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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234855, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153468

RESUMO

Abstract Exposure to the hight-fat diet may alter the control of food intake promoting hyperphagia and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this diet on dopamine receptors (drd1 and drd2), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), neuropeptideY (npy) genes expression, and preference food in adult rats. Wistar female rats were fed a hight-fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated into groups: Lactation - Control (C) and High-fat (H). Post-weaning - Control Control (CC), offspring of mothers C, fed a control diet after weaning; Control Hight-fat (CH), offspring of mothers C, fed a hight-fat diet after weaning; Hight-fat Control (HC), offspring of mothers H, fed with control diet after weaning; and Hight-fat Hight-fat (HH), offspring of mothers H, fed a H diet after weaning. The groups CH and HH presented greater expression of drd1 in comparison to the CC. The drd2 of CH and HC presented higher gene expression than did CC. HH presented higher pomc expression in comparison to the other groups. HC also presented greater expression in comparison to CH. The npy of HH presented greater expression in relation to CH and HC. HH and HC have had a higher preference for a high-fat diet at 102º life's day. The high-fat diet altered the gene expression of the drd1, drd2, pomc and npy, and influencing the food preference for high-fat diet.


Resumo A exposição à dieta hiperlipídica pode alterar o controle da ingestão de alimentos, promovendo hiperfagia e obesidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos dessa dieta sobre a expressão gênica dos receptores de dopamina (drd1 e drd2), da proopiomelanocortina (pomc) e neuropeptídeo Y (npy), e preferência alimentar em ratos adultos. Ratas Wistar foram alimentadas com uma dieta hiperlipídica ou controle durante a gestação e lactação. Os descendentes foram alocados em grupos: Lactação - Controle (C) e Hiperlipídica (H). Pós-desmame - Controle Controle (CC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Controle Hiperlipídica (CH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Controle (HC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Hiperlipídica (HH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame. Os grupos CH e HH apresentaram maior expressão de drd1 em comparação ao CC. O drd2 de CH e HC apresentou maior expressão gênica que o CC. HH apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação com os outros grupos. O HC também apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação ao CH. O npy do HH apresentou maior expressão em relação ao CH e HC. HH e HC tiveram uma preferência maior por uma dieta rica em gordura no 102º dia de vida. A dieta hiperlipídica alterou a expressão gênica dos drd1, drd2, pomc e npy e influenciou na preferência alimentar pela dieta hiperlipídica.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 246-250, Jan.-May 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153363

RESUMO

Abstract Aim This study aimed to verify the correlation between murine measurements and retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats exposed to the high-fat diet. Material and methods: Wistar male adult rats, descendants of mothers who consumed a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation and fed the same diet after weaning were used. At 60 days of life, body weight, longitudinal axis and waist circumference (WC) were measured. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and the Lee Index were calculated for a posterior analysis of the correlation with the amount of retroperitoneal adipose tissue dissected on the same day. For analysis of the data, the Pearson correlation test was used, considering statistical significance for p <0.05. Results: Body weight had a weak correlation (r= 0.31; p= 0.38) with retroperitoneal adipose tissue. While the longitudinal correlated moderately and negative (r= -0.40; p= 0.25). Abdominal circumference (r= 0.62; p= 0.05), body mass index (r= 0.61; p= 0.03) and Lee (r= 0.69; p= 0.03) correlated moderately and positively with adipose tissue. Conclusion: Among the measured murine measurements, weight and longitudinal axis were not good indicators to represent accumulation of retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats. However, Lee's index seems to be the best murine marker to diagnose the accumulation of retroperitoneal fat. BMI, CA and Lee index were murine parameters with higher correlation.


Resumo Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a correlação entre medidas murinométricas e tecido adiposo retroperitoneal em ratos expostos à dieta hiperlipídica. Material e métodos: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar machos adultos, descendentes de mães que consumiram dieta hiperlipídica durante a gestação e lactação e alimentados com a mesma dieta após o desmame. Aos 60 dias de vida, foram medidos o peso corporal, o eixo longitudinal e a circunferência da cintura (CC). O Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e o Índice de Lee foram calculados para posterior análise da correlação com a quantidade de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal dissecado no mesmo dia. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se o teste de correlação de Pearson, considerando significância estatística para p <0.05. Resultados: O peso corporal apresentou uma correlação fraca (r= 0,31; p= 0,38) com o tecido adiposo retroperitoneal. Enquanto o longitudinal correlacionou moderadamente e negativo (r= -0,40; p= 0,25). A circunferência abdominal (r = 0,62; p = 0,05), índice de massa corporal (r= 0,61; p= 0,03) e Lee (r=0,69; p= 0,03) correlacionaram-se moderada e positivamente com o tecido adiposo. Conclusão: Entre as medidas murinométricas, o peso e o eixo longitudinal não foram bons indicadores para representar o acúmulo de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal em ratos. No entanto, o índice de Lee parece ser o melhor indicador murinométrico para diagnosticar o acúmulo de gordura retroperitoneal. O IMC, índice de Lee e CA foram parâmetros murinométricos com maior correlação.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e234855, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729380

RESUMO

Exposure to the hight-fat diet may alter the control of food intake promoting hyperphagia and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this diet on dopamine receptors (drd1 and drd2), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), neuropeptideY (npy) genes expression, and preference food in adult rats. Wistar female rats were fed a hight-fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated into groups: Lactation - Control (C) and High-fat (H). Post-weaning - Control Control (CC), offspring of mothers C, fed a control diet after weaning; Control Hight-fat (CH), offspring of mothers C, fed a hight-fat diet after weaning; Hight-fat Control (HC), offspring of mothers H, fed with control diet after weaning; and Hight-fat Hight-fat (HH), offspring of mothers H, fed a H diet after weaning. The groups CH and HH presented greater expression of drd1 in comparison to the CC. The drd2 of CH and HC presented higher gene expression than did CC. HH presented higher pomc expression in comparison to the other groups. HC also presented greater expression in comparison to CH. The npy of HH presented greater expression in relation to CH and HC. HH and HC have had a higher preference for a high-fat diet at 102º life's day. The high-fat diet altered the gene expression of the drd1, drd2, pomc and npy, and influencing the food preference for high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Pró-Opiomelanocortina , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Expressão Gênica , Neuropeptídeo Y/genética , Gravidez , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/genética
4.
Animal ; 15(2): 100088, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712207

RESUMO

Crude glycerin (CG) is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in beef production. After being absorbed, it is used in the liver to produce glucose, an important precursor of intramuscular fat in ruminants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CG (439 g/kg glycerol) on the performance and meat quality of crossbred heifers finished in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu. Thirty-six heifers with an initial BW of 301.5 ±â€¯23.02 kg were used. They were supplemented for 154 days with the following levels of CG: mineral mixture (without CG), 33.3, 66.6 and 99.9 g/kg CG in the DM of the supplement. Supplement or pasture DM intakes, slaughter BW and carcass traits were not influenced (P > 0.05) by increasing levels of CG. The total fat content of the meat, the vaccenic (18:1 n-7t) and conjugated linoleic acid (18:2 c9-t11) increased with the addition of CG in the diet (P < 0.05). Crude glycerin can be included up to 99.9 g/kg of the total diet without changing the performance of crossbred heifers finished in the tropical pasture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Glicerol , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Carne/análise
5.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 74: 106540, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916522

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to investigate the viability and validity of blood sampling from the upper lip mucosa in healthy dogs and cats for monitoring transoperative glycemia and compare the results with those obtained from samples taken from previously described blood sampling sites for determination of glycemia using a glucose meter. Blood glucose (BG) levels were determined in samples taken from the upper lip mucosa of 24 dogs and 31 cats undergoing neutering or spaying surgeries. These values were compared to those of samples obtained from other sites previously described for capillary blood glucose monitoring (marginal ear vein, carpal pad in dogs, metacarpal pad in cats) using a glucose meter. Additionally, BG from peripheral venous blood was determined using a glucose meter, and the gold standard enzymatic colorimetric assay. The clinical reliability of BG values taken from lip mucosa and from all the other BG values measured by the glucose meter was evaluated using the error grid analysis modified by Parkes et al (2000). The upper lip mucosa was an easily accessible site for the obtainment of appropriate blood samples, and glucose levels read in these samples correlated positively with glycemic values read in blood samples from all other sites in dogs and cats. All BG made using glucose meters taken from all sites were within the clinically acceptable range when compared with enzymatic colorimetric assay (gold standard), and were analytically accurate according to the error grid (zones A and B). All blood sampling sites described in this work can be used to assess transoperative glycemia. The upper lip mucosa is a viable blood sampling site for precise monitoring of transoperative glycemia in healthy dogs and cats and shows promise for alternative blood glucose monitoring.

6.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 2707635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655311

RESUMO

Receptor internalization and degradation (RID), is a transmembrane protein coded within the E3 region expression cassette of adenoviruses. RID downregulates the cell surface expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), and apoptosis antigen 1 (FAS), causing a reduction of the effects of their respective ligands. In addition, RID inhibits apoptosis by decreasing the secretion of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by normal tissue cells. In this article, we report that RID inhibited chemokine expression in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 but showed no effect in cell line MCF7. These dissimilar results may be due to the different molecular and functional properties of both cell lines. Therefore, it is necessary to replicate this study in other breast cancer cell models.

7.
Animal ; 14(S2): s371-s381, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515319

RESUMO

Pigs exposed to stressors might change their daily typical feeding intake pattern. The objective of this study was to develop a method for the early identification of deviations from an individual pig's typical feeding patterns. In addition, a general approach was proposed to model feed intake and real-time individual nutrient requirements for pigs with atypical feeding patterns. First, a dynamic linear model (DLM) was proposed to model the typical daily feed intake (DFI) and daily gain (DG) patterns of pigs. Individual DFI and DG dynamics are described by a univariate DLM in conjunction with Kalman filtering. A standardized tabular cumulative sum (CUMSUM) control chart was applied to the forecast errors generated by DLM to activate an alarm when a pig showed deviations from its typical feeding patterns. The relative feed intake (RFI) during a challenge period was calculated. For that, the forecasted individual pig DFI is expressed as its highest DFI relative to the intake during pre-challenge period. Finally, the DLM and RFI approaches were integrated into the actual precision-feeding model (original model) to estimate real-time individual nutrient requirements for pigs with atypical feeding patterns. This general approach was evaluated with data from two studies (130 pigs, at 35.25 ± 3.9 kg of initial BW) that investigated during 84 days the effect of precision-feeding systems for growing-finishing pigs. The proposed general approach to estimating real-time individual nutrient requirements (updated model) was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the original model. For 11 individuals out of 130, the DLM did not fit the observed data well in a specific period, resulting in an increase in the sum of standardized forecast errors and in the number of time steps that the model needed to adapt to the new patterns. This poor fit can be identified by the increase in the CUMSUM with a consequent alarm generated. The results of this study show that the updated model made it possible to reduce intra-individual variation for the estimated lysine requirements in comparison with the original model, especially for individuals with atypical feeding patterns. In conclusion, the DLM in conjunction with CUMSUM could be used as a tool for the online monitoring of DFI for growing-finishing pigs. Moreover, the proposed general approach allows the estimation of real-time amino acid requirements and accounts for the reduced feed intake and growth potential of pigs with atypical feeding patterns.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428096

RESUMO

Aim This study aimed to verify the correlation between murine measurements and retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats exposed to the high-fat diet. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar male adult rats, descendants of mothers who consumed a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation and fed the same diet after weaning were used. At 60 days of life, body weight, longitudinal axis and waist circumference (WC) were measured. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and the Lee Index were calculated for a posterior analysis of the correlation with the amount of retroperitoneal adipose tissue dissected on the same day. For analysis of the data, the Pearson correlation test was used, considering statistical significance for p <0.05. RESULTS: Body weight had a weak correlation (r= 0.31; p= 0.38) with retroperitoneal adipose tissue. While the longitudinal correlated moderately and negative (r= -0.40; p= 0.25). Abdominal circumference (r= 0.62; p= 0.05), body mass index (r= 0.61; p= 0.03) and Lee (r= 0.69; p= 0.03) correlated moderately and positively with adipose tissue. CONCLUSION: Among the measured murine measurements, weight and longitudinal axis were not good indicators to represent accumulation of retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats. However, Lee's index seems to be the best murine marker to diagnose the accumulation of retroperitoneal fat. BMI, CA and Lee index were murine parameters with higher correlation.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 220-232, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989460

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Understanding associations between food preferences and maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could inform efforts to understanding the obesity mechanisms and provide insight to prevent it. Objective: To identify studies that investigated the effects of nutritional interventions during the pregnancy and lactation on the food preferences of offspring. Method: The review was conducted with search for articles in the databases: Scopus, Pubmed, Medline, LILACS, Scielo and Science Direct. Exclusion criteria were used: reviews, human studies, studies with drugs or other substances not related to food. Results: At the end of the search in the databases, 176 references were found. After use the exclusion criteria, reading the titles, abstracts and full articles, were selected 11 articles to compose the review. Conclusion: The selected studies suggested that unbalanced nutrition in early life alters the food preference and neural components related to the consumption of fatty and sugary foods in offspring rodents.


Resumo Introdução O entendimento das associações entre as preferências alimentares e nutrição materna durante a gravidez e lactação poderia colaborar para a compreensão dos mecanismos da obesidade e fornecer informações para prevenir essa infermidade. Objetivo: Identificar estudos que investigaram os efeitos das intervenções nutricionais durante a gravidez e lactação em preferências alimentares dos descendentes. Método: A revisão foi conduzida com busca de artigos nas bases de dados: Scopus, Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo e Science Direct. Os critérios de exclusão utilizados: revisões, estudos em humanos, estudos com drogas ou outras substâncias não-alimentares. Resultados: No final da pesquisa nas bases de dados, 176 referências foram encontradas. Depois de usar os critérios de exclusão, lendo os títulos, resumos e artigos completos, 11 artigos foram selecionados para compor a revisão. Conclusão: Os estudos selecionados sugeriram que a nutrição desequilibrada no início da vida altera a preferência alimentar e componentes neurais relacionadas com o consumo de alimentos gordurosos e açucarados em prole de roedores.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Lactação/fisiologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares
10.
Braz J Biol ; 79(2): 220-232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding associations between food preferences and maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could inform efforts to understanding the obesity mechanisms and provide insight to prevent it. Objective: To identify studies that investigated the effects of nutritional interventions during the pregnancy and lactation on the food preferences of offspring. Method: The review was conducted with search for articles in the databases: Scopus, Pubmed, Medline, LILACS, Scielo and Science Direct. Exclusion criteria were used: reviews, human studies, studies with drugs or other substances not related to food. Results: At the end of the search in the databases, 176 references were found. After use the exclusion criteria, reading the titles, abstracts and full articles, were selected 11 articles to compose the review. Conclusion: The selected studies suggested that unbalanced nutrition in early life alters the food preference and neural components related to the consumption of fatty and sugary foods in offspring rodents.


Assuntos
Lactação/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Gravidez/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Camundongos , Ratos
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 615-618, Nov. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951590

RESUMO

Abstract Aim Obesity during pregnancy is one of the most established risk factors for negative long-term programming. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation on the weight gain, visceral adipose tissue and cholesterolemia in neonatal rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to the mother's diet during pregnancy and lactation: Control group (CG, n = 12) were the offspring of rats fed a standard diet (4% lipid) and the Test group (TG, n = 12) were pups rats fed on a high fat diet (23% lipid). The weight of the animals was measured on alternate days until the 22nd day of life, when collected visceral adipose tissue and blood were collected for biochemical analysis. For statistical analysis the Student t test, Sidak´s teste and two way ANOVA was used, with p <0.05. Results the test group showed differences in weight gain, visceral adipose tissue and higher cholesterol. Conclusion a maternal exposure to a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation can promote changes in weight gain, hypercholesterolemia and an increase in adipose tissue in neonatal rats.


Resumo Objetivo A obesidade durante a gestação é um dos fatores de risco mais estabelecidos para uma programação negativa em longo prazo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos do consumo materno de uma dieta hiperlipídica durante a gestação e lactação no aumento do peso, do tecido adiposo visceral e colesterolemia em ratos neonatos. Métodos Ratos Wistar foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a dieta da mãe durante a gestação e lactação: grupo controle (GC, n=12) composto por filhotes de ratas alimentadas com uma dieta padrão (lipídios 4%) e o grupo teste (GT, n=12) composto de filhotes de ratas alimentadas com dieta hiperlipídica (lipídios 23%). O peso dos animais foi aferido em dias alternados até o 22° dia de vida, quando foi coletado sangue para análises bioquímicas. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se os seguintes testes: two way ANOVA, teste de Sidak e teste t de Student, com p< 0,05. Resultados O grupo teste mostrou diferença no ganho de peso, no tecido adiposo visceral e nos níveis de colesterol. Conclusão Uma exposição materna a uma dieta hiperlipídica durante a gestação e lactação pode promover maior ganho ponderal, hipercolesterolemia e um aumento do tecido adiposo em ratos neonatos.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipídeos/sangue , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Obesidade/patologia
13.
Braz J Biol ; 78(4): 615-618, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319751

RESUMO

AIM: Obesity during pregnancy is one of the most established risk factors for negative long-term programming. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation on the weight gain, visceral adipose tissue and cholesterolemia in neonatal rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to the mother's diet during pregnancy and lactation: Control group (CG, n = 12) were the offspring of rats fed a standard diet (4% lipid) and the Test group (TG, n = 12) were pups rats fed on a high fat diet (23% lipid). The weight of the animals was measured on alternate days until the 22nd day of life, when collected visceral adipose tissue and blood were collected for biochemical analysis. For statistical analysis the Student t test, Sidak´s teste and two way ANOVA was used, with p <0.05. RESULTS: the test group showed differences in weight gain, visceral adipose tissue and higher cholesterol. CONCLUSION: a maternal exposure to a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation can promote changes in weight gain, hypercholesterolemia and an increase in adipose tissue in neonatal rats.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Lactação/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/patologia , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 1004-1008, maio-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912035

RESUMO

A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar os níveis de colesterol, extrato etéreo, perfil de ácidos graxos e o índice aterogênico e trombogênico da gordura intramuscular de suínos machos imunocastrados em relação às fêmeas e aos machos castrados cirurgicamente. Utilizaram-se 45 animais, com peso inicial de 25,2±2,8kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos (machos castrados, machos e fêmeas imunocastrados) e três repetições de cinco animais cada. Os animais foram abatidos a 90,3±2,7kg. As amostras de Longissimus dorsi foram coletadas, liofilizadas e analisadas quanto ao perfil de ácidos gordos, colesterol e extrato etéreo. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05) para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas entre a gordura intramuscular de machos castrados cirurgicamente, machos imunocastrados e fêmeas. A imunocastração não alterou os níveis intramusculares de extrato etéreo, colesterol, composição de ácidos graxos ou o índice aterogênico e trombogênico do Longissimus dorsi.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Lipídeos/análise , Suínos/metabolismo , Orquiectomia/veterinária
15.
16.
J Anim Sci ; 94(10): 4307-4314, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898865

RESUMO

Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of monensin, virginiamycin, and flavomycin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation of zebu cattle fed a no-roughage finishing diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] based). In Exp. 1, 100 crossbred bulls (; 392 kg [SD 46.8] average initial BW) were blocked by initial BW in a 101-d feedlot trial. Five treatments were evaluated using 4 pens per treatment (5 bulls/pen): monensin at 30 mg/kg DM, virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM, monensin at 20 mg/kg DM plus virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM, flavomycin at 4.4 mg/kg DM, and monensin at 20 mg/kg DM plus flavomycin at 2.2 mg/kg DM. There were no differences in growth performance (final BW, ADG, DMI, and G:F; ≥ 0.527) and carcass characteristics (HCW, dressing percent, and 12th-rib fat; ≥ 0.235) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 7 ruminally fistulated steers were used in a 7 × 7 Latin square design to evaluate the 5 treatments of Exp. 1 and 2 additional treatments: monensin at 30 mg/kg DM plus virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM and monensin at 20 mg/kg DM plus flavomycin at 4.4 mg/kg DM. Experimental periods were 14 d in length (9 d of adaptation and 5 d of measurements). Apparent total tract DM, OM, CP, and NDF digestibilities were similar among treatments ( ≥ 0.224). There was no treatment effect ( ≥ 0.253) in rumen fermentation responses (ruminal pH, rumen ammonia nitrogen, VFA, and number of protozoa). In conclusion, no evidence of benefits to cattle fed a no-roughage WSC-based diet was found to support the use of monensin combined with virginiamycin or flavomycin in the doses tested herein.


Assuntos
Bambermicinas/farmacologia , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Monensin/farmacologia , Virginiamicina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/fisiologia , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Ionóforos de Próton/farmacologia , Rúmen/metabolismo
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 223: 159-64, 2016 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27198795

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with worldwide distribution that infects warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans. Toxoplasma is considered to be monospecific, but three classical clonal lineages (Types I-III) have been described, especially for isolates from North America and Europe. However, recently, several studies have shown that many isolates, particularly from South America, are different from the classic types and highly diverse, with the presence of specific clonal lineages and non-archetypal genotypes. In order to isolate and genotypically characterize T. gondii, 60 free-range naturally infected chickens (Gallus domesticus) from four municipalities on São Luis island, state of Maranhão, Brazil, were first serologically screened for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by means of the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT≥1:16). Heart and brain samples from seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice. The isolates obtained from bioassaying were genotyped by means of PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) using 11 markers and by microsatellites (MS) using 15 markers. The frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies in the chickens examined was 25.0% (15/60). Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained and named TgCkBrMA1 to 5. Four genotypes were described. One of them is reported for the first time. No classic clonal lineages of types I, II or III were found, but the Brazilian clonal lineage BrI was identified. MS analysis revealed five genotypes. The results corroborate studies already developed in other regions of Brazil, thus indicating that T. gondii has high genetic diversity in Brazil.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Genótipo , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
18.
Epidemiol Infect ; 143(4): 791-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25703400

RESUMO

We describe microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of a diphtheria outbreak that occurred in Maranhão, Brazil. The majority of the 27 confirmed cases occurred in partially (n = 16) or completely (n = 10) immunized children (n = 26). Clinical signs and characteristic symptoms of diphtheria such as cervical lymphadenopathy and pseudomembrane formation were absent in 48% and 7% of the cases, respectively. Complications such as paralysis of lower limbs were observed. Three cases resulted in death, two of them in completely immunized children. Microbiological analysis identified the isolates as Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar intermedius with a predominant PFGE type. Most of them were toxigenic and some showed a decrease in penicillin G susceptibility. In conclusion, diphtheria remains endemic in Brazil. Health professionals need to be aware of the possibility of atypical cases of C. diphtheriae infection, including pharyngitis without pseudomembrane formation.


Assuntos
Difteria/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/efeitos dos fármacos , Difteria/tratamento farmacológico , Difteria/microbiologia , Difteria/patologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(4): 4106-15, 2013 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24114206

RESUMO

There is a constant search for new cancer treatments that are less aggressive and economically affordable. In this context, natural products extracted from plants, fungi, and microorganisms are of great interest. Pestheic acid, or dihidromaldoxin, is a chlorinated diphenylic ether extracted from the phytopathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis guepinii (Amphisphaeriaceae). We assessed the cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic effects of pestheic acid in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100). A decrease in clonogenic survival was observed. Pestheic acid also induced significant increases in both micronucleus and nucleoplasmic bridge frequency. However, we did not observe changes in cell cycle kinetics or apoptosis induction. Reactive oxygen species induced by diphenylic ethers may explain the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of pestheic acid. The absence of repair checkpoints that we observed is probably due to the fact that the PG100 cell line lacks the TP53 gene, which is common in gastric cancers. Even though pestheic acid has had a clear cytotoxic effect, the minimal inhibitory concentration was high, which shows that pestheic acid is not an active anticancer compound under these conditions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/farmacologia , Éteres Fenílicos/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma , Adulto , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/química , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Neoplasias Gástricas
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