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1.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 174: 108747, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713721

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the role of branch chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations as a predictor for incident type 2 diabetes (DM). METHODS: Participants from ELSA-Brasil without diabetes at baseline and followed for 3.9 ± 0.6 years were included in the analysis. The determinations of BCAA (valine, leucine, isoleucine) were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cardiometabolic profile and incidence of DM were evaluated according to quartiles of BCAA at baseline, stratified by sex. RESULTS: From 3,828 participants (56% female, 50.5 ± 8.7 years) 299 (8.5%) were diagnosed with DM. For both sexes, a worsening of cardiometabolic profile was observed across increasing BCAA quartiles. In survival analysis, incidence rates of DM for the entire period were highest in participants in the third and fourth quartile of BCAA (log Rank analysis < 0.001 for both sexes). In Cox regression analysis, for men, the HR (95%CI) for risk of DM was 2.24 (1.24-4.03) for those from the fourth quartile of BCAA, while in women it was 1.94 (1.07-3.50), comparing to first quartile of BCAA after adjustments for age, BMI, physical activity, family history of DM, pre-diabetes, blood pressure, total cholesterol and HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of BCAA were independently predictors of DM.

2.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2518, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787678

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed increased morbidity and mortality rates and worse prognosis in individuals with underlying chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. There is also evidence of possible links among COVID-19, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Emerging evidence suggests a pro-inflammatory milieu and hypercoagulable state in patients with this infection. Despite anticoagulation, a large proportion of patients requiring intensive care may develop life-threatening thrombotic complications. Indeed, the levels of some markers of hemostatic activation, such as D-dimer, are commonly elevated in COVID-19, indicating potential risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In this review, we critically examine and discuss aspects of hypercoagulability and inflammation in COVID-19 and the possible benefits of statins in this scenario, with emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, we present recommendations on the use of antiviral drugs in combination with statins.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Trombose , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 23(5): 17, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694108

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Based on the recent data of the DA VINCI study, it is clear that, besides utilization of statins, there is a need to increase non-statin lipid lowering approaches to reduce the cardiovascular burden in patients at highest risk. RECENT FINDINGS: For hypercholesterolemia, the small synthetic molecule bempedoic acid has the added benefit of selective liver activation, whereas inclisiran, a hepatic inhibitor of the PCSK9 synthesis, has comparable effects with PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies. For hypertriglyceridemia, cardiovascular benefit has been achieved by the use of icosapent ethyl, whereas results with pemafibrate, a selective agonist of PPAR-α, are eagerly awaited. In the era of RNA-based therapies, new options are offered to dramatically reduce levels of lipoprotein(a) (APO(a)LRX) and of triglycerides (ANGPTL3LRX and APOCIII-LRx). Despite the demonstrated benefits of statins, a large number of patients still remain at significant risk because of inadequate LDL-C reduction or elevated blood triglyceride-rich lipoproteins or lipoprotein(a). The area of lipid modulating agents is still ripe with ideas and major novelties are to be awaited in the next few years.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with severe hypercholesterolemia are at a high risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Many of them have familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). OBJECTIVES: To assess from a patient perspective the degree of awareness about severe hypercholesterolemia, especially FH, ASCVD risk perception, cascade screening performance, and treatment of individuals participating in a routine health evaluation program. METHODS: From a database of 70,000 Brazilian individuals evaluated between 2006 and 2016, 1,987 (2.8%) met the inclusion criteria (age ≥ 18 years and LDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dL or ≥ 160 mg/dL, respectively, if not in use of statins or on statin therapy). Two-hundred individuals were randomly invited to complete an extensive questionnaire. FH was diagnosed if suspected by the attending physician. RESULTS: Although 97% of the sample (age 48±9 years; 16% women; 95% college/university education; 88% primary prevention; LDL-C 209±47 mg/dL) had severe hypercholesterolemia, only 18% and 29.5% believed to be at high ASCVD risk and reported knowledge of their recommended LDL-C goal, respectively. Fifty-eight percent reported being informed that high cholesterol could be a family disease, 24.5% (n = 49) had ever heard about FH, and merely 14% (n = 29) had been previously identified as suspected of having FH (age at FH diagnosis 35±12 years; 79% and 31% diagnosed, respectively, > 30 and > 40 years old). Only 2.5% underwent genetic tests, 17% underwent cascade screening, and 17% were not in use of pharmacological treatment. CONCLUSIONS: An important gap in risk perception, cholesterol management, and aspects related to FH was encountered in individuals with severe hypercholesterolemia. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

8.
Ann Pharmacother ; : 1060028020985111, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide clinical guidance and an overview of the available data on the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DATA SOURCES: We searched the MEDLINE database via PubMed (from January 2015 to November 2020) for the following key terms: SGLT2 inhibitors, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, SGLT2i, heart failure, and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: To be included in the review, the articles needed to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in the heart failure (HF) scenario. DATA SYNTHESIS: There is consistent evidence that SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events and hospitalization in patients with HFrEF, even in the absence of T2DM. On May 5, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dapagliflozin for adults with HFrEF, regardless of the presence of T2DM, even in those patients on standard therapy, including an angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor. RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: The SGLT2 inhibitors are well tolerated, and their once-daily dosing without the need for adjustments is convenient. These drugs can be considered a major breakthrough in pharmacotherapy for HF, providing physicians with a new treatment approach to reduce major clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2 inhibitor therapy reduces CV death and hospitalizations in HFrEF patients regardless of T2DM. The decision to prescribe this class of drugs should not be determined by glycemic status.

9.
Atherosclerosis ; 318: 32-37, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by high LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and early atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). With a lipid lowering therapy (LLT), most individuals with FH may have a longer ASCVD-free survival. However, there is scant data about older individuals with FH. METHODS: We compared characteristics of genetically defined FH older individuals with age-matched non-FH counterparts. RESULTS: From 4111 genotyped individuals, 462 older than 60 years were included (198 positive and 264 negative for FH variants). There were no differences regarding median age [%25; 75%] 66.0 (62.0; 71.0) and 66.0 (62.2; 71.0) years, p = 0.68 for FH and non-FH, respectively. In both groups, there was a higher frequency of females, however, there were more males in the FH group 37.4% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.002. No differences were seen between FH and non-FH in LLT use: 88.5% vs. 91.5%, p = 0.29. Despite a longer LLT duration in FH patients (with 11.0 (7.0; 20.0) vs. 7.0 (3.0; 13.0) years, p < 0.001), treatment was started late in both groups: at 54.0 (47.0; 61.0) and 59.0 (52.0; 64.0) years, p < 0.001, in FH and non-FH, respectively. FH had greater frequencies of previous and early ASCVD (40.9% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.002, and 22.2% vs. 9.0%, p < 0.001). In FH, male sex [HR (95%CI)] 2.67 (1.50-4.73), p = 0.001, and LLT onset age 0.96 (0.93-0.99), p = 0.009, were independently associated with ASCVD. CONCLUSIONS: Among hypercholesterolemic older individuals participating in a cascade screening program, the genetic diagnosis of FH was associated with higher ASCVD rates, emphasizing the relevance of a monogenic defect as the cause of long-lasting hypercholesterolemia and ASCVD risk, particularly in men.

10.
Atherosclerosis ; 320: 1-9, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Trial evidence for the benefits of cholesterol-lowering is limited for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients, since they have not been the focus of large outcome trials. We assess statin use in coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥4.9 mmol/L with or without an FH phenotype. METHODS: The 4S trial randomized hypercholesterolemic CAD patients to simvastatin or placebo. We first stratified participants into baseline LDL-C <4.9 and ≥ 4.9 mmol/L; next, based on the DLCN criteria for FH, the latter group was stratified into four subgroups by presence of none, one or both of "premature CAD" and "family history of CAD". Participants having both are defined as having an FH phenotype. RESULTS: 2267 and 2164 participants had LDL-C <4.9 and ≥ 4.9 mmol/L, respectively. Mortality endpoints and major coronary events (MCE) were significantly reduced with simvastatin versus placebo in both groups over 5.4 years, but the latter derived greater absolute risk reductions (ARR) (4.1-4.3% for mortality endpoints, versus 2.5-2.8%). LDL-C reductions were similar among the 4 subgroups with levels ≥4.9 mmol/L. Participants with FH phenotype (n = 152) appeared to derive greater relative benefits with simvastatin than the other three subgroups (all-cause death: 84% relative risk reduction, p = 0.046; MCE: 55% reduction, p = 0.0297); statistical interaction was non-significant. Participants with FH phenotype derived greater ARR than any other group with simvastatin versus placebo (all-cause mortality: 6.6% ARR; MCE 13.2%; versus 3.8% and 8.3%, respectively, among participants with LDL-C ≥4.9 mmol/L but without features suggestive of FH). CONCLUSIONS: The FH phenotype appeared to be associated with greater clinical benefits from a given magnitude of LDL-C reduction as compared to individuals without FH phenotype.

12.
Clinics ; 76: e2518, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153969

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed increased morbidity and mortality rates and worse prognosis in individuals with underlying chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. There is also evidence of possible links among COVID-19, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Emerging evidence suggests a pro-inflammatory milieu and hypercoagulable state in patients with this infection. Despite anticoagulation, a large proportion of patients requiring intensive care may develop life-threatening thrombotic complications. Indeed, the levels of some markers of hemostatic activation, such as D-dimer, are commonly elevated in COVID-19, indicating potential risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In this review, we critically examine and discuss aspects of hypercoagulability and inflammation in COVID-19 and the possible benefits of statins in this scenario, with emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, we present recommendations on the use of antiviral drugs in combination with statins.

13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 171: 108558, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242513

RESUMO

AIMS: The FINDRISC was created to predict the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since T2DM associates with inflammation we evaluated if the FINDRISC could predict either current or incident T2DM, and elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). METHODS: 41,880 people (age 41.9 ± 9.7 years; 31% female) evaluated between 2008 and 2016 were included. First, the cross-sectional association between the FINDRISC with presence of either T2DM or hs-CRP ≥ 2.0 mg/L was tested. After a 5 ± 3 years follow-up we tested the score predictive value for incident T2DM and inflammation in respectively 10,559 individuals without diabetes and in a subset of 2,816 individuals having no elevated hs-CRP at baseline. RESULTS: In the cross sectional analysis the FINDRISC was associated with both T2DM (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.23-1.26, P < 0.001) and inflammation (OR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.09-1.11, P < 0.001) per FINDRISC unit, as well as in longitudinal analyses (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.14-1.20, P < 0.001; and OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07, P < 0.001; respectively, per FINDRISC unit). The C-statistic for incident T2DM and inflammation was 0.79 (95% CI 0.77-0.82) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.53-0.58), respectively. CONCLUSION: The FINDRISC shows good discrimination for incident T2DM but less for inflammation.

14.
Endocrinology ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165533

RESUMO

Subclinical thyroid disorders have been associated with atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. As triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles (TRLP) have recently emerged as a casual factor for atherogenesis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between subclinical hypo and hyperthyroidism and TRLP subfractions. We selected 5,066 participants from the ELSA-Brasil cohort with available data of thyroid function and lipid profile measured by NMR. Individuals were divided into three groups by baseline thyroid function (subclinical hypothyroidism, euthyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism). TRLP subfractions were analyzed through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. To examine the association between TRLP subfractions and thyroid function, we conducted univariate and multivariate linear regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics, BMI, diabetes, smoking status and alcohol use. Of 3,304 individuals, 54% were women, with a mean age of 50.6±8,7 years, 51% white and 53% with at least college education. Of these individuals, 92% were euthyroid, whereas 6.8% had subclinical hypothyroidism and 1.2% had subclinical hyperthyroidism. The univariate linear regression showed that Very Small TRLP (p=0.026) and Very Large TRLP (p=0.008) were statistically increased in subclinical hypothyroidism when compared to euthyroidism. In subclinical hyperthyroidism, there was a reduction in total TRLP (p=0.003), seemingly driven by reduced Very Small-TRLP (p=0.067). The findings were confirmed when adjusted for demographic characteristics, as well as comorbidities. This study suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to very small and very large TRLP, which are related to an unfavorable atherogenic profile. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated to lower very small TRLP.

16.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159534

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes prevention requires the accurate identification of those at high risk. Beyond the association of fasting serum triacylglycerols with diabetes, triacylglycerol-enriched remnant lipoproteins (TRLs) more accurately reflect pathophysiological changes that underlie progression to diabetes, such as hepatic insulin resistance, pancreatic steatosis and systemic inflammation. We hypothesised that TRL-related factors could improve risk prediction for incident diabetes. METHODS: We included individuals from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health cohort. We trained a logistic regression model for the risk of incident diabetes in 80% of the cohort using tenfold cross-validation, and tested the model in the remaining 20% of the cohort (test set). Variables included medical history and traits of the metabolic syndrome, followed by TRL-related measurements (plasma concentration, TRL particle diameter, cholesterol and triacylglycerol content). TRL features were measured using NMR spectroscopy. Discrimination was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC). RESULTS: Among 4463 at-risk individuals, there were 366 new cases of diabetes after a mean (±SD) of 3.7 (±0.63) years of follow-up. We derived an 18-variable model with a global AUROC of 0.846 (95% CI: 0.829, 0.869). Overall TRL-related markers were not associated with diabetes. However, TRL particle diameter increased the AUROC, particularly in individuals with HbA1c <39 mmol/mol (5.7%) (hold-out test set [n = 659]; training-validation set [n = 2638]), but not in individuals with baseline HbA1c 39-46 mmol/mol (5.7-6.4%) (hold-out test set [n = 233]; training-validation set [n = 933]). In the subgroup with baseline HbA1c <39 mmol/mol (5.7%), AUROC in the test set increased from 0.717 (95% CI 0.603, 0.818) to 0.794 (95% CI 0.731, 0.862), and AUPRC in the test set rose from 0.582 to 0.701 when using the baseline model and the baseline model plus TRL particle diameter, respectively. TRL particle diameter was highly correlated with obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation in those with impaired fasting glucose at baseline, but less so in those with HbA1c <39 mmol/mol (5.7%). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: TRL particle diameter improves the prediction of diabetes, but only in individuals with HbA1c <39 mmol/mol (5.7%) at baseline. These data support TRL particle diameter as a risk factor that is changed early in the course of the pathophysiological processes that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, even before glucose abnormalities are established. Graphical abstract.

18.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 115(3): 440-449, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences between the updated versions of the Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemias and the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) Cholesterol Guideline regarding cardiovascular risk stratification and statin eligibility are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare cardiovascular risk categorization and statin eligibility based on the Brazilian guideline with those based on the AHA/ACC guideline in primary prevention patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed individuals aged 40-74 years without high-risk conditions, with LDL-c 70 to < 190 mg/dL, not on lipid-lowering drugs, who underwent routine clinical assessment. Cardiovascular risk was stratified according to the Brazilian and the AHA/ACC guidelines. Subjects were considered eligible for statin therapy if LDL-c was at least 30 mg/dL above the target for the cardiovascular risk (Brazilian guideline) or the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was ≥7.5% (AHA/ACC guideline). A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 18,525 subjects (69% male, age 48 ± 6 years). Among subjects considered at intermediate or high risk by the Brazilian guideline, over 80% would be in a lower risk category by the AHA/ACC guideline. Among men, 45% and 16% would be statin eligible by the Brazilian and the AHA/ACC guidelines criteria, respectively (p < 0.001). Among women, the respective proportions would be 16% and 1% (p < 0.001). Eighty-two percent of women and 57% of men eligible for statins based on the Brazilian guideline criterion would not be eligible according to the AHA/ACC guideline criterion. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the AHA/ACC guideline, the Brazilian guideline classifies a larger proportion of primary prevention patients into higher-risk categories and substantially increases statin eligibility. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):440-449).

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a frequent genetic disorder characterized by elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and early onset of atherosclerosis. AREAS COVERED: The authors provide an overview of the pediatric FH scenario, with emphasis on the role of statins as the preferred pharmacological therapy, discussing their potential benefits, as well as adverse effects, and the remaining uncertainties about their use in this population. They also comment on other lipid lowering therapies. EXPERT OPINION: Statin therapy is recommended after the ages of 8-10 years old for heterozygous FH patients and can reduce LDL-C by 24-50% depending on drug type and dosage. For more severe cases, higher doses and adjuvant therapies like ezetimibe may be necessary and treatment should be started at diagnosis, as is the case of homozygous FH. Statins reduce progression of subclinical vascular disease and may reduce early cardiovascular events. The available evidence indicates safety of statins in children with no apparent harms related to growth, sexual maturation, steroid hormones, glucose levels, cognitive function, or muscle and liver problems, in comparison with placebo. Newer treatments like lomitapide, PCSK9 inhibitors, bempedoic acid and evinacumab need to be adequately evaluated in pediatric FH patients with more severe dyslipidemia.

20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(3): 440-449, out. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1131305

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento Diferenças entre as versões atualizadas da Diretriz Brasileira de Dislipidemias e da Diretriz de Colesterol da American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) quanto à estratificação de risco cardiovascular e à elegibilidade para a terapia com estatina não são conhecidas. Objetivos Comparar a categorização de risco cardiovascular e a elegibilidade à terapia com estatina estabelecidas segundo a diretriz brasileira ou a diretriz da AHA/ACC em pacientes em prevenção primária. Métodos Nós avaliamos retrospectivamente indivíduos com idade entre 40 e 74 anos sem condições de alto risco, com LDL-c 70 -< 190 mg/dL, sem tratamento com agentes hipolipemiantes, e que passaram por avaliação clínica de rotina. O risco cardiovascular foi estratificado de acordo com a diretriz brasileira e a da AHA/ACC. Os indivíduos foram considerados elegíveis para estatina se os níveis de LDL-c estivessem no mínimo 30 mg/dL acima da meta para o risco cardiovascular (diretriz brasileira) ou se o risco em 10 anos para doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica fosse ≥ 7,5% (diretriz da AHA/ACC). Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados A amostra do estudo consistiu 18525 indivíduos (69% homens, idade 48 ± 6 anos). Entre os indivíduos considerados de risco intermediário ou alto segundo a diretriz brasileira, mais de 80% seriam classificados em uma categoria de risco mais baixo segundo a diretriz da AHA/ACC. Entre os homens, 45% e 16% seriam considerados elegíveis para a terapia com estatina segundo as diretrizes brasileira e da AHA/ACC, respectivamente (p < 0,001). Entre as mulheres, as respectivas proporções seriam 16% e 1% (p < 0,001). Oitenta e dois porcento das mulheres e 57% dos homens elegíveis para estatina com base no critério da diretriz brasileira não seriam considerados elegíveis para estatina segundo o critério da AHA/ACC. Conclusões Em comparação à diretriz da AHA/ACC, a diretriz brasileira classifica uma maior proporção dos pacientes em prevenção primária em categorias de risco mais alto e aumenta substancialmente a elegibilidade para estatina. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):440-449)


Abstract Background Differences between the updated versions of the Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemias and the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) Cholesterol Guideline regarding cardiovascular risk stratification and statin eligibility are unknown. Objectives To compare cardiovascular risk categorization and statin eligibility based on the Brazilian guideline with those based on the AHA/ACC guideline in primary prevention patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed individuals aged 40-74 years without high-risk conditions, with LDL-c 70 to < 190 mg/dL, not on lipid-lowering drugs, who underwent routine clinical assessment. Cardiovascular risk was stratified according to the Brazilian and the AHA/ACC guidelines. Subjects were considered eligible for statin therapy if LDL-c was at least 30 mg/dL above the target for the cardiovascular risk (Brazilian guideline) or the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was ≥7.5% (AHA/ACC guideline). A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The study sample consisted of 18,525 subjects (69% male, age 48 ± 6 years). Among subjects considered at intermediate or high risk by the Brazilian guideline, over 80% would be in a lower risk category by the AHA/ACC guideline. Among men, 45% and 16% would be statin eligible by the Brazilian and the AHA/ACC guidelines criteria, respectively (p < 0.001). Among women, the respective proportions would be 16% and 1% (p < 0.001). Eighty-two percent of women and 57% of men eligible for statins based on the Brazilian guideline criterion would not be eligible according to the AHA/ACC guideline criterion. Conclusions Compared with the AHA/ACC guideline, the Brazilian guideline classifies a larger proportion of primary prevention patients into higher-risk categories and substantially increases statin eligibility. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):440-449)

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