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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124670, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505441

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to determine the viability of removing Orange II (OII) dye by simulated solar photoelectro-Fenton (SSPEF) and to evaluate the stability of a WO2.72/Vulcan XC72 gas diffusion electrode (GDE) and thus determine its best operating parameters. The GDE cathode was combined with a BDD anode for decolorization and mineralization of 350 mL of 0.26 mM OII by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) at 100, 150 and 200 mA cm-2 and SSPEF at 150 mA cm-2. The GDE showed successful operation for electrogeneration, good reproducibility and low leaching of W. Decolorization and OII decay were directly proportional to the current density (j). AO-H2O2 had a reduced performance that was only half of the SSPEF, PEF and EF treatments. The mineralization efficiency was in the following order: AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≈ SSPEF. This showed that the GDE, BDD anode and light radiation combination was advantageous and indicated that the SSPEF process is promising with both a lower cost than using UV lamps and simulating solar photoelectro-Fenton process. The PEF process with the lowest j (100 mA cm-2) showed the best performance-mineralization current efficiency.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/análise , Benzenossulfonatos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ferro/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Luz Solar
2.
Water Res ; 83: 31-41, 2015 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26117371

RESUMO

The degradation of 100 mL of 0.245 mM of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in 0.05 M Na2SO4 at pH 3.0 has been studied by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF). Electrolyses were performed with a stirred tank reactor using either a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode. In EF, PEF and SPEF, ciprofloxacin was rapidly removed due to its oxidation with (•)OH formed from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and H2O2 generated at the cathode. The larger electrochemical incineration of the antibiotic was achieved by SPEF with BDD with 95% mineralization thanks to the additional attack by hydroxyl radicals formed from water oxidation at the BDD anode surface and the photolysis of final Fe(III)-oxalate and Fe(III)-oxamate species from sunlight. Up to 10 primary intermediates and 11 hydroxylated derivatives were identified by LC-MS, allowing the proposal of a reaction sequence for ciprofloxacin mineralization. A different behavior was found when the same antibiotic concentration was oxidized in a synthetic urine matrix with high urea content and a mixture of PO4(3-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-) ions. Since Fenton's reaction was inhibited in this medium, only EO and EO-H2O2 processes were useful for mineralization, being the organics mainly degraded by HClO formed from Cl(-) oxidation. The EO process with a BDD/stainless steel cell was found to be the most powerful treatment for the urine solution, yielding 96% ciprofloxacin removal and 98% mineralization after 360 min of electrolysis at optimum values of pH 3.0 and current density of 66.6 mA cm(-2). The evolution of released inorganic ions was followed by ion chromatography.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacino/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Sulfatos/química , Urina/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Antibacterianos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Cromatografia Líquida , Incineração , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução , Fotólise
3.
J Mol Model ; 15(8): 945-52, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19172315

RESUMO

A study on the possible sites of oxidation and epoxidation of nortriptyline was performed using electrochemical and quantum chemical methods; these sites are involved in the biological responses (for example, hepatotoxicity) of nortriptyline and other similar antidepressants. Quantum chemical studies and electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the oxidation and epoxidation sites are located on the apolar region of nortriptyline, which will useful for understanding the molecule's activity. Also, for the determination of the compound in biological fluids or in pharmaceutical formulations, we propose a useful analytical methodology using a graphite-polyurethane composite electrode, which exhibited the best performance when compared with boron-doped diamond or glassy carbon surfaces.


Assuntos
Eletroquímica/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Nortriptilina/química , Algoritmos , Domínio Catalítico , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Teoria Quântica
4.
Chemosphere ; 66(11): 2152-8, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17126378

RESUMO

This work presents an electrochemical investigation of the benzene oxidation process in aqueous solution on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Additionally, in order to determine the main products generated during the oxidation process, electrolysis and high performance liquid chromatography experiments were carried out. The complete degradation of this compound was performed aiming to a further application in waste water treatment. The cyclic voltammetry studies indicate that benzene is irreversibly oxidized in acid medium (H2SO4 0.5 M) on the BDD electrode surface at 2.0 V versus Ag/AgCl in a diffusion controlled process. During the cycling, other products are generated, and a pair of peaks was observed that can be associated with the oxi-reduction of anyone of the following species: hydroquinone, benzoquinone, resorcinol or catechol. The electrolysis experiments were carried out at 2.4 and 2.5 V on the BDD electrode surface in a solution containing 1x10(-2) M of benzene (below the saturation concentration in aqueous solution), for 3 and 5 h, respectively. The main products measured were: hydroquinone, resorcinol, p-benzoquinone, catechol and phenol. The complete electrochemical benzene degradation was performed in the electrolysis experiments using a rotating BDD disc electrode (2.5 V for 5 h) and the main products detected were all measured at concentrations lower than 10(-5) M in this condition. The boron-doped diamond electrode had proved to be a valuable tool for the electrochemical degradation of the benzene, a very stable chemical compound.


Assuntos
Benzeno/química , Boro/química , Diamante/química , Eletrólise/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eletrodos , Oxirredução
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