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1.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Failure of ductus arteriosus closure in preterm neonates results in a left-to-right shunt that leads to variable severities of hemodynamic and respiratory distress. When medical therapy fails, surgical ligation via left lateral thoracotomy remains an alternative approach and can be performed in the operating room or at the bedside with a low mortality rate. Opioid-based anesthesia is a frequent choice among anesthesiologists who manage patent ductus arteriosus cases based on the suppression of the stress response and maintenance of hemodynamic stability. This rationale suggests that regional anesthesia may also be an advantageous technique and may benefit earlier weaning from ventilation. Blocking afferent signals before incision may also modulate the long-term consequences of altered sensory perception and pain responses. CASE REPORT: We present two cases of general anesthesia combined with erector spinae plane block as part of multimodal anesthesia in premature twins undergoing patent ductus arteriosus closure. DISCUSSION: In these cases, the use of erector spinae plane block combined with general anesthesia was efficient to minimize the negative impact of surgery and allowed a reduction in the amount of intraoperative opioid use for patent ductus arteriosus closure.

2.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and/or inadequate access to care are barriers to the elimination of HCV. Reflex testing has proven to facilitate referral to care, treatment and viral elimination. In this study, a reflex testing program was implemented in Andalusia and its impact on access to care was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: an observational, retrospective and prospective study was performed across diagnostic laboratories responsible for HCV diagnosis in southern Spain. After surveying the barriers to performing reflex testing, the number of patients that were not referred for care in 2016 was retrospectively studied (pre-reflex cohort). Subsequently, several measures were proposed to overcome the identified barriers. Finally, reflex testing was implemented and its impact evaluated. RESULTS: the pre-reflex cohort included information from 1,053 patients. Slightly more than half of the patients (n = 580; 55%) visited a specialist for treatment evaluation during a median period of 71 days (interquartile range = 35-134) since the date of diagnosis. The post-reflex cohort (September 2017 to March 2018) included 623 patients. Only 17% (n = 106) of the patients had not been referred for care or evaluated for treatment in a median period of 52 days (interquartile range = 28-86). CONCLUSIONS: in 2016, nearly half of new HCV diagnoses in southern Spain were not referred for care. Barriers to the implementation of reflex testing were overcome in our study. Moreover, this strategy was effectively implemented in 2017. Reflex testing contributed to improving referral for care. This program will contribute to the micro-elimination of hepatitis C in Spain.

3.
Parasitol Res ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206884

RESUMO

Ceratomyxa mennani n. sp. is a new coelozoic Ceratomyxa species found in the gallbladder of Epinephelus marginatus from the Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia. Mature plasmodia were disporic, ovoid in shape measuring 9-12 µm in width and 11-14 µm in length. Mature myxospores were slightly crescent-shaped with almost straight posterior margin, measuring 5.8 ± 0.2 (5.4-6.1) µm in length and 12.7 ± 0.3 (11.9-13.0) µm in thickness. The two valves were unequal with rounded ends. Polar capsules were spherical, equal in size with 2.1 ± 0.2 (1.9-2.6) µm in diameter. The binucleated sporoplasm filled the entire cavity of the myxospore. Molecular analysis of SSU rDNA sequences indicated that C. mennani n. sp. was distinct from all other Ceratomyxa sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. mennani n. sp. clustered with Ceratomyxa species infecting Epinephelinae fishes. Seasonal prevalence of infection over one year was significantly higher in winter and the lowest in autumn. This is the third report of Ceratomyxa species infecting the gallbladder of Epinephelus marginatus from Tunisia and the first study to include molecular data.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143329

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide, being characterized by the deposition of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (enriched in the amyloid beta (Aß) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau), respectively) and memory loss. Aging, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and female sex (especially after menopause) are risk factors for AD, but their crosslinking mechanisms remain unclear. Most clinical trials targeting AD neuropathology failed and it remains incurable. However, evidence suggests that effective anti-T2D drugs, such as the GLP-1 mimetic and neuroprotector liraglutide, can be also efficient against AD. Thus, we aimed to study the benefits of a peripheral liraglutide treatment in AD female mice. We used blood and brain cortical lysates from 10-month-old 3xTg-AD female mice, treated for 28 days with liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg, once/day) to evaluate parameters affected in AD (e.g., Aß and p-tau, motor and cognitive function, glucose metabolism, inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress). Despite the limited signs of cognitive changes in mature female mice, liraglutide only reduced their cortical Aß1-42 levels. Liraglutide partially attenuated brain estradiol and GLP-1 and activated PKA levels, oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation in these AD female mice. Our results support the earlier use of liraglutide as a potential preventive/therapeutic agent against the accumulation of the first neuropathological features of AD in females.

5.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 133: 109978, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of otitis media on auditory evoked potentials in children with a history of otitis media in comparison to a control group. DESIGN: 90 children, with normal hearing and middle ear status at time of assessment, aged between 8 and 14 years (44 boys and 46 girls) were enrolled in this study. 50 children (28 boys and 22 girls) had a documented history of Otitis Media. The control group consisted of 40 children (17 boys and 23 girls) with no documented history of otitis media. All children completed the auditory evoked potentials tasks of Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and P300. RESULTS: Auditory Evoked Potentials results demonstrated significantly increased latencies and decreased amplitudes in the otitis media group. ABR showed significantly latency delay of waves III and V by 0.1 msec (p < 0.001) and reduced amplitude (0.06 µV, p = 0.002 and 0.05 µV, p = 0.008, respectively) in the otitis media group compared to control group. P300 also showed significant latency delays (13,41 ms, p = 0.008) in otitis media group. No significant difference was seen for amplitude between CG and otitis media group for P300. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the negative effects of otitis media on auditory evoked potentials in children with a history of middle ear disease as can be seen by changes on the ABR and P300 measures.

6.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110229, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148299

RESUMO

Technologies for water recycling within oil refineries have been gaining interest at an extensive rate due to the large volume of wastewater generated, high dependency of water and the progressive scarcity of this valuable resource. Phenols are part of a specific class of organic pollutants that have been contributing to a low-quality effluent in oil refineries due to their hazardous nature and strict environmental legislation associated. The reuse of stripped sour water within refineries is often blocked due to its rich phenolic content. This study evaluates the retention of phenols in refinery wastewater through reverse osmosis (RO) at its major source of emission, for water reclamation. The RO membrane selected exhibited rejections of up to 98% of phenols and 99% of both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Permeate quality remained intact despite flux decline caused by phenolic and hydrocarbon adsorption when the oil content, in the feed, reached 771 ppm. The effluent's low conductivity due to lack of salts led to minor osmotic pressure differences (less than 2.5 bar at a volume concentration factor of 3), therefore, showing appealing performances of reverse osmosis filtration. Characterization of all permeates obtained from cross-flow filtration experiments showed COD levels in line with water reuse quality standards for make-up water in cooling processes.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água , Filtração , Hidrocarbonetos , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Pressão Osmótica , Fenóis , Águas Residuárias
7.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110269, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148325

RESUMO

The process of expanding a network of conservation areas includes identifying valuable areas for conservation, devising policies and implementing conservation actions on the ground. While the first two components are often analyzed in conservation science, the literature seldom focuses on the implementation process, particularly, how the governance structure acts as driver of conservation outcomes. In this paper, we analyze the process of development of the conservation network in California between 1910 and 2010 to test whether governance structure explains the variation in the attribution of land for conservation over time. We find that governance structure does play an important role in the development of the conservation network over the century. We find evidence that polycentric and diverse governance structures result in better conservation outcomes (i.e. more area of land acquired for conservation). Arrangements that included multiple levels of agencies (e.g. Federal, State, and County) better predict the area of conservation land per decade. Location of conservation action per county had an effect on conservation outcomes over the last decades, and we also find a strong negative effect of per capita income in the implementation of conservation actions. These results suggest that it is possible to leverage governance structure to meet future conservation challenges through the maintenance of a diverse and polycentric governance structure.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , California
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112761, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171894

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Luehea divaricata, popularly known in Brazil as "açoita-cavalo", has been widely explored by different ethnic groups native to Brazil to treat different pathologic conditions, including inflammatory pain. However, no report could be found on the effect that extract of L. divaricata has on neuropathic pain. This is an important topic because convergent and divergent mechanisms underlie inflammatory vs. neuropathic pain indicate that there may not always be a clear mechanistic delineation between these two conditions. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to determine antioxidant activity and macronutrient composition of aqueous extract from leaves of L. divaricata, and the effect of oral administration on nociception in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve-induced neuropathic pain, one of the most commonly employed animal models of neuropathic pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by total phenolic content and DPPH, ABTS●+ and ORAC methods. Vitexin was determined by HPLC to show that the composition of the extract of the present study is similar to that used in previous studies with this genus. Total sugar and sucrose concentrations were assessed by the anthrone method, while glucose and triacilglycerides were determined using commercially available kits. Fructose concentration was calculated from values for total sugars, glucose and sucrose. Total protein was determined by Bradford assay. The effect on DNA strand breaking was investigated by inhibition of strand breaking of supercoiled DNA by hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive effects of aqueous extract (100, 300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, i.g.) were evaluated on a mechanical threshold for neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. We also compared the antinociceptive effect of the extract (500 mg/kg, i.g.) with that induced by gabapentin (50 mg/kg, i.g.), a first-line clinical treatment for neuropathic pain. The effect of co-administration of extract (500 mg/kg, i.g.) and low-dose gabapentin (30 mg/kg, i.g.) was also assessed. In addition, the effect of the extract on body weight, and blood and hepatic parameters were investigated to reveal possible side effects of treatment. RESULTS: The extract showed high content of total phenol; good reducing capacity for DPPH, ABTS●+ and ORAC assays; presence of vitexin; and a high capacity to inhibit strand breaking of supercoiled DNA. The predominant sugar was sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. Total protein was greater than triacylglycerides, with the latter being present in a trace amount in the extract. The extract increased the mechanical threshold, which was reduced by CCI. The antinociceptive effect was comparable to gabapentin and was also found after co-administration of extract and low-dose gabapentin. No significant change was found in body weight and blood and hepatic indicators after extract treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Aqueous extract from L. divaricata leaves was as effective as gabapentin at attenuating CCI-induced neuropathic pain, indicating for first time the therapeutic potential of this species for this type of pain.

9.
Dent J (Basel) ; 8(1)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143304

RESUMO

Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between cancer and nonsyndromic oral clefts in different populations. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of nonsyndromic oral clefts in families of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 50) and controls (n = 125). The parents of the patients answered a questionnaire with basic demographic information and family history of nonsyndromic oral clefts in first-degree relatives. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher's exact test. In the ALL group, 22 (44%) were male and 28 (56%) were female, and the average age was 13.2 ± 12.2 years. In the control group, 64 (51.2%) were male and 65 were female and the average age was 11.3 ± 10.3 years. Two out of 50 patients (4%) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had a positive history of nonsyndromic oral clefts, whereas there were no reported occurrences of nonsyndromic oral clefts in the control group (OR: 12.94, 95% CI: 0.61-274.6, p = 0.08). Despite the limited population, the frequency of nonsyndromic oral clefts was increased in the first-degree relatives of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Studies with larger samples and molecular analyses are needed to better understand the possible etiological relationship between cancer and nonsyndromic oral clefts.

10.
AIDS Rev ; : 1-11, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180590

RESUMO

The increase of CD8 + T lymphocytes in the perivascular spaces of patients with HIV encephalopathy has been reported in some studies. CD8 + T lymphocyte encephalitis was first described in 2013 and then a few other similar cases were published. We proposed to analyze the clinical, MR imaging, and histopathology findings of CD8 + T lymphocyte encephalitis. A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyzes protocol using the PubMed, Scopus, Lilacs, and IBECS databases up to February 3, 2018. Seven articles were included, two case series and five case reports. A total of 19 individuals were evaluated. MRI showed alterations in the white matter signal in all cases. Histopathology showed a predominance of CD8 + T lymphocytes. The findings described so far may resemble the inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome. New studies on the subject are needed in an attempt to characterize the differences between these two entities.

11.
Acta Trop ; 206: 105438, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165128

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Typical symptoms of primary Zika virus infection are not specific and share similarities with other arbovirus infections such as dengue fever and chikungunya. As acute infection can be asymptomatic in up to 73% of cases, infants with microcephaly represent a diagnostic challenge for pediatricians. We describe the frequency of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in Brazilian children born to asymptomatic pregnant mothers and its differential diagnosis. METHODS: This longitudinal, observational study was conducted on children with suspected CZS whose mothers did not report rash during pregnancy, referred to the reference hospital in a metropolitan area of ​ Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The diagnosis of suspected CZS was based on Brazilian Ministry of Health protocol. RESULTS: Forty-three (17%) of 246 referred children were born to mothers without rash history during pregnancy. Thirteen (30%) of 43 children met the Brazilian Ministry of Health criteria for CZS, all with microcephaly (two post-natal). The other children included 11 cases with post-natal microcephaly due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (6), non-progressive encephalopathy of unknown etiology (2), microcephaly under investigation (2) and congenital toxoplasmosis (1); 17 children were misdiagnosed with microcephaly and progressed with normal head circumference during the follow-up period; one child was included because of epidemiological link and one was loss to follow-up. All children who underwent laboratory investigation for ZIKV infection during neonatal period had negative RT-qPCR tests. CONCLUSION: We emphasize the increasing importance of CZS in differential diagnosis of microcephaly at birth or post-natal period. Detailed clinical investigation assisted by neuroimaging tests may clarify the diagnosis of CZS when laboratory tests are not available during the acute phase of the disease.

12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 234, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170528

RESUMO

Competitive sorption and desorption of Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+ onto riverbank and sediment samples of an area impacted by pyritic residue in a Southern Brazilian catchment were evaluated. Although these ions are considered poorly mobile, a new approach has been proposed to assess their behavior and associated risk. In this sense, factorial design and three-dimensional surface methodology are proposed to describe the competitive sorption behavior of the metal ion in the environmental matrix, as well as an innovative mobilization factor (MF) to describe the desorption rate from the integration of the normalized difference of sorption-desorption fluorescence peaks. Sorption was carried out with a central composite factorial design (23) to estimate simultaneous effects of independent variables. Three-dimensional surface analysis indicated increasing Cd2+ equilibrium concentration (Ceq) with Hg2+ and Pb2+ initial concentration (Ci), showing synergistic effect and low Cd2+ affinity to the solid phase. Statistical analysis presented [Formula: see text] as a significant variable for cadmium and lead dynamics, although [Formula: see text] was also significant for Hg2+ releasing to the liquid phase. After integrating the sorption and desorption fluorescence peaks, the MF for Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+ was around 0.2, 0.5, and 0.1 in riverbank sediment, and 0.3, 0.9, and 0.1 in sediment, respectively. Hence, consistent ion mobilization along the river was observed, with Pb2+ mobilizing 9 and 6 times more than Hg2+ and Cd2+, respectively. The transport of ions such as Pb2+ and Hg2+, usually considered immobile, has indeed occurred, causing contamination through the watershed and increasing environmental risk. Graphical Abstract A new approach to determine toxic metal mobilization factor in a river catchment.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Adsorção , Brasil , Cádmio/análise , Metais , Movimentos da Água
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(2)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047089

RESUMO

We present a case of a 68-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C infection, with no evidence of chronic liver disease during the first years of follow-up, diagnosed with a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with 40 mm (α-fetoprotein (AFP) 205 ng/mL). He underwent segmental liver resection and pathology analysis was consistent with HCC and cirrhosis in the adjacent liver. Four months after surgery, AFP raised up to 126 661 ng/mL and abdominal MRI revealed a multinodular HCC. Patient rejected treatment with sorafenib and started megestrol and an herbal medicine, soursop (Annona muricata). Six months later, AFP markedly decreased (28 ng/mL) and abdominal MRI showed decreasing size and number of lesions. At 5 years of follow-up, he has no evidence of HCC. Spontaneous regression of HCC is a rare condition and the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this case there is a temporal relation between the start of megestrol and Annona muricata and HCC regression.

14.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 213: 106279, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987329

RESUMO

Incubation gas atmosphere affects the development of in vitro produced embryos. In this study, there was examination of effects of two different oxygen (O2) tensions (5 % and 21 %) during in vitro maturation (M5 and M21) and/or fertilization (F5 and F21) on embryo production and quality in deer and sheep. There was assessment of the percentage of embryos with cell cleavage occurring, percentage that developed to the blastocyst stage, and analysis of the relative abundance of mRNA transcript for genes important for development to the blastocyst stage. The O2 tension treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) percentage cleavage or blastocyst development in either species. In sheep, there was a greater abundance of SHC1, GPX1, TP53, BAX and NRF1 mRNA transcript (P < 0.05) in M21 F5-derived embryos. In deer, there was a greater abundance of SOD2 mRNA transcript (P < 0.05) when oocytes had been matured under relatively lesser O2, regardless of the tension used during fertilization. There was a lesser abundance of SOX2 mRNA transcript (P < 0.05) in the M5F21 compared to the other three treatment groups. The AKR1B1 mRNA transcript was in greater abundance (P < 0.05) in M21 F21 as compared to M21 F5 and M5F21 group, and there was a greater abundance PLAC8 mRNA transcript (P < 0.05) in M21 F21, as compared to all other treatment groups. In conclusion, while O2 tension had no effect on developmental rates it did affect the relative abundance of mRNA transcript of multiple genes related to important cell functions during development.

15.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 24(1): 8-14, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Strenuous physical exercise may cause acute muscle soreness (AMS), which occurs directly after exercise, as well as delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which occurs about 24 h after exercise. Studies of acupuncture's effect on DOMS have had contradictory results, whereas its effect on AMS has not been extensively studied. The main goal of this study was to evaluate acupuncture's effects on AMS and DOMS and on the prevention of DOMS. METHOD: 45 volunteers were randomised into a verum acupuncture group, a sham acupuncture group and a control group. After exercise-induced muscle damage was elicited, muscle soreness and pressure pain threshold were assessed at different time points. The outcome assessments were performed before (T1) and 20 min after the first acupuncture treatment (T2); then, 24 h later, they were performed before (T3) and 20 min after the second acupuncture treatment (T4). In the verum and sham acupuncture groups, acupuncture was performed for 2 min, immediately after T1 and T3 assessments, whereas subjects in the control group simply rested for 2 min without treatment. Verum acupuncture was given at ST34, ST36 and LR3, whereas sham acupuncture was given at three nontraditional points. RESULTS: We found that verum acupuncture can reduce the occurrence of AMS by one-half and DOMS by one-third. We also found specific and nonspecific acupuncture effects in AMS and DOMS. CONCLUSION: The uneven induction of muscle damage identified by our study, as shown by heterogeneity in pressure pain threshold values, may have led to the contradictory results in published studies on DOMS.

16.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 318(4): C740-C750, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913703

RESUMO

Overstimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Alamandine is a peptide newly identified as a protective component of the RAS; however, the mechanisms involved in its beneficial effects remain elusive. By using a well-characterized rat model of hypertension, the TGR (mREN2)27, we show that mREN ventricular myocytes are prone to contractile enhancement mediated by short-term alamandine (100 nmol/L) stimulation of Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor member D (MrgD) receptors, while Sprague-Dawley control cells showed no effect. Additionally, alamandine prevents the Ca2+ dysregulation classically exhibited by freshly isolated mREN myocytes. Accordingly, alamandine treatment of mREN myocytes attenuated Ca2+ spark rate and enhanced Ca2+ reuptake to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Along with these findings, KN-93 fully inhibited the alamandine-induced increase in Ca2+ transient magnitude and phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation at Thr17, indicating CaMKII as a downstream effector of the MrgD signaling pathway. In mREN ventricular myocytes, alamandine treatment induced significant nitric oxide (NO) production. Importantly, NO synthase inhibition prevented the contractile actions of alamandine, including PLN-Thr17 phosphorylation at the CaMKII site, thereby indicating that NO acts upstream of CaMKII in the alamandine downstream signaling. Altogether, our results show that enhanced contractile responses mediated by alamandine in cardiomyocytes from hypertensive rats occur through a NO-dependent activation of CaMKII.

17.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 2, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies advocate the advantages of participatory research approaches for ethnoscience, few provide solid contributions from case studies that involve residents in all of the project phases. We present a case study of a participatory approach whose aim is to register ethnobotanical knowledge on the use of plants in two quilombola communities (maroon communities), an important biodiversity hotspot in the Atlantic Forest, Southeast Brazil. Our aim is to provide tools that will empower decision-making related to sustainable use and management among residents. METHODS: In phase I, the objectives and activities were defined in meetings with residents to carry out ethnobotanical surveys between two quilombola communities-the Quilombo da Fazenda (QF) and Quilombo do Cambury (QC). In phase II, we offered community partners training courses on how to collect plants and ethnobotanical data. In coordination with the university team and using ethnobotanical methods, community partners interviewed specialists on plants and their uses. In phase III, using the participatory mapping method, residents indicated plot locations and collected plants to calculate the Conservation Priority Index for native species recorded in phase II. RESULTS: In 178 days of fieldwork, two community partners from the QF and three from the QC selected 8 and 11 respondents who reported 175 and 195 plant species, respectively, corresponding to 9 ethnobotanical categories. Based on requests from the local community, booklets and videos with these data were collaboratively produced. A large percentage of species were found to be of great conservation priority-82.1% in the QC and 62.5% in the QF. Virola bicuhyba, Cedrela fissilis, Plinia edulis, and Tabebuia cassinoides are the species most at risk and will be the focus of phase IV, when a participatory management plan will be carried out. Additionally, we present both challenges and opportunities with the hope that others can learn from our successes and failures. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience shows that it is possible to train community members who wish to document their knowledge to support the process of ensuring that local knowledge is highly regarded, further ensuring its perpetuation. In this context, the project may be of great interest to development programs in promoting community-based management strategies for useful plants.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of 'patient's minus evaluator's global assessment of disease activity' (ΔPEG) at treatment initiation on retention and remission rates of TNF inhibitors (TNFi) in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients across Europe. METHODS: Real-life data from PsA and axSpA patients starting their first TNFi from 11 countries in the European Spondyloarthritis Research Collaboration Network were pooled. Retention rates were compared by Kaplan-Meier analyses with log-rank test and by Cox regression, and remission rates by χ2 test and by logistic regression across quartiles of baseline ΔPEG, separately in female and male PsA and axSpA patients. RESULTS: We included 14 868 spondyloarthritis (5855 PsA, 9013 axSpA) patients. Baseline ΔPEG was negatively associated with 6/12/24-months' TNFi retention rates in female and male PsA and axSpA patients (P <0.001), with 6/12/24-months' BASDAI < 2 (P ≤0.002) and ASDAS < 1.3 (P ≤0.005) in axSpA patients, and with DAS28CRP(4)<2.6 (P ≤0.04) and DAPSA28 ≤ 4 (P ≤0.01), but not DAS28CRP(3)<2.6 (P ≥0.13) in PsA patients, with few exceptions on remission rates. Retention and remission rates were overall lower in female than male patients. CONCLUSION: High baseline patient's compared with evaluator's global assessment was associated with lower 6/12/24-months' remission as well as retention rates of first TNFi in both PsA and axSpA patients. These results highlight the importance of discordance between patient's and evaluator's perspective on disease outcomes.

19.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(1): 58-64, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although performance of rapid immunochromatographic tests (RITs) for dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1, 2 and 3 is relatively settled, evidence on accuracy of RITs for DENV-4 are based on studies with small sample sizes and with discrepant results. OBJECTIVES: To assess accuracy and inter-observer agreement of RITs targeting dengue nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) antigen - Dengue NS1-Bioeasy™, Dengue NS1 Ag Strip-Bio-Rad™, IVB Dengue Ag NS1-Orangelife™ and Dengue NS1-K130-Bioclin™ in DENV-4 samples. METHODS: Study sample (n = 324) included adults presenting at an emergency unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with fever of ≤72 h and two or more dengue symptoms. A serum sample from each patient was tested by each RIT. A positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was considered as the reference standard for dengue diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters analyzed for each RIT were sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Each RIT was read by homogeneous (two junior nurses) or heterogeneous (one junior nurse and one senior biologist) pairs. Agreement was estimated by simple kappa with 95% confidence interval, positive (Ppos) and negative (Pneg) proportion concordance and prevalence and bias adjusted kappa, rated from poor (k < 0.0) to almost perfect (0.8 < k < 1.0), and perfect (k = 1). RESULTS: NS1 RITs for DENV-4 diagnosis showed high specificity (95.9%-99.4%), but low sensitivity (14.7%-45.4%). Bioeasy™ had the best performance, with a positive likelihood ratio of 26.0 (95% CI: 8.4;81.0). Inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for all evaluated RITs. Mismatches in confirmed dengue were more common for the Bioclin™ (Ppos 88.3-90.0 %) and Orangelife™ (Ppos 91.7-94.1 %) tests. CONCLUSIONS: For DENV-4, the tested RITs had high specificity, but lower sensitivity compared to published results for other serotypes. They should not be used for screening purposes. Different brands may have very different performances. This should be considered upon deciding of using RITs in DENV-4 outbreaks.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963392

RESUMO

The Warburg effect is an emerging hallmark of cancer, which has the tumor suppressor p53 as its major regulator. Herein, we unveiled that p53 activation by (S)-tryptophanol-derived oxazoloisoindolinone (SLMP53-1) mediated the reprograming of glucose metabolism in cancer cells and xenograft human tumor tissue, interfering with angiogenesis and migration. Particularly, we showed that SLMP53-1 regulated glycolysis by downregulating glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase-2 (HK2), and phosphofructokinase-2 isoform 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3) (key glycolytic enzymes), while upregulating the mitochondrial markers synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (COX4), and OXPHOS mitochondrial complexes. SLMP53-1 also downregulated the monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), causing the subsequent reduction of lactate export by cancer cells. Besides the acidification of the extracellular environment, SLMP53-1 further increased E-cadherin and reduced metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression levels in both cancer cells and xenograft human tumor tissue, which suggested the interference of SLMP53-1 in extracellular matrix remodeling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Consistently, SLMP53-1 depleted angiogenesis, decreasing endothelial cell tube formation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression levels. SLMP53-1 also exhibited synergistic growth inhibitory activity in combination with the metabolic modulator dichloroacetic acid. These data reinforce the promising application of the p53-activating agent SLMP53-1 in cancer therapy, by targeting p53-mediated pathways of growth and dissemination.

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