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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

RESUMO

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244732, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161460

RESUMO

Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Assuntos
Formigas , Turnera , Animais , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta , Plantas , Solo , Simbiose
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e60, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629938

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyse the dynamics of spatial dispersion of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil by correlating them to socioeconomic indicators. This is an ecological study of COVID-19 cases and deaths between 26 February and 31 July 2020. All Brazilian counties were used as units of analysis. The incidence, mortality, Bayesian incidence and mortality rates, global and local Moran indices were calculated. A geographic weighted regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 and socioeconomic indicators (independent variables). There were confirmed 2 662 485 cases of COVID-19 reported in Brazil from February to July 2020 with higher rates of incidence in the north and northeast. The Moran global index of incidence rate (0.50, P = 0.01) and mortality (0.45 with P = 0.01) indicate a positive spatial autocorrelation with high standards in the north, northeast and in the largest urban centres between cities in the southeast region. In the same period, there were 92 475 deaths from COVID-19, with higher mortality rates in the northern states of Brazil, mainly Amazonas, Pará and Amapá. The results show that there is a geospatial correlation of COVID-19 in large urban centres and regions with the lowest human development index in the country. In the geographic weighted regression, it was possible to identify that the percentage of people living in residences with density higher than 2 per dormitory, the municipality human development index (MHDI) and the social vulnerability index were the indicators that most contributed to explaining incidence, social development index and the municipality human development index contributed the most to the mortality model. We hope that the findings will contribute to reorienting public health responses to combat COVID-19 in Brazil, the new epicentre of the disease in South America, as well as in other countries that have similar epidemiological and health characteristics to those in Brazil.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1224, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441660

RESUMO

After nearly a century of vaccination and six decades of drug therapy, tuberculosis (TB) kills more people annually than any other infectious disease. Substantial challenges to disease eradication remain among vulnerable and underserved populations. The Guarani-Kaiowá people are an indigenous population in Paraguay and the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. This community, marginalized in Brazilian society, experiences severe poverty. Like other South American indigenous populations, their TB prevalence is high, but the disease has remained largely unstudied in their communities. Herein, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from local clinics were whole genome sequenced, and a population genetic framework was generated. Phylogenetics show M. tuberculosis isolates in the Guarani-Kaiowá people cluster away from selected reference strains, suggesting divergence. Most cluster in a single group, further characterized as M. tuberculosis sublineage 4.3.3. Closer analysis of SNPs showed numerous variants across the genome, including in drug resistance-associated genes, and with many unique changes fixed in each group. We report that local M. tuberculosis strains have acquired unique polymorphisms in the Guarani-Kaiowá people, and drug resistance characterization is urgently needed to inform public health to ensure proper care and avoid further evolution and spread of drug-resistant TB.

5.
Lupus ; 27(13): 2166-2169, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231802

RESUMO

We report an original case of a 27-year-old transgender woman who developed lupus nephritis after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. The patient had been taking hormones to induce feminization since the age of 18. She was admitted with malar "butterfly" rash, anasarca and hypertension, associated with an increase in serum creatinine (1.7 mg/dl). Renal involvement was characterized by nephritic and nephrotic syndrome. Autoantibody tests were positive for antinuclear antibodies and anti-double-stranded DNA, and complement levels were markedly reduced. Renal biopsy demonstrated diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis and granular immune complexes deposits with a "full-house" pattern at the immunofluorescence level. The induction treatment was realized with corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide and maintenance immunosuppression phase with mycophenolate, obtaining complete remission. We speculated that lupus nephritis was induced by estrogens and antiandrogen therapy and gonadectomy. In the present case, we discuss the role of sex hormones in systemic lupus erythematosus onset and review the cases linked to transgender patients.


Assuntos
Rim/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/induzido quimicamente , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/análise , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Indução de Remissão
6.
Protoplasma ; 255(1): 285-295, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28871411

RESUMO

Large-scale propagation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) is difficult due to its single apical meristem. Thus, obtaining plants is mainly through seed germination, and a long growing period is required before oil production is possible. An alternative to large-scale seedling production is indirect somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the somatic embryogenesis process in oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq.) with amino acids and low concentrations of auxins. The Tenera hybrid was analyzed by cytochemical and ultrastructural methods and was used to regenerate oil palm plants. First, calli were induced in MS culture media supplemented with 2,4-D and picloram. Two types of calli were obtained, characterized by beige or translucent color. Beige calli had embryogenic characteristics, such as large nuclei with prominent nucleoli, and they were multiplied for 8 months in MM culture (half strength MS, 1 mg L-1 2,4-D, 2 mg L-1 2iP, 1 mg L-1 IBA, 250 mg L-1 citric acid, 10 mg L-1 cysteine, 100 mg L-1 inositol, 1 mg L-1 thiamine, 1 mg L-1 pyridoxine, 1 mg L-1 nicotinic acid, 1 mg L-1 glycine, 200 mg L-1 malt extract, and 100 mg L-1 casein hydrolysate). After multiplication, the MCB culture medium (half strength MS, supplemented with 0.25 mg L-1 NAA, 2 mg L-1 BAP, MM vitamins and 200 mg L-1 malt extract, and 100 mg L-1 casein hydrolysate) was the most efficient for embryo formation, showing meristematic centers with totipotent cells in histochemical analyses. The somatic embryos were developed and germinated in MG medium (half strength MS, 0.45 mg L-1 IAA, 0.25 mg L-1 BAP, and MM vitamins), transplanted into polyethylene tubes containing pine bark substrates, and acclimatized in a greenhouse, achieving a 97% survival rate. The use of picloram for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis is advantageous and multiplication in MM medium is an important step for increasing cell mass. The calli with light beige color and nodular structures have meristematic cells with dense cytoplasm and totipotential features that later give rise to protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem during the globular, cordiform, and torpedo embryogenesis phases. In MCB medium, the concentration of vitamins and amino acids are crucial for somatic embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Óleo de Palmeira/metabolismo , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Diferenciação Celular
7.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(3)2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973723

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) is an essential microelement for all living organisms playing important roles in several metabolic reactions. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is commonly cultivated in paddy fields, where Fe goes through a reduction reaction from Fe3+ to Fe2+. Since Fe2+ is more soluble, it can reach toxic levels inside plant cells, constituting an important target for studies. Here we aimed to verify morphological changes of different rice genotypes focusing on deciphering the underlying molecular network induced upon Fe excess treatments with special emphasis on the role of four WRKY transcription factors. The transcriptional response peak of these WRKY transcription factors in rice seedlings occurs at 4 days of exposition to iron excess. OsWRKY55-like, OsWRKY46, OsWRKY64, and OsWRKY113 are up-regulated in BR IRGA 409, an iron-sensitive genotype, while in cultivars Nipponbare (moderately resistant) and EPAGRI 108 (resistant) the expression profiles of these transcription factors show similar behaviors. Here is also shown that some cis-regulatory elements known to be involved in other different stress responses can be linked to conditions of iron excess. Overall, here we support the role of WRKY transcription factors in iron stress tolerance with other important steps toward finding why some rice genotypes are more tolerant than others.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Genoma de Planta , Ferro/toxicidade , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1225-1230, set.-out. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-878731

RESUMO

Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho relatar um caso de mieloma múltiplo (MM) em uma cadela com apresentação clínica atípica de rigidez da musculatura facial. Foram realizados hemogramas seriados, exames bioquímicos, sumário de urina, sorologia para leishmaniose, radiografias de crânio, citologia de medula óssea e eletroforese de proteínas séricas. O infiltrado plasmocitário em medula óssea >20%, a gamopatia monoclonal e as lesões compatíveis com lise óssea, observados no mielograma, eletroforese de proteínas e exame radiográfico, respectivamente, foram determinantes para conclusão diagnóstica de MM. A doença pode ter uma apresentação clínica variável em cães e representar um desafio ao diagnóstico na clínica de animais de companhia, principalmente em áreas endêmicas de doenças infecciosas que se manifestam com apresentações clínicas e laboratoriais semelhantes.(AU)


This paper reports a case of multiple myeloma (MM) in a bitch with atypical clinical presentation of rigidity of the facial muscles. Hemogram, biochemical tests, urinalysis, serology for leishmaniasis, skull radiography, bone marrow cytology and serum protein electrophoresis were performed. The plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow was >20 %, the monoclonal gammopathy and lesions compatible with bone lysis observed in the myelogram, protein electrophoresis and radiographic examination respectively, were decisive for diagnostic conclusion of MM. The disease may have a variable clinical presentation in dogs and pose a challenge for diagnosis in the pet clinic, especially in endemic areas of infectious diseases that present with similar clinical and laboratory presentations.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cães , Paralisia Facial/veterinária , Mieloma Múltiplo/complicações , Mieloma Múltiplo/veterinária , Neoplasias/veterinária
9.
Neotrop Entomol ; 46(6): 591-605, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852987

RESUMO

Non-native insect pests are often responsible for important damage to native and agricultural plant hosts. Since Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has become an important pest in North America and Europe (i.e., in 2008), the global production of soft thin-skinned fruits has faced severe production losses. In the southern Neotropical region, however, the first record of D. suzukii occurred in 2013 in the south of Brazil. It has also been recorded in Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. Despite its recent occurrence in the southern Neotropical region, the fast dispersion of D. suzukii has inspired local research efforts in an attempt to mitigate the consequences of this insect pest invasion. In this forum, we explore the current status of D. suzukii in southern Neotropical regions, discussing its future perspectives. Additionally, we attempt to draft activities and a research agenda that may help to mitigate the losses caused by D. suzukii in native and commercial soft-skinned fruits produced in this region. Currently, D. suzukii appears to be well established in the south of Brazil, but considering the entire southern Neotropical region, the invasion panorama is still underinvestigated. The lack of studies and regulatory actions against D. suzukii has contributed to the invasion success of this species in this region. Considering several peculiarities of both the pest biology and the environmental of this region, the authors advocate for the need of intensive and integrative studies toward the development and implementation of area-wide integrated pest management programs against D. suzukii in the southern Neotropical region.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Drosophila/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Drosophila/classificação , Dinâmica Populacional
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(1): 48-56, jan.-fev. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-834087

RESUMO

A placentite é a principal causa de partos prematuros, aborto e nascimento de potros comprometidos, podendo causar hipóxia e septicemia. A hematologia e a gasometria venosa fornecem informações importantes para o monitoramento da saúde de potros nascidos de éguas com placentite. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os valores hematológicos e hemogasométricos durante as primeiras 24h de vida em potros nascidos de éguas mestiças Crioulas submetidas à indução experimental de placentite, com diferentes graus de maturidade. Foram utilizados 16 potros nascidos de éguas submetidas à indução experimental de placentite, divididos em três grupos de acordo com o grau de maturidade: prematuro (n=8), dismaturo (n=4) e a termo (n=4). Foram realizadas coletas sanguíneas nos momentos 0h, 12h e 24h para realização de hemograma completo e gasometria venosa. No eritrograma, foi observada anemia normocítica normocrômica no grupo prematuro em relação ao grupo dismaturo nas 12h e 24h. O grupo prematuro apresentou menor contagem de leucócitos totais nas 24h em relação ao grupo a termo (P=0,01). Os valores de pH, cHCO3 e SO2 não diferiram entre os grupos, porém os animais prematuros apresentaram acidose respiratória (pH=7,28). A PCO2 nos prematuros foi maior na 0h (P=0,02). Nos três grupos, a PCO2 apresentou uma curva adaptativa com redução dos valores durante as 12h e 24h. Os potros prematuros mostraram menores valores de excesso de base (BE) no nascimento (P=0,02), confirmando o quadro de acidose respiratória. Concluiu-se que as respostas hematológicas e hemogasométricas diferem entre potros com diferentes graus de maturidade. A acidose observada no grupo prematuro ao nascimento, com estabilização e resposta compensatória durante as 12h e 24h, demonstra a necessidade de avaliação hemogasométrica sequencial em potros de risco, o que permite a identificação da resposta clínica ao processo e, assim, auxilia no estabelecimento do tratamento e prognóstico para esses potros.(AU)


The placentitis is a major cause of premature birth, abortion and compromised foal delivery, and may result in hypoxia and sepsis. The blood gas analysis and hematology can provide important information for monitoring the foals born from mares with placentitis, with different degrees of maturity. The aim of this study was to describe the hematological and blood gas values during the first 24 hours of life in foals born from crossbreed mares with experimentally induced placentitis, presenting different degrees of maturity. Sixteen foals, born from mares with experimentally induced ascending placentitis were assigned to three groups according to degree of maturity: premature (n=8), dysmature (n=4), and full-term foals (n=4). Blood samples were collected at birth (0), at 12h and 24h, and hematological evaluation and blood gas variables were measured. In the premature group normocytic normochromic anemia was observed compared to dysmature group at 12h and 24h. The premature group showed lower count of white blood cells at 24h relative to the full-term group (p=0.01). The pH, cHCO3 and SO2 values do not differ among the groups; however the premature group showed respiratory acidosis (pH=7,28). The PCO2 was higher at 0h in the premature foals (p=0.02). In all groups, the PCO2 presented an adaptive curve with reduction between 12h and 24h. The premature foals showed lower base excess (BE) values at birth (p=0.02), confirming the respiratory acidosis in this group. We conclude that the hematological and blood gas response differs between foals with different degrees of maturity. Acidosis in the premature foals at birth, with stabilization and compensation of pH value during the first 12-24h demonstrate the necessity of sequential blood gas analysis in risk foals. This may help identify the clinical response to the process and assist in the establishment of adequate treatment and prognosis for these foals.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Gasometria/veterinária , Cavalos , Doenças Placentárias/veterinária , Acidose Respiratória/veterinária , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária
11.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 237: 7-12, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28017906

RESUMO

We determined the accuracy of distensibility index of inferior vena cava (dIVC) for evaluation of fluid responsiveness in rats with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and validated this index for use in rat models. In protocol 1, E. coli lipopolysaccharide was administered in Wistar rats (n=7). After 24h, animals were mechanically ventilated, and stroke volume (SV) and dIVC quantified after blood drainage and subsequent volume expansion (albumin 20%). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to determine the optimal dIVC cutoff. In protocol 2, rats (n=10) were divided into fluid-responders (SV increase >5%) and nonresponders (SV increase <5%). The dIVC cutoff obtained from protocol 1 was 25%. Fluid responders had a 2.5 relative risk of low dIVC (<25%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive values for dIVC were 74%, 62%, 59%, and 76%, respectively. In conclusion, a dIVC threshold <25% was associated with positive response after volume expansion and could be used to titrate fluids in endotoxin-induced ARDS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Veia Cava Inferior/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Curva ROC , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Oper Dent ; 42(2): 185-195, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802123

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the cement line thickness and the interface quality in milled or injected lithium disilicate ceramic restorations and their influence on marginal adaptation using different cement types and different adhesive cementation techniques. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Sixty-four bovine teeth were prepared for full crown restoration (7.0±0.5 mm in height, 8.0 mm in cervical diameter, and 4.2 mm in incisal diameter) and were divided into two groups: CAD/CAM automation technology, IPS e.max CAD (CAD), and isostatic injection by heat technology, IPS e.max Press (PRESS). RelyX ARC (ARC) and RelyX U200 resin cements were used as luting agents in two activation methods: initial self-activation and light pre-activation for one second (tack-cure). Next, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 23°C ± 2°C for 72 hours. The cement line thickness was measured in micrometers, and the interface quality received scores according to the characteristics and sealing aspects. The evaluations were performed with an optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope images were presented to demonstrate the various features found in the cement line. For the cement line thickness, data were analyzed with three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Games-Howell test (α=0.05). For the variable interface quality, the data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and multiple comparisons nonparametric Dunn test (α=0.05). RESULTS: The ANOVA presented statistical differences among the ceramic restoration manufacturing methods as well as a significant interaction between the manufacturing methods and types of cement (p<0.05). The U200 presented lower cement line thickness values when compared to the ARC with both cementation techniques (p<0.05). With regard to the interface quality, the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Kruskal-Wallis test demonstrated statistical differences between the ceramic restoration manufacturing methods and cementation techniques. The PRESS ceramics obtained lower scores than did the CAD ceramics when using ARC cement (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Milled restorations cemented with self-adhesive resin cement resulted in a thinner cement line that is statistically different from that of CAD or pressed ceramics cemented with resin cement with adhesive application. No difference between one-second tack-cure and self-activation was noted.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Coroas , Adaptação Marginal Dentária , Porcelana Dentária/química , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Cimentos de Resina/química , Animais , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato , Bovinos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Polietilenoglicóis , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos
13.
Br J Anaesth ; 116(5): 708-15, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27106975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variable ventilation improves respiratory function, but it is not known whether the amount of variability in tidal volume (VT) can be reduced in recruited lungs without a deterioration of respiratory system elastance. METHODS: Acute lung inflammation was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide in 35 Wistar rats. Twenty-eight animals were anaesthetized and ventilated in volume-controlled mode. Lungs were recruited by random variation of VT (mean 6 ml kg(-1), coefficient of variation 30%, normal distribution) for 30 min. Animals were randomly assigned to different amounts of VT variability (n=7 for 90 min per group): 30, 15, 7.5, or 0%. Lung function, diffuse alveolar damage, and gene expression of biological markers associated with cell mechanical stress, inflammation, and fibrogenesis were assessed. Seven animals were not ventilated and served as controls for post-mortem analyses. RESULTS: A VT variability of 30%, but not 15, 7.5, or 0%, prevented deterioration of respiratory system elastance [Mean (SD) -7.5 (8.7%), P<0.05; 21.1 (9.6%), P<0.05; 43.3 (25.9), P<0.05; and 41.2 (16.4), P<0.05, respectively]. Diffuse alveolar damage was lower with a VT variability of 30% than with 0% and without ventilation, because of reduced oedema and haemorrhage. A VT variability of 30, 15, or 7.5% reduced the gene expression of amphiregulin, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, and tumour necrosis factor α compared with a VT variability of 0%. CONCLUSIONS: In this model of acute lung inflammation, a VT variability of 30%, compared with 15 and 7.5%, was necessary to avoid deterioration of respiratory system elastance and was not associated with lung histological damage.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Pressão Parcial , Pneumonia/terapia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar , Mecânica Respiratória
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to use mathematical modeling to identify and quantify the main factors that affect daily feed intake (DFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in grow-finishing (GF) pig units. We evaluated the production records of 93 GF farms between 2010 and 2013, linked to a company, working in a cooperative system, located in western Paraná State, Brazil. A total of 683 batches, consisting of approximately 495,000 animals, were used. Forty production factors related to the management, health, plant and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment were considered. The number of pigs per pen, type of feeder, origin and sex (the last two variables were combined in the models) of the animals and initial and final body weights were included in the final models to predict DFI and FCR (dependent variables). Additionally, the duration of the GF phase was included for the parameter FCR. All factors included in the final models had significant effects for both dependent variables. RESULTS: There was a reduction in DFI (0.04 kg) (P < 0.001) and an improvement in FCR (6.0 points) (P < 0.001) in batches from pens with less than 20 animals compared with batches from pens with more than 20 animals. In barns with "other" feeder types (mostly the linear dump type) different of conical semiautomatic feeder, a reduction of DFI (0.03 kg) (P < 0.05) and improved FCR (3.0 points) (P < 0.05) were observed. Batches of barrows from units specialized for producing piglets (SPU) had higher DFI (approximately 0.02 kg) (P < 0.01) than batches of females and batches of mixed animals from SPU, and batches of mixed animals from farms not specialized for piglet production (farrow-to-finish farms). Batches of females from SPU and mixed batches from SPU had better FCR (5.0 and 3.0 points respectively) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) than batches of piglets originating from farrow-to-finish farms. The variables selected for the final models explained approximately 50 and 64 % of the total variance in DFI and FCR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The models are tools for the interpretation of the factors related to the evaluated parameters, aiding in the identification of critical aspects of production. The main parameters affecting DFI and FCR in this company during the GF period were the number of pigs per pen, the type of feeder used and the combination origin-sex of the animals.

15.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 115(6): 527-37, 2015 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174025

RESUMO

The processes and timescales associated with ocean-wide changes in the distribution of marine species have intrigued biologists since Darwin's earliest insights into biogeography. The Azores, a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago located >1000 km off the European continental shelf, offers ideal opportunities to investigate phylogeographic colonisation scenarios. The benthopelagic sparid fish known as the common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris) is now relatively common along the coastline of the Azores archipelago, but was virtually absent before the 1990 s. We employed a multiple genetic marker approach to test whether the successful establishment of the Azorean population derives from a recent colonisation from western continental/island populations or from the demographic explosion of an ancient relict population. Results from nuclear and mtDNA sequences show that all Atlantic and Mediterranean populations belong to the same phylogroup, though microsatellite data indicate significant genetic divergence between the Azorean sample and all other locations, as well as among Macaronesian, western Iberian and Mediterranean regions. The results from Approximate Bayesian Computation indicate that D. vulgaris has likely inhabited the Azores for ∼ 40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.5-83.6) to 52 (95% CI: 6.32-89.0) generations, corresponding to roughly 80-150 years, suggesting near-contemporary colonisation, followed by a more recent demographic expansion that could have been facilitated by changing climate conditions. Moreover, the lack of previous records of this species over the past century, together with the absence of lineage separation and the presence of relatively few private alleles, do not exclude the possibility of an even more recent colonisation event.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Perciformes/genética , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Açores , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(6): 1662-1670, 12/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-735754

RESUMO

Objetivou-se descrever a maturidade neonatal através da resposta clínica, comportamental e hematológica de potros nascidos de éguas com placentite. Participaram do estudo seis potros nascidos de éguas submetidas à indução experimental de placentite ascendente através da infusão intracervical de Streptococcus equi subespécie zooepidemicus e tratadas com Sulfa-trimetoprim e Flunixin meglumine. A formação dos grupos neonatais foi realizada de acordo com o grau de viabilidade e sobrevivência até 60 horas: Grupo Não Sobreviventes (n=2); Grupo Debilitados (n=2); Grupo Saudáveis (n=2). Foi considerado o tempo de gestação, período de intervalo inoculação-parto, avaliação comportamental, clínica e hematológica. O Grupo dos potros Saudáveis apresentou maior tempo de gestação (320±2 dias) e maior intervalo inoculação-parto (20,5±2,5 dias). Os Grupos Não Sobreviventes e Debilitados apresentaram atraso para decúbito esternal e reflexo de sucção. Foi observada bradicardia e hipotermia com 48h de vida no Grupo Não Sobreviventes. Os potros do Grupo Não Sobreviventes e Saudáveis apresentaram leucopenia no nascimento com discretas variações até as 48h. Os potros nascidos de éguas com placentite ascendente e tratadas demonstraram evolução clínica e respostas neonatais distintas. Conclui-se que, quanto maior o tempo de manutenção da gestação após a injúria placentária, melhor será a maturação fetal, o que refletirá em viabilidade e melhor capacidade de resposta neonatal...


The aim of this study was to describe the neonatal maturity through clinical, behavioral and hematologic response of foals born from mares with placentitis. Were used six foals born from mares subjected to experimentally induced ascending placentitis through intracervical infusion of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus and treated with trimethoprim sulfametoxazole and flunixin meglumine. The neonatal groups were performed according to the viability and survival rate up to 60 hours: No Survivors group (n = 2); Debilitated group (n = 2); Healthy group (n = 2). Gestational length, the period between inoculation and delivery, and behavioral, clinical and hematologic evaluations were considered. The Healthy group showed longer gestation length (320±2 days) and longer inoculation-delivery interval (20.5±2.5 days). No Survivors and Debilitated groups showed delay in sternal recumbency and sucking reflex. Bradycardia and hypothermia was observed at 48 hours of life in No Survivors Group. Foals from No Survivors and Healthy groups showed leukopenia at birth with slight variations until 48h. Foals born from mares with ascending placentitis and treated showed distinct clinical and neonatal responses. It is concluded that the longer the maintenance of gestation after placental injury, better is the fetal maturation, which reflects in better viability and ability to neonatal response...


Assuntos
Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Equidae , Streptococcus equi , Doenças Placentárias/veterinária , Idade Gestacional , Hematologia , Prenhez
17.
Inorg Chem ; 53(11): 5589-99, 2014 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24840935

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate a correlation between theoretical calculations and experimental data to explain the electronic structure and optical properties of silver molybdate (ß-Ag2MoO4) microcrystals synthesized by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, and micro-Raman spectroscopy confirmed that these microcrystals crystallize in a spinel-type cubic structure. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the processing temperatures influence in the final shape of microcrystals. Optical properties were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy; the increase in the optical band gap energy (Egap) (from 3.24 to 3.31 eV) with processing temperature is associated with the reduction of intermediary energy levels. First-principles quantum mechanical calculations based on the density functional theory at the B3LYP level were conducted. The calculated band structure revealed an indirect Egap of approximately 4.00 and 3.34 eV for the ß-Ag2MoO4 without and with the formation of defects, respectively. Theoretical calculations based on density of states and electron density maps were employed to understand the polarization phenomenon induced by structural defects in the ß-Ag2MoO4 crystals. Finally, photoluminescence properties at room temperature of ß-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals were explained by the charge-transfer mechanism involving tetrahedral [MoO4] clusters.

18.
J Fish Biol ; 83(2): 272-94, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23902306

RESUMO

Seven coastal fish species are newly reported for the remote north Atlantic archipelago of the Azores: Mediterranean sand eel Gymnammodytes cicerelus, bar jack Caranx ruber, two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris, bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus, unicorn leatherjacket filefish Aluterus scriptus and longspined porcupinefish Diodon holacanthus. The occurrence is also confirmed for 19 species that had been hitherto cited occasionally for the region, totalling a list of two elasmobranchs and 23 teleosts. Diplodus vulgaris, which appears to have recently colonized the islands, as well as roughtail stingray Dasyatis centroura and golden grey mullet Liza aurata, re-cited based on new records, are frequent or common coastal species in the Azores. The remaining 22 species, exceptional or rare in the region, are of tropical or subtropical affinity and find their northernmost distribution limit within the central and north-east Atlantic Ocean precisely in the Azores. This biogeographical pattern contrasts with that of the Azorean coastal fish community and suggests a tropicalization process in the region in line with previous findings of similar patterns across the north-east Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. These novel data from the most isolated archipelago of the North Atlantic Ocean, located in a biogeographic boundary area where colonization opportunities are reduced, reinforce the need for long-term monitoring programmes of coastal fish communities and, in particular, of indicator species groups to improve understanding of the effects of climate change on marine communities.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Peixes/classificação , Animais , Açores , Peixes/fisiologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Dinâmica Populacional
19.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 109(3): 269-82, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23122302

RESUMO

Cancer is the leading cause of death in economically developed countries and the second leading cause of death in developing countries. Malignant brain neoplasms are among the most devastating and incurable forms of cancer, and their treatment may be excessively complex and costly. Public health decision makers require significant amounts of analytical information to manage public treatment programs for these patients. Data mining, a technology that is used to produce analytically useful information, has been employed successfully with medical data. However, the large-scale adoption of this technique has been limited thus far because it is difficult to use, especially for non-expert users. One way to facilitate data mining by non-expert users is to automate the process. Our aim is to present an automated data mining system that allows public health decision makers to access analytical information regarding brain tumors. The emphasis in this study is the use of ontology in an automated data mining process. The non-experts who tried the system obtained useful information about the treatment of brain tumors. These results suggest that future work should be conducted in this area.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Algoritmos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Factuais , Tomada de Decisões , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Saúde Pública/métodos , Integração de Sistemas
20.
Braz J Biol ; 72(4): 915-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23295522

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to elaborate a preliminary list of the mite species associated with rubber trees in the municipality of Santana, in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Two collections of rubber tree leaves were conducted on May 2nd and June 5th , 2010. Twenty-five plants were sampled at random. Three leaves were collected per plant, from the lower third of the crown. The samples were placed in paper bags, packed in an isothermal box chilled gel-based pulp plant (Gelo-X(®)), and transported to the Entomology Laboratory at Embrapa Amapá, in Macapá. The leaflets were examined under a stereomicroscope, and the mites found on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were collected with a stilet, mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium, and later identified. We collected a total of 1,722 mites of 10 families: Acaridae, Cunaxidae, Eriophyidae, Iolinidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tydeidae, and Winterschmidtiidae, in addition to unidentified species of the suborders Oribatida and Astigmatina. The family Phytoseiidae represented only 2.90% of specimens collected, but showed the highest species richness (5 species). The only representative of Tenuipalpidae was Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945, but 81.13% of the mites collected in this study belonged to this species.


Assuntos
Hevea/parasitologia , Ácaros/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia
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