetaminophen used during pregnancy and low neurodevelopmental performance at 24 months and emotional/behavioural problems at 48 months of life based on the present results.

4.
Int J Public Health ; 65(2): 207-215, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate and assess pregnancy smoking trends since 1978, according to sociodemographic characteristics, in three Brazilian sites. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the perinatal studies of nine birth cohorts, located in the southeast (Ribeirão Preto-1978/1979, 1994, and 2010), south (Pelotas-1982, 1993, 2004, and 2015), and northeast (São Luís-1997/1998 and 2010) regions of Brazil. We estimated the prevalence of pregnancy smoking at each time point according to age, education, and family income, in each cohort, and evaluated smoking trends. RESULTS: We analyzed data of 17,275 women in Ribeirão Preto, 19,819 in Pelotas, and 7753 in São Luís. Smoking decreased by 59% in Ribeirão Preto (p < 0.001), 54% in Pelotas (p < 0.001), and 32% in São Luís (p < 0.001). However, among those with 0-4 years of education, smoking did not change in Ribeirão Preto (p-trend = 0.501) nor São Luís (p = 0.556) and increased in Pelotas (p-trend = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy smoking has been declining during the last decades. However, among less-educated women, pregnancy smoking did not change in two sites and increased in one of them.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1851, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024929

RESUMO

Inadequate pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) have been associated with sub-optimal child development. We used data from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Maternal anthropometry was extracted from antenatal/hospital records. BMI (kg/m2) and GWG (kg) adequacy were classified according to WHO and IOM, respectively. Development was evaluated using the INTER-NDA assessment tool for 3,776 children aged 24 months. Suspected developmental delay (SDD) was defined as <10th percentile. Associations between maternal exposures and child development were tested using linear and logistic regressions. Mediation for the association between BMI and child development through GWG was tested using G-formula. Sex differences were observed for all child development domains, except motor. Maternal pre-pregnancy underweight increased the odds of SDD in language (OR: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.30-5.80), motor (OR: 2.28; 95%CI: 1.20-4.33), and global (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.05-4.33) domains for girls; among boys, excessive GWG was associated with SDD in language (OR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.13-2.24) and cognition (OR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.15-2.22). Total GWG suppressed the association of pre-pregnancy BMI with percentiles of global development in the entire sample. Maternal underweight and excessive GWG were negatively associated with development of girls and boys, respectively. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI with global child development was not mediated by GWG, irrespective of child's sex.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify the most appropriate threshold for Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) diagnosis and the impact of potential changes in diagnostic rules on prevalence levels in the community. METHOD: Trained psychologists evaluated 3,562 pre-adolescents/early adolescents from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort with the Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment (DAWBA). The clinical threshold was assessed in three stages: symptomatic, syndromic and clinical operationalization. The symptomatic threshold identified the response category in each DAWBA item which separates normative misbehavior from a clinical indicator. The syndromic threshold identified the number of irritable mood and outbursts needed to capture pre-adolescents/early adolescents with high symptom levels. Clinical operationalization compared the impact of AND/OR rules for combining irritable mood and outbursts on impairment and levels of psychopathology. RESULTS: At the symptomatic threshold, most irritable mood items were normative in their lowest response categories and clinically significant in their highest response categories. For outbursts some indicated a symptom even when present at only a mild level, while others did not indicate symptoms at any level. At the syndromic level, a combination of 2 out of 7 irritable mood and 3 out of 8 outburst indicators accurately captured a cluster of individuals with high level of symptoms. Analysis combining irritable mood and outbursts delineated non-overlapping aspects of DMDD, providing support for the OR rule in clinical operationalization. The best DMDD criteria resulted in a prevalence of 3%. CONCLUSION: Results provide information for initiatives aiming to provide data-driven and clinically oriented operationalized criteria for DMDD.

7.
Sleep Med ; 69: 65-70, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the validity of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ), in assessing sleep quality in childhood. METHODS: This was a validation study with children from the Pelotas 2015 Birth Cohort. BISQ was applied to mothers when their children were 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. The poor sleep indicators analysed, as defined by BISQ, were >3 wakings per night, nocturnal wakefulness >1 h and total sleep duration <9/24 h, compared to number of wakings per night and nocturnal and total sleep duration defined by actigraphy taken as the gold standard. The Actiwatch wGT3X-BT device was used by the child consecutively during five days at three and six months and for three days at 12 and 24 months. At each age the prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of each sleep indicator was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 586 children were enrolled in the study. Nocturnal wakefulness >1 h was the most frequent indicator at all ages, with higher sensitivity (varying from 27.5% at six months to 54.8% at three) and lower specificity (53.4% at three months to 79.4% at six months), in comparison to the other sleep indicators. Specificity for >3 wakings and total sleep duration <9 h was greater than 85.0% at all the ages. Higher accuracies were observed for total sleep <9 h at 3 (85.6%), 6 (88.2%) and 12 months (73.6%) and for > 3 wakings at 24 months (84.5%). The sensitivity for the presence of at least one indicator decreased with age from 56.0% at three months to 35.8% at 24 months, whereas the specificity increased from 50.6% at three months to 63.8% at 24 months. CONCLUSION: The high specificity of the BISQ sleep parameters supports the validity of parents' reports on sleep-related problems in childhood for use in epidemiological studies.

8.
Chronobiol Int ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958021

RESUMO

Social jetlag (SJL) is defined as the misalignment between the biological clocks and the social clock imposed by work and social constraints. In order to accomplish the workdays duties, people tend to not respect the internally sleep-wake cycle during the week, often using alarm clock to wake-up, which would lead to a chronic form of travel-induced jetlag. This circadian misalignment has been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to explore whether the SJL is a valid concept for the travel-induced jetlag symptoms, as well as what is the cutoff point with best parameters for defining the presence of SJL, in a sample of undergraduate students of a university in Southern Brazil. We assessed SJL by the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and defined the concept as the difference between the midsleep point on free days and the midsleep point on classes days. The gold standard was defined as having at least one travel-induced jetlag symptom (fatigue, sleepiness or difficulty concentrating). Relative SJL, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for different cutoff points, plotted on ROC curves. A total of 452 students with complete sleep information were included in the analysis. The relative SJL mean was 2 h 23 min (SD = 1 h 24 min; range -3 h to 7 h 58 min) and 63.7% of the students had ≥2 h of relative SJL. All the tested cutoff points of the instrument had low sensitivity and specificity values, covering a small area under the ROC curve (0.487). The best parameters were for the cutoff point ≥2 h, with 63.4% sensitivity and 35.9% specificity. SJL did not revealed to be a valid concept for the studied sample comparing it to travel-induced jetlag symptomatology. One possible explanation for the lack of validity of our results regards the fact that SJL may not have the same apparent wide-term effects as the travel-induced jetlag. Then, the symptoms of SJL do not well represent the symptoms of travel-induced jetlag.

9.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 34(1): 60-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal sleep is essential for child growth, development, and immune function. Few studies have evaluated factors associated with sleep duration in childhood from a longitudinal perspective. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify trajectories of sleep duration in childhood and associated maternal and child characteristics. METHODS: Sleep duration was assessed by maternal report at 3, 12, 24, and 48 months among children from the Pelotas (Brazil) 2004 Birth Cohort. Independent variables included family income, maternal and child demographics, and clinical characteristics. Trajectory analysis was carried out using a semi-parametric, group-based modelling approach. Multinomial logistic regression provided odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between independent variables and sleep duration trajectory groups. RESULTS: A total of 3824 participants were included in the analyses. Three trajectories of sleep duration were identified: "short sleepers" (9.1%), "typical sleepers" (72.1%), and "initially longer sleepers" (18.8%). When compared to typical sleepers, children from less schooled mothers (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.26, 2.62) and those whose mothers reported depressive symptoms during pregnancy (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.68) and consumed alcohol beverages at 3 months post-partum (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03, 2.50) were more likely to be short sleepers. Children who shared the bedroom with another child were about 40% (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07, 1.87) more likely to be short sleepers. None of the investigated maternal and child characteristics remained associated with the "initially longer sleeper" group. CONCLUSIONS: Among the identified trajectories, the group with short sleep duration trajectory deserves special attention given the importance of adequate sleep duration in the first years of life for the child's growth and development and the high concomitance of other risk factors, such as less schooled mothers, and mothers who reported depressive symptoms during pregnancy and consumed alcohol at 3 months post-partum.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter analgesic use during pregnancy, particularly acetaminophen, may be associated with negative developmental outcomes in children. OBJECTIVE: Estimate associations of prenatal and early-life exposure to acetaminophen in early childhood with cognitive, motor, and language skills in two birth cohorts. METHODS: The American Project Viva cohort (1217 mother-child pairs enrolled 1999-2002) assessed cognition at approximately 3 years using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Wide Range Achievement of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). The Brazilian 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort (3818 mother-child pairs) assessed cognition at 2 years using the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment. We used linear regression to estimate associations of acetaminophen use during pregnancy (Project Viva and Pelotas) and infancy (Project Viva) with children's cognitive scores adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, education, parity, race/ethnicity, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, depression during pregnancy, antibiotic and ibuprofen use during pregnancy, household income, and child's sex. RESULTS: In Project Viva, exposure to acetaminophen in both the 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy was associated with lower WRAVMA drawing scores (ß -1.51, 95% CI -2.92, -0.10). However, in Pelotas, exposure to acetaminophen in both the 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy was not associated with INTER-NDA motor scores (ß 0.02; 95% CI -0.05, 0.09) and was associated with higher INTER-NDA total scores (ß 0.08, 95% CI 0.01, 0.16). Other comparisons did not show evidence for any associations. CONCLUSIONS: Inconsistencies and lack of specificity of the findings did not clarify the research question considering that we still have a large variability and uncertainty to define the risk or safety in the use of acetaminophen related to cognition in early childhood. More studies using better exposure assessment and better confounding variables are needed to clarify these associations.

11.
J Atten Disord ; 24(4): 590-600, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617436

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between sleep in early life and ADHD in adolescence. As a secondary analysis, we tested whether the associations may be specific to ADHD. Method: Data from 3,467 participants of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort were used. Information on their sleep duration and problems was collected at 12, 24, and 48 months of age. ADHD diagnosis and hyperactivity/inattention problems were assessed with the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) among participants at 11 years of age. Results: Difficulty going to sleep at 24 months, nightmares at 24 months and at 48 months, and restless sleep at 48 months were consistently associated with ADHD as well as with other mental disorders. Conclusion: The results suggest that sleep disturbances may be more important ADHD predictors than sleep duration or sleep duration trajectories. However, it may also be considered early markers of other mental disorders.

12.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(1): 27-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet has been of interest for asthma; however, it remains unknown whether the consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) increases the risk of the disease. Our objective was to investigate whether UPF consumption during childhood was associated with wheeze, asthma, and severe asthma in adolescence. METHODS: We included 2190 11-year-old children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, without asthma at the age of 6 years. Consumption of UPF was assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaires at 6- and 11-year follow-ups. Wheeze, asthma, and severe asthma data were assessed at 11-year follow-up. We classified foods according to the processing degree in ultra-processed food. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for the association between UPF consumption and the asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of wheeze and asthma between 6 and 11 years was 12.7% and 23.2%, respectively. In prospective analyses, comparing children in the highest and the lowest quintile of UPF consumption at age 6, we found no association with wheeze (OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.54-1.34), asthma (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.58-1.21), or severe asthma (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.62-2.03) in early adolescence. In cross-sectional analyses, comparing adolescents in the highest and lowest quintile of UPF consumption at 11 years, we found no association with wheeze (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.72-1.75), asthma (OR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.7-1.44), or severe asthma (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.59-1.86). CONCLUSION: Our study provided evidence that UPF consumption during childhood or adolescence is not associated with asthma or wheeze among adolescents.

13.
Vaccine ; 38(3): 482-488, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718899

RESUMO

Vaccine hesitancy has been increasingly reported in Brazil. We describe secular trends and socioeconomic disparities from 1982 to 2015, using data from four population-based birth cohorts carried out in the city of Pelotas. Full immunization coverage (FIC) was defined as having received four basic vaccines (one dose of BCG and measles, and three doses of polio and DTP) scheduled for the first year of life. Information on income was collected through standardized questionnaires, and the slope index of inequality (SII) was calculated to express the difference in percent points between the rich and poor extremes of the income distribution. Full immunization coverage was 80.9% (95% CI 79.8%; 82.0%) in 1982, 97.2% (96.1%; 98.0%) in 1993, 87.8% (86.7%; 88.8%) in 2004 and 77.2% (75.8%; 78.4%) in 2015. In 1982 there was a strong social gradient with higher coverage among children from wealthy families (SII = 25.0, P < 0.001); by 2015, the pattern was inverted with higher coverage among poor children (SII = -6.0; P = 0.01). Vertical immunization programs in the 1980s and creation of the National Health Services in 1980 eliminated the social gradient that had been present up to the 1980s, to reach near universal coverage. The recent decline in coverage is likely associated with the growing complexity of the vaccination schedule and underfunding of the health sector. In addition, the faster decline observed among children from wealthy families is probably due to vaccine hesitancy.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1918062, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860110

RESUMO

Importance: Poor sleep during early childhood is associated with adverse outcomes, including obesity, cognitive impairment, and mental and behavioral disorders. Objective: To assess the efficacy of an educational intervention in the promotion of nighttime sleep duration. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-blind, intent-to-treat randomized clinical trial included participants in Pelotas, Brazil, aged 3 months who were followed up until age 24 months. Eligibility criteria included healthy infants aged approximately 3 months who slept less than 15 hours per 24 hours. Infants were randomized to the intervention group or control group. Interventions: Information on sleep characteristics, improvements in the environment, establishment of a nighttime sleep routine, and waiting before attending nocturnal awakenings was delivered to mothers in the intervention group by trained home-visitors at baseline. The intervention group received a telephone call on the first and second day after the intervention and a home visit on the third day after the intervention. The intervention's content was reinforced at health care visits for ages 6 months and 12 months. Mothers allocated to the control group were counseled on the benefits of breastfeeding for the mother's and child's health and given written material with content on breastfeeding. Main Outcomes and Measures: Nighttime sleep duration was measured by interview and actigraphy at baseline and ages 6, 12, and 24 months and diaries at baseline and age 6 months. At ages 3 and 6 months, nighttime sleep self-regulation was calculated by subtracting nighttime sleep duration recorded by actigraphy from nighttime sleep duration recorded in the diaries and at ages 12 and 24 months by subtracting nighttime sleep duration recorded by actigraphy from nighttime sleep duration obtained by interview. Results: Among 1812 mother-infant dyads invited to participate, 798 met the inclusion criteria and 586 agreed to participate. The intervention group included 298 infants (154 [52.9%] boys), and the control group included 288 infants (164 [58.2%] boys). At age 6 months, mean (SD) nighttime sleep duration recorded in diaries was 9.80 (1.85) hours in the intervention group and 9.49 (2.07) hours in the control group, a difference of 19 minutes longer for the intervention group. At age 12 months, mean (SD) nighttime sleep duration based on the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire was 8.43 (1.35) hours in the intervention group and 8.52 (1.35) hours in the control group, a difference of 5 minutes shorter for the intervention group. At age 24 months, compared with information from the interview, actigraphy records showed that children in the intervention group stayed awake at night without signalizing for a mean (SD) of 0.52 (2.52) hours, whereas children in the control group stayed awake at night without signalizing for a mean (SD) of 0.23 (2.43) hours. There were no statistically significant difference between groups in any of the sleep parameters investigated. Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that the educational intervention did not achieve longer nighttime sleep duration among infants in the intervention group. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02788630.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748986

RESUMO

The study aimed to explore associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators, early child stimulation (ECS) and attention-related executive functions (EF) at age 11. Children born in Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004, were recruited to a birth cohort (n = 4231, non-response rate at recruitment < 1%) and followed from birth to age 11. SEP variables were family income and maternal schooling. At the 24 and 48-month follow-ups, five markers of cognitive stimulation and social interaction were recorded and positive answers were summed to a score ranging from 0 to 5. At age 11, attentional-switching and control, and selective-attention were assessed using the adapted Test-of-Everyday-Attention-for-Children (TEA-Ch). We used multivariable logistic regression models and mediation analysis to investigate potential mediator role of ECS in the association between SEP and EF. 3106 children were included in the analyses. Less than 7% of the more stimulated individuals showed low performance in attention-related EFs at age 11 compared with almost 20% in the bottom groups of stimulation. Higher child stimulation scores were associated with fewer impairments in attentional-control (OR adj 0.84; CI 95% 0.72-0.98) and attentional-switching (OR adj 0.85; CI 95% 0.73-0.99). Mediation analysis suggested that for attentional-switching, ECS mediated almost 20% of the total protective effect of maternal schooling for impaired EF. Assuming causal relationships, if maximum stimulation was provided to all children, the advantageous effect of maternal schooling on EF would be reduced by 47%. ECS may represent a protective factor for cognitive impairments in childhood and can be easily implemented at relatively low cost.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1260, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the prevalence and the factors associated with repeated high systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 6- and 11-year follow-ups of children from the Pelotas (Brazil) 2004 Birth Cohort. METHODS: All live births to mothers living in the urban area of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. Blood pressure (BP) values were transformed into Z-scores by sex, age, and height. High SBP and DBP were defined as repeated systolic and diastolic BP Z-scores on the ≥95th percentile at the two follow-ups. Prevalence (95% confidence interval) of repeated high SBP, DBP, and both (SDBP) were calculated. Associations with maternal and child characteristics were explored in crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 3182 cohort participants were analyzed. Prevalence of repeated high SBP, DBP and SDBP was 1.7% (1.2-2.1%), 2.3% (1.8-2.9%) and 1.2% (0.9-1.6%), respectively. Repeated high SBP was associated with males, gestational diabetes mellitus (2.92; 1.13-7.58) and obesity at 11 years (2.44; 1.29-4.59); while repeated high DBP was associated with females, family history of hypertension from both sides (3.95; 1.59-9.85) and gestational age < 34 weeks (4.08; 1.52-10.96). Repeated high SDBP was not associated with any of the characteristics investigated. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of repeated high SBP, DBP, and SDBP were within the expected distribution at the population level. Nonetheless, gestational diabetes mellitus, obesity, family history of hypertension, and prematurity increased the risk of repeated high blood pressure measured at two occasions 5 years apart.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of relatively younger age on Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and diagnosis through three population-based cohorts and a meta-analysis. METHOD: Individuals included in this study were participants of three community-based cohorts in Brazil: the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (N=5,249), the 2004 Pelotas Cohort (N=4,231), and the Brazilian High-Risk Study for Psychiatric disorders (HRC study, N=2,511). We analyzed the effect of relatively younger age on ADHD symptoms and diagnosis. For the meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from inception through December 25th, 2018. We selected studies that reported measures of association between relative immaturity and an ADHD diagnosis. We followed the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. The protocol for meta-analysis is available on PROSPERO (CRD42018099966). RESULTS: In the meta-analysis, we identified 1,799 potentially eligible records, from which 25 studies including 8,076,570 individuals (164,049 ADHD cases) were analyzed with their effect estimates. The summarized relative risk of an ADHD diagnosis was 1.34 (95% Confidence Interval, 1.26 to 1.43, p <.001) for children born in the first four months of the school year (relatively younger). Heterogeneity was high (I2 = 96.7%). Relative younger age was associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in the 1993 Pelotas cohort (p=.003), in the 2004 Pelotas cohort (p=.046) and in the HRC study (p=.010). CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents who are relatively younger compared to their classmates have a higher risk of receiving an ADHD diagnosis. Clinicians should consider the developmental level of young children when evaluating ADHD symptoms.

18.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs; short non-protein-coding RNA molecules that mediate post-transcriptional regulation), including mir-9 and mir-34 families, are important for brain development. Current data suggest that mir-9 and mir-34 may have shared effects across psychiatric disorders. This study aims to explore the role of genetic polymorphisms in the MIR9-2 (rs4916723) and MIR34B/C (rs4938723) genes on the susceptibility of psychiatric disorders in children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. METHODS: Psychiatric disorders were assessed in 3585 individuals using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), criteria through the application of standard semi-structured interviews (using the Development and Well-Being Assessment, DAWBA) at the six-years-of-age follow-up. The outcome was defined as the presence of any mental disorder. We also considered two broad groups of internalizing and externalizing disorders to further investigate the role of these variants in mental health. RESULTS: We observed an association between rs4916723 (MIR9-2) and the presence of any psychiatric disorder (odds ratios (OR) = 0.820; 95% CI = 0.7130-0.944; p = 0.006) and a suggestive effect on internalizing disorders (OR = 0.830; 95% CI = 0.698-0.987; p = 0.035). rs4938723 (MIR34B/C) was not associated with any evaluated outcome. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that MIR9-2 may have an important role on a broad susceptibility for psychiatric disorders and may be important mainly for internalization problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e024734, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects a significant number of women. Evidence regarding the association between GDM and offspring body mass index (BMI) is unclear due to small samples and lack of adequate confounding control. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between GDM and offspring BMI z-scores from birth to early adolescence and to examine the role of maternal pre-gestational BMI in this relationship. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Pelotas 2004 Birth Cohort, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Cohort participants that were followed-up from birth up to early adolescence (~3500) and their mothers. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: BMI z-scores at birth, 3, 12, 24, 48 months and 6 and 11 years of age, calculated according to the WHO growth charts. RESULTS: Unadjusted and adjusted linear regressions were performed and interaction terms between maternal pre-gestational BMI and GDM were included. Prevalence of self-reported GDM was 2.6% (95% CI 2.1% to 3.1%). The offspring BMI z-scores (SD) at birth, 3, 12, 24, 48 months and at 6 and 11 years were 0.10 (1.12), -0.47 (1.10), 0.59 (1.10), 0.59 (1.08), 0.78 (1.32), 0.70 (1.43) and 0.75 (1.41), respectively. Unadjusted regression models showed positive associations between GDM and offspring BMI z-scores at birth, 6 and 11 years. After adjustment, the associations attenuated towards the null. Statistical evidence of effect modification between maternal pre-gestational BMI and GDM was observed at birth (p=0.007), with the association between GDM and offspring BMI z-score being apparent only in those children born to overweight or obese mothers (ß=0.72, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.14 and ß=0.61, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that in the association between GDM and offspring BMI z-scores, there is a predominant role for maternal nutritional status before pregnancy and that the association between GDM and newborn's BMI is apparent only among those born to overweight or obese mothers.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 253: 303-307, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of maternal depression on child health-care services utilization. METHODOLOGY: Data from The Pelotas 2004 Birth Cohort collected at birth and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups were used. Four outcomes occurring in the second year of life were investigated: number of well-baby visits, number of medical appointments, number of visits to emergency rooms, and number of hospitalizations. The main exposure was maternal depression symptoms at 12-month post-partum as assessed by the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of mothers with depressive symptoms was 27.6% (95% CI: 26.2-29.0%). These mothers showed a 10% lower probability of taking their children to well-baby visits (0.90; 0.85-0.95; p = 0.001); 16% higher probability to seek medical consultations (1.16; 1.09-1.25, p = 0.001); and they sought emergency services for their children more often (1.30; 1.17-1.45, p < 0.001) as compared to mothers who did not present depressive symptoms. Although the PR for hospitalizations was 26% higher for children from mothers with depressive symptoms, the association did not achieve statistical significance (1.26; 0.98-1.63; p = 0.072). CONCLUSION: Children from mothers with depressive symptoms attend fewer number of preventive consultations. In contrast, they are taken to medical and emergency care more often, suggesting that these children are given healthcare when they are at more advanced stages of their illnesses.

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