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1.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383823

RESUMO

Criollo horse breeding is an important economic activity in South America. Because of their athletic performance, these animals tend to show great incidence of musculoskeletal disorders, many of them diagnosed by means of perineural blocks. However, incorrect interpretation of these blocks may be due to anatomical differences in nerve distribution. The objective of this study was to describe the innervation of the digit region of thoracic limbs in Criollo horses, in order to improve the interpretation of tests for claudication diagnosis based on nerve block. Thirty thoracic limbs from Criollo horses were dissected. It could be observed that in 90% of the limbs, dorsal branches of the palmar nerve originated proximally to the proximal sesamoid bone. In 93% of the cases, the palmar digital nerve and the dorsal branches communicated; in 87% of the cases, communication between branches of the dorsal branch was observed; and in 27% (8/30) of the limbs, the palmar metacarpal nerve and the dorsal branch presented communications. None of the specimens showed complete symmetry in the distribution of nerves in contralateral limbs. The high frequency of communication between the nerves may be a particularity of the Criollo breed that may interfere with the interpretation of perineural blocks. Based on the anatomical position, it may be inferred that divergent results in Criollo horses may occur when abaxial sesamoid nerve block is used. Palmar digital nerve block may be less influenced by these variations, provided it is performed as distal as possible from the ungular cartilage.

2.
J Int Acad Periodontol ; 22(1): 21-28, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gingival phenotypes in 100 subjects (n = 100), with regard to maxillary central incisors and surrounding periodontium in an observational diagnostic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individuals were grouped based on: Probing depth (PD); keratinized mucosa (KM); Ratio Height/Width Crown (CH/CW), papilla area (PA), gingival thickness (GT) and Gingival Volume (GV). ANOVA and chi-square tests were performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: PD (p=0.860) and CH/CW (p=0.086) were not statistically significant. Cluster analysis identified three groups: Cluster I (n = 32) had the lowest values: KM (4.54mm), GT (0.83mm), PA (15.64mm²) and GV (3.80mm³); Cluster II (n = 43) presented KM (8.02mm); GT (1.40mm); GV (11.18mm³) and PA (14.10mm²); Cluster III (n = 19) exhibited an average KM of 5.57mm, GT (1.14mm), PA (20.08mm²) and GV (6.48mm³). RESULTS: Cluster I was characterized as a thin phenotype; cluster II as thick, and cluster III, as an intermediate. Significant associations were found when transparency on probing was compared among clusters (p less than 0.05) and gingival exposure when smiling (p less than 0.05). CONCLUSION: Thin phenotype was found in 34.04% of the sample (cluster I), thick phenotype in 45.75% (cluster II) and intermediate phenotype in 20.21% (Cluster III)..

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 208: 107856, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that aripiprazole, a partial dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, show significant efficacy in reducing alcohol use. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with aripiprazole blocked the reinstatement of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in a context-dependent manner, suggesting that the treatment environment may modulate the therapeutic effects of aripiprazole. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with aripiprazole on ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in female mice, and the role of the treatment environment in those effects. METHODS: Adult female mice were either sensitized with ethanol injections in the open-field apparatus, or conditioned with ethanol in the conditioned place preference (CPP) apparatus. Animals were then treated with vehicle or 0.1 mg/kg aripiprazole paired to the test environment (open-field or CPP apparatus) or not (home-cage treatments) for 4 alternate days, and the subsequent expression of behavioral sensitization or CPP to ethanol was evaluated during or following an ethanol re-exposure, respectively. RESULTS: Repeated treatment with aripiprazole attenuated the expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization regardless of the treatment environment. Treatment with aripiprazole was only effective at preventing the reinstatement of ethanol-induced CPP when paired with the ethanol-associated environment, but not when administered in the home-cage. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings corroborate previous studies suggesting the effectiveness of aripiprazole for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Our results also point to an important role of the treatment environment in the therapeutic effects of aripiprazole in rodent models of ethanol abuse.

4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108867, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672467

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) and Ethylmercury (EtHg) are toxic to the central nervous system. Human exposure to MeHg and EtHg results mainly from the consumption of contaminated fish and thimerosal-containing vaccines, respectively. The mechanisms underlying the toxicity of MeHg and EtHg are still elusive. Here, we compared the toxic effects of MeHg and EtHg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) emphasizing the involvement of oxidative stress and the identification of molecular targets from antioxidant pathways. Wild type and mutant strains with deleted genes for antioxidant defenses, namely: γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, mitochondrial peroxiredoxin, cytoplasmic thioredoxin, and redox transcription factor Yap1 were used to identify potential pathways and proteins from cell redox system targeted by MeHg and EtHg. MeHg and EtHg inhibited cell growth, decreased membrane integrity, and increased the granularity and production of reactive species (RS) in wild type yeast. The mutants were predominantly less tolerant of mercurial than wild type yeast. But, as the wild strain, mutants exhibited higher tolerance to MeHg than EtHg. Our results indicate the involvement of oxidative stress in the cytotoxicity of MeHg and EtHg and reinforce S. cerevisiae as a suitable model to explore the mechanisms of action of electrophilic toxicants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Etilmercúrio/farmacologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224973, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710649

RESUMO

Norms for visual stimuli are critical for designing reliable psychological and neuroscientific studies. However, such normative sets of stimuli are scarce for the Brazilian population. Here, we report norms for the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) for Brazilian college students. Sixty-five Brazilian university students rated the initial normative set of BOSS images for familiarity and visual complexity, and produced a name for each object. Data analysis focused on comparing the present norms to prior BOSS norms (English-Canadian, French-Canadian, and Thai) across four normative dimensions: familiarity, visual complexity, modal name agreement, and H value, and considered these dimensions according to whether items pertained to living or non-living domains. Correlation analyses revealed that the present norms show strong similarities to prior BOSS norms, although objects were scored as more familiar in the Brazilian relative to all prior norms, especially relative to the Thai norms. In addition, familiarity was greater for living than for non-living items in the English- and French-Canadian norms, but such difference was absent in the Brazilian and Thai norms, suggesting that familiarity is more strongly affected by culture than by semantic domain. In sum, even when cultural differences are considered, the current study reveals that the images of the BOSS data set are in general well known for Brazilians, demonstrating that they can be useful for psychological and neuroscientific research in Brazil.

6.
J Vasc Bras ; 18: e20190037, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645862

RESUMO

The Nutcracker Syndrome is manifest in the presence of a symptomatic entrapment of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. In a more ephemeral variation of this disorder, called the Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome, the renal vein is not compressed anterior to the aorta, but posteriorly, between the artery and the spine. Although there are multiple treatment options, current techniques aim to relieve the symptoms and reduce venous pressure on the left renal vein. This report describes a case of Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome in which the management approach chosen was open surgery, transposing the gonadal vein distally, to the inferior cava vein.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(38): 35068-35078, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469537

RESUMO

3D printing technologies have been considered an important technology due to the ease manufacturing of objects, freedom of design, waste minimization, and fast prototyping. In chemistry, this technology potentializes the fabrication of conductive electrodes in large scale for sensing applications. Herein, we reported the modification of a 3D printed graphene electrode with Prussian blue. The modified electrode (3DGrE/PB) was characterized by microscopy (SEM and AFM) and spectroscopic techniques, and its electrochemical properties were compared to the traditional electrodes: glassy carbon, gold, and platinum. The 3DGrE/PB was used in the sensing of hydrogen peroxide in real-world samples of milk and mouthwash, and the results obtained according to the technique of batch-injection analysis were satisfactory for the concentration range typically found in such samples. Thus, 3DGrE/PB can be used as a new platform for sensing of molecular targets.

8.
J Cent Nerv Syst Dis ; 11: 1179573519863826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384139

RESUMO

Aim: To assess a program combining virtual reality (VR) games and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and to compare it with the standalone techniques in stroke survivors. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 48 participants were recruited in the outpatient clinic of a University Hospital in Salvador, Brazil. They were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 16 each): PNF, VR, and PNF/VR. Participants attended twice-weekly 50-minute sessions over a 2-month period. The PNF/VR group performed both PNF and VR exercises employing Nintendo Wii electronic games. Motor performance was assessed before and immediately after the treatment using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale. Results: An improvement in the mean scores was observed after treatment independent of the allocation group with significant intragroup changes: 14.5, 10.5, and 10.4 for PNF, VR, and PNF/VR, respectively. Score changes were also observed in the analyses of specific sections as follows: (1) a significant improvement in the passive movement and pain score was observed in the PNF and PNF/VR groups; (2) the same was observed for the motor function of the upper limb in all groups, for the motor function of the lower limb in the VR group and for balance in the PNF and PNF/VR groups. Conclusions: The use of a program combining virtual rehabilitation and PNF presented results that were comparable with those obtained with the isolated techniques.

9.
Neurosci Lett ; 711: 134408, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374324

RESUMO

Heavy episodic drinking or binge drinking during adolescence may elicit serious neurotoxic consequences in cerebral areas (e.g., the prefrontal cortex, i.e., PFC) and the hippocampus, delay the maturation of the brain and increase the probability of drug abuse and dependence. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether URB597, an inhibitor of the metabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), altered the effects of acute and chronic alcohol administration beginning during rat adolescence on recognition memory, neuroinflammation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of URB597 (0.3 mg/Kg) or vehicle followed by the oral administration of ethanol (3 or 6 g/Kg) or distilled water for 3 consecutive days in one week (acute binging) or over 4 weeks (chronic binging). The groups were submitted to the novel object recognition task, and their PFCs and hippocampi were removed for analyses of the cytokine and BDNF levels. URB597 potentiated long-term memory after the 3 mg/Kg acute alcohol administration. The chronic binge alcohol administration increased the interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in the PFC and hippocampus and the interleukin (IL)-10 and BDNF levels in the PFC, and these effects were prevented by URB597. Our results indicate that the neuromodulation facilitated by AEA can reduce the neuroimmune response induced by the chronic administration of alcohol beginning in adolescence in rats.

10.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(5): 540-554, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366272

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune and progressive disease. Evidence indicates that inflammatory mediators may contribute to the genesis and/or evolution of this clinical condition. Thus, the objective was to evaluate and compare the plasma levels of Interleukin-17 (IL-17), Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) and Complement 3 (C3) in women with RA and healthy controls (HC), as well as to evaluate the association them with the disease activity. 25 women with RA and 15 HC were recruited. Plasma levels of biomarkers were measured by ELISA. All statistical analyzes were performed with a significance level set at α = 0.05. In the women with RA, the median age was 55 and, in the HC, was 50 years. The median value of DAS-28 was 3.79. The plasma levels of IL-17 (p = .03), TNF-α (p ≤ 0.01) and C3 (p ≤ 0.01) were higher in women with RA. The ROC curve showed that TNF- α has a higher discriminating ability than IL-17 and C3. DAS-28 score correlated significantly with C3 levels in women with RA (r = 0.91; p < .01). These findings reaffirm the participation of the immune system in pathophysiology of RA, suggest that TNF-α levels may be a good biomarker and that elevated C3 levels contribute to the worsening of the disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Complemento C3/análise , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Anal Chem ; 91(16): 10386-10389, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313576

RESUMO

Raman spectroelectrochemistry is a powerful technique for characterizing structural changes of materials during electrochemical reactions and investigating the mechanism of film deposition and adsorption processes on the surfaces of electrodes. Moreover, in situ measurements enable identification of catalytic sites and reaction intermediates, which facilitates the comprehension of reaction mechanisms. The limitations of this technique include the high-cost and the complexity of the experimental arrangement required by commercial spectroelectrochemical cells (SEC). Thus, 3D-printing technology emerges as an excellent alternative for the production of SEC, with desirable shape, low-cost, and robustness in a short period of time. In this work, an SEC and a 3D-printed working electrode were fabricated from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and conductive graphene polylactic acid (PLA) filaments, respectively. The proposed SEC and the 3D-printed electrode were printed within 3.5 h with an estimated cost of materials of less than US $2. Then, the 3D-printed SEC and the electrode were used in a study of structural changes of Prussian blue according to different voltage bias.

12.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124333, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319303

RESUMO

The use of herbicides in Brazil has been carried out based on the manufacturer's recommendation, often disregarding the high variability of soil attributes. The use of statistical methods to predict the herbicide retention processes in the soil can contribute to the improvement of weed control efficiency associated with the lower risk of environmental contamination. This research evaluated the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict soil sorption and desorption, as well as the environmental contamination potential of diuron, hexazinone and sulfometuron-methyl herbicides in Brazilian soils. The sorption and desorption coefficients of the three herbicides were determined in laboratory tests for 15 soils from different Brazilian states. To predict the sorption and desorption of diuron, hexazinone and sulfometuron-methyl were used a multilayer perceptron ANNs (MLP). The inputs were the characteristics of the herbicides and the physical and chemical attributes of the soils, and the outputs of were the sorption and desorption coefficients (Kfs and Kfd). The risk of leaching of diuron, hexazinone, and sulfometuron-methyl herbicides were evaluated considering the sorption values observed and those estimated by the models. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were efficient for the prediction of sorption and desorption of diuron, hexazinone, and sulfometuron-methyl herbicides. The physicochemical properties of the herbicides were more important for the modeling of multilayer perceptron ANNs than the soil attributes. The herbicides diuron, hexazinone, and sulfometuron-methyl have a high potential risk for contamination of groundwater in different Brazilian states.


Assuntos
Diurona/química , Herbicidas/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Triazinas/química , Brasil
13.
J Vasc Bras ; 18: e20180130, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360155

RESUMO

In a type 1A endoleak, the endograft is unable to fully seal the proximal aneurysm neck and blood flow leaks between the wall of the aortic neck and the graft material. This article reports a case in which coil embolization was used and presents a literature review (PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO). Searches were run for articles published in the past 5 years using the descriptors "endoleak 1A", "coil embolization," and "treatment". Type 1A endoleak occurs in 1.1% of patients within 30 days of graft placement. Treatment of an endoleak is obligatory and usually consists of sealing the proximal graft neck using stents and balloons to expand the landing zone or to increase the radial force of the graft. Some studies have suggested using embolization techniques with cyanoacrylate, fibrin glue, and Onyx, demonstrating success rates that exceed 97%. However, correction of type 1A endoleak using coil embolization has seldom been described.

14.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; 26(7): 548-553, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264520

RESUMO

Background. Motor imagery (MI) consists of the mental simulation of repetitive movements with the intention of promoting the learning of a motor skill. It seems to be an additional useful tool for motor-based therapy to potentiate the rehabilitation of the upper limb function of post-stroke individuals. Objective. To investigate whether MI combined with motor-based therapy is effective in recovering motor deficits of upper limbs from post-stroke individuals. Method. A systematic review of the literature was performed in the PEDro, LILACS, Cochrane, SCOPUS, Medline/PubMed and SciELO databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of MI associated with motor-based therapy compared with isolated motor-based therapy were included. The included outcomes were gross motor function and functional activities of the upper limb of post-stroke individuals. The physiotherapy evidence database scale was applied for evaluation of methodological quality. Results. Four RCTs were included, with a total of 104 participants, with methodological quality varying from moderate to high. There was a statistically significant improvement in upper limb motor function in all studies. Gross motor function was higher in MI associated with motor-based therapy compared to controls, but only in one study there was superiority in the results of functional activities of the upper limb. Conclusion. There is evidence showing that MI associated with motor-based therapy is an effective tool in improving the motor function of upper limbs of post-stroke individuals. However, more studies are needed to establish criteria for frequency and duration of intervention, and what better type of MI should be used.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 877-886, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152840

RESUMO

The process employed for the pulping and bleaching of sorghum straw was optimized prior to the synthesis of cellulose acetate. A 22 factorial central composite design was carried out. The variables considered were cooking time (1.5 to 2.5 h) and dilute alkali concentration (0.75 to 1.25%) for the pulping and bleaching time (30 to 35 min) and bleach volume (20 to 25 mL) for the bleaching. The sorghum straw was comprised of 49.43% α-cellulose, 19.18% hemicellulose and 30.42% lignin. The optimum conditions that maximize these processes were 2.5 h and 1.25% (dilute alkali concentration) at 90 °C, and 35 min and 25 mL (bleach volume) at 80 °C, respectively, providing pulps with a low Kappa number (<3) and lignin content, and cellulose with a high degree of crystallinity. The 1H NMR, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and thermal analysis demonstrated that it is possible to synthetize cellulose acetate (with 2.62 degrees of substitution) by acetylating bleached pulp for 16 h at 25 °C.


Assuntos
Celulose/análogos & derivados , Sorghum/química , Celulose/síntese química , Celulose/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Peso Molecular , Resíduos
16.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(3): 369-377, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177237

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although the role of trunk exercises in the chronic phase of stroke is acknowledged, the addition of specific inpatient training in the subacute stage is a matter of debate and varies among centers. Recent new evidence suggests the question should be revisited. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the addition of specific trunk training to inpatient rehabilitation protocols after a recent stroke. METHODS: A systematic review was performed assessing the impact of inpatient trunk training. The search was performed in LILACS, SciELO, PEDro, Cochrane, and NCBI PubMed databases for clinical trials published up to December 31st, 2017. The initial bibliographic research identified 3202 articles. After analyzing the titles, 19 abstracts were selected for detailed analysis. After application of the eligibility criteria, the final selection included nine studies. Outcome measurements from the same evaluation instruments were submitted to a meta-analysis to improve homogeneity (7 studies). RESULTS: All patients in the included studies were recruited less than three months after a stroke. Seven studies assessed trunk control using the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS). There was a significant improvement in trunk control with a pooled increase in TIS score of 3.3 points from the baseline (CI95:2.54-4.06, p < 0.0001). Three studies assessed balance using the Brunel Balance Assessment (BBA) scale. There was also a significant improvement in balance with a pooled increase in BBA score of 2.7 points (CI95:1.5-4.03, p < 0.0001). The Berg Balance Scale was used for balance assessment in three studies. The meta-analysis of their results showed a pooled increase of 13.2 points (CI95:9.49-16.84, p < 0.0001). Weight transfer was evaluated in four studies using different methods. The addition of inpatient trunk exercises was associated with an improvement in the ability to transfer the trunk laterally in three studies. CONCLUSION: The introduction of trunk-based inpatient training protocols brings short-term benefits in trunk performance and balance in stroke patients.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Hospitalização/tendências , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Tronco/fisiologia
17.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103605, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228542

RESUMO

Biofilm-related infections represent an enormous clinical challenge nowadays. In this context, diverse studies are underway to develop effective antimicrobial agents targeting bacterial biofilms. Here, we describe the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of a short, cationic peptide named R5F5, obtained from sliding-window analysis based on a peptide (PcDBS1R5) derived from Plasmodium chabaudi. Ten fragments were generated (R5F1 to F10) and submitted to initial antibacterial assays against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As a result, R5F5 showed the highest antimicrobial activity. We therefore carried out further antibacterial and anti-biofilm assays against P. aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing bacterial strains. R5F5 revealed selective anti-biofilm activity, as the peptide inhibited >60% biofilm formation in all cases from 8 to 64 µg·mL-1. Moreover, R5F5 was not hemolytic against mice erythrocytes at 640 µg mL-1. Cytotoxic effects on human lung fibroblast cells were not detected at 160 µg·mL-1. Structural studies revealed that R5F5 presents random coil conformations in water and 50% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)/water (v/v), whereas amphipathic, extended conformations were observed in contact with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. Thus, here we report a novel peptide with selective anti-biofilm activity against susceptible and resistant bacterial strains, with no toxicity toward mammalian cells and that adopts a stable structure in anionic environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Plasmodium chabaudi/química , beta-Lactamases
18.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(6): 533-542, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest an association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thus, we evaluated the clinical associated features of ADHD in a large sample of adult OCD patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 955 adult patients with OCD from the Brazilian Research Consortium of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (C-TOC). Clinical characteristics in adult OCD patients with and without comorbid ADHD were compared using Fisher's exact test, t-tests or Mann-Whitney tests. Bivariate analyses were followed by logistic regression analysis to identify clinical characteristics independently associated with ADHD comorbidity. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of ADHD in adult OCD patients was 13.7%. The current results indicate that OCD + ADHD patients were more severe, had an earlier onset of the obsessive-compulsive symptoms, a higher history of rheumatic fever, with higher frequencies of sensory phenomena and comorbidity with Tourette syndrome. They also had an increased risk for academic impairment and suicide attempts. CONCLUSION: Adult OCD patients with ADHD present some specific clinical features and may represent a special subgroup of adult OCD. Future studies should focus on the development of interventions more tailored to the phenotype of this subgroup of patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Tourette/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 55: 33-42, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447388

RESUMO

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a α-dycarbonyl compound derived mainly from glycolysis, whose accumulation is harmful for cells and tissues. Here, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects induced by MG in leukocytes after an acute exposure, measuring as endpoints of toxicity some markers of oxidative stress and programmed cell death. Human leukocytes were isolated and incubated with MG at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mM for 2.5 h, and subsequently prepared for assays based in flow cytometry, gene expression and immunoreactivity profile. The cells exposed to higher concentrations of MG had significant loss of viability, increased reactive species (RS) production and apoptosis/necrosis rate. These phenomena were accompanied by morphological changes (increased size and granularity) and disruption in mRNA expression of antioxidant, apoptotic and glycation-responsive genes, particularly: Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2), SOD1 (CuZn-superoxide dismutase), SOD2 (Mn-superoxide dismutase), GSR (glutathione-S-reductase), BAX (BAX-associated X protein), BCL-2 (BCL-2-associated X protein), AIF (apoptosis inducing factor), GLO-1 (glyoxalase-1) and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products). The mRNA expression of CASP 9 and CASP 3 (caspase-9 and 3) as well as the immunoreactivity of proteins were not changed by MG. Collectively, our data provide evidence that MG activates programmed cell death pathways in leukocytes and that this effect seems to be associated with disturbances in cell redox signaling.


Assuntos
Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeído Pirúvico/toxicidade , Adulto , Apoptose/fisiologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mol Neurobiol ; 56(1): 583-594, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748917

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures, which culminate in various neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes. Taurine (TAU) is an amino sulfonic acid which acts an endogenous inhibitory neuromodulator. Moreover, TAU displays intrinsic antioxidant activity, contributing to its beneficial actions in the CNS. Here, we evaluated whether TAU pretreatment protects from pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress-related parameters in zebrafish brain tissue. Fish were pretreated with 42, 150, and 400 mg/L TAU (40 min) and further exposed to 10 mM PTZ (20 min) to analyze the seizure-like behaviors. As a positive control, another group was previously treated with 75 µM diazepam (DZP). Afterwards, biochemical experiments were performed. All TAU concentrations tested decreased seizure intensity in the first 150 s. Importantly, 150 mg/L TAU attenuated seizure-like behavioral scores, decreased seizure intensity, reduced the frequency of clonic-like seizures (score 4), and increased the latency to score 4. TAU (150 mg/L) also prevented oxidative stress in PTZ-challenged fish by decreasing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and preventing changes on nonprotein thiol levels. No significant changes were observed in MTT assay and LDH activity. Differently than observed in DZP group, TAU did not affect the overall swimming activity of fish, suggesting different mechanisms of action. Collectively, we show that TAU attenuates PTZ-induced seizure-like behaviors and brain oxidative stress in zebrafish, suggesting the involvement of antioxidant mechanisms in neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diazepam/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Neuroquímica , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentilenotetrazol , Fenótipo , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Convulsões/patologia , Natação , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
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