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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(2): 103-109, Aug. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887907

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. Objectives: This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. Methods: From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years) individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+) and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-). All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. Results: The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals.


Resumo Fundamento: Sintomas depressivos estão associados de forma independente ao risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular (DCV) em indivíduos com DCV não diagnosticada. Os mecanismos subjacentes a essa associação, entretanto, não estão claros. Inflamação tem sido indicada como um possível elo mecanicista entre depressão e DCV. Objetivos: Este estudo avaliou a associação entre sintomas depressivos persistentes e o início de inflamação de baixo grau. Métodos: De um banco de dados de 1.508 indivíduos jovens (idade média: 41 anos) sem diagnóstico de DCV submetidos a pelo menos duas avaliações de saúde de rotina, 134 tinham sintomas depressivos persistentes (Inventário de Depressão de Beck - BDI ≥10, BDI+) e 1.374 não apresentavam sintomas em nenhuma das ocasiões (BDI-). Todos os participantes foram submetidos a repetidas avaliações clínicas e laboratoriais em seguimento regular, cuja média foi de 26 meses desde a condição basal. Definiu-se inflamação de baixo grau como concentração plasmática de proteína C reativa (PCR) ultrassensível > 3 mg/L. O desfecho foi a incidência de inflamação de baixo grau por ocasião da segunda avaliação clínica. Resultados: A incidência de inflamação de baixo grau foi maior no grupo BDI+ em comparação ao grupo BDI- (20,9% vs. 11,4%; p = 0,001). Após ajuste para sexo, idade, circunferência abdominal, índice de massa corporal, níveis de atividade física, tabagismo e prevalência de síndrome metabólica, os sintomas depressivos persistentes continuaram sendo um preditor independente de início de inflamação de baixo grau (OR = 1,76; IC 95%: 1,03-3,02; p = 0,04). Conclusões: Sintomas depressivos persistentes foram independentemente associados com início de inflamação de baixo grau em indivíduos saudáveis.

2.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; : 0, 2017 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678924

RESUMO

Background: Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. Objectives: This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. Methods: From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years) individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+) and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-). All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. Results: The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals.

3.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.479-493.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-971551
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(4): 1611-1619, abr. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-135064

RESUMO

Introduction: The risks of cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in the world, can be reduced by diet. Cowpea protein has been shown to significantly reduce total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and liver steatosis in hamsters. Objective: The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to verify whether the consumption of cowpea protein improves lipid profile and biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 38 hypercholesterolemic subjects (LDL-cholesterol = 182.5 ± 2.7 mg/dL) consumed 25 g/day of cowpea protein isolate or 25 g/day of casein (control group) for 6 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout interval. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each diet period. Lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol) were determined by enzymatic methods, apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB) by standardized immunoassays, inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein) by turbidimetry, and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results and discussion: Consumption of cowpea protein significantly reduced total cholesterol (12 %), LDL cholesterol (18.9 %), non HDL-cholesterol (16 %) and apoB (14 %), and increased HDL-cholesterol (+2.7 %). No significant differences between treatment groups were observed for any of the serum inflammatory or endothelial dysfunction biomarkers. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrated the favorable effect of cowpea protein consumption on proatherogenic serum lipids and apoB in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia, similar to what was observed in a previous studies on animals (AU)


Introducción: Los riesgos de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, la principal causa de muerte en el mundo, pueden ser reducidos con la dieta. Proteína caupí en hámsters redujo el colesterol total, LDL-colesterol, así como la esteatosis hepática de manera significativa. Objetivo: Este estudio de prueba de concepto fue verificar si el consumo de proteína de frijol mejora el perfil de lípidos y actúa sobre los biomarcadores de inflamación y disfunción endotelial en pacientes con hipercolesterolemia moderada. Métodos: En un diseño aleatorio doble ciego cruzado, 38 sujetos con hipercolesterolemia (colesterol-LDL = 182,5 ± 2,7 mg/dL) consumieron 25 g / día de aislado de proteína de frijol o 25 g / día de caseína (grupo control) durante seis semanas cada uno, y un intervalo de lavado de cuatro semanas Se recogieron muestras de sangre en ayunas al comienzo y al final de cada período de dieta. Los lípidos (colesterol total, LDL-colesterol, triglicéridos, HDL-colesterol) se determinaron por métodos enzimáticos, apolipoproteínas (apoA-I y apoB) por inmunoensayos normalizados, biomarcadores de inflamación (proteína C reactiva) por turbidimetría y los biomarcadores de disfunción endotelial (molecule-1 de adhesión intercelular y de molécula-1 de adhesión celular vascular) por técnicas de ensayo de inmunoabsorción ligados a enzimas. Resultados y discusión: El consumo de proteínas caupí redujo significativamente el colesterol total (12%), el colesterol LDL (18,9%), colesterol no HDL (16%), apoB (14%), y aumentó el colesterol HDL (2,7%). No se observaron diferencias significativas relacionadas con el grupo de tratamiento para cualquiera de los biomarcadores inflamatorios y de disfunción endotelial. Conclusión: Los presentes hallazgos demostraron el efecto favorable del consumo de proteína caupí en lípidos séricos pro-aterogénicas y apoB en sujetos con hipercolesterolemia moderada, de manera similar a lo observado en un trabajo previo con los animales (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , LDL-Colesterol , Apolipoproteínas B , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Hipercolesterolemia/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Phaseolus
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(2): 152-158, 02/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741145

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. Methods: The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops) and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. Results: The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish) and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g). Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g) and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g). Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. Conclusion: All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3. .


Fundamento: Inúmeros estudos demonstram os efeitos benéficos do consumo de peixe para o aparelho cardiovascular. Isso seria decorrente da presença de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados nesses alimentos. Contudo, as concentrações desses nutrientes podem variar conforme a região. Objetivo: Analisar a composição e a quantidade de colesterol e ácidos graxos de peixes brasileiros e do salmão de cativeiro, habitualmente consumidos em nosso meio. Métodos: Foi analisada a concentração de colesterol e ácidos graxos, particularmente o ômega-3, de 10 tipos diferentes de peixes grelhados, sendo um deles o salmão. Cada amostra foi composta por três subamostras (“postas”), e cada uma retirada de uma porção, do início, do meio e do final do peixe, com o objetivo de minimizar problemas com relação a possíveis diferenças entre as porções musculares e de gorduras. Resultados: O maior teor de colesterol encontrado foi no cherne (107,6 mg/100 g), e o menor foi no badejo (70 mg/100 g). A concentração de ômega-3 variou de 0,01 g/100 g no badejo a 0,900 g/100 g na pescadinha. Já a gordura saturada variou de 0,687 g/100 g no pirarucu a 4,530 g/100 g no filhote. O salmão apresentou a maior quantidade de gordura poli-insaturada (3,29 g/100 g), e a pescadinha, o maior teor de gordura monoinsaturada (5,98 g/100 g). Quando avaliada as relações ômega 6/3, as melhores foram as do badejo (2,22) e do namorado (1,19), no entanto essas espécies apresentam muito pouca quantidade de ômega-3. Conclusão: Todos os peixes brasileiros estudados e o salmão importado têm baixos teores de gordura saturada, contudo a maioria desses peixes também tem baixos teores de ômega-3. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Viés , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Coleta de Dados , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Grupos Focais , Medição de Risco
6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 104(2): 152-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. METHODS: The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops) and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. RESULTS: The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish) and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g). Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g) and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g). Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. CONCLUSION: All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3.


Assuntos
Colesterol/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Peixes , Análise de Variância , Animais , Brasil , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Valores de Referência , Salmão , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
7.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 6: 58, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24855495

RESUMO

There is a very well known correlation between diabetes and cardiovascular disease but many health care professionals are just concerned with glycemic control, ignoring the paramount importance of controlling other risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of serious cardiovascular diseases. This Position Statement from the Brazilian Diabetes Society was developed to promote increased awareness in relation to six crucial topics dealing with diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Glicemic Control, Cardiovascular Risk Stratification and Screening Coronary Artery Disease, Treatment of Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Antiplatelet Therapy and Myocardial Revascularization. The issue of what would be the best algorithm for the use of statins in diabetic patients received a special attention and a new Brazilian algorithm was developed by our editorial committee. This document contains 38 recommendations which were classified by their levels of evidence (A, B, C and D). The Editorial Committee included 22 specialists with recognized expertise in diabetes and cardiology.

8.
PLoS One ; 7(5): e36883, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22590632

RESUMO

High serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. In addition, high phosphorus levels have been shown to induce vascular calcification and endothelial dysfunction in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of phosphorus and coronary calcification and atherosclerosis in the setting of normal renal function. This was a cross-sectional study involving 290 patients with suspected coronary artery disease and undergoing elective coronary angiography, with a creatinine clearance >60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Coronary artery obstruction was assessed by the Friesinger score and coronary artery calcification by multislice computed tomography. Serum phosphorus was higher in patients with an Agatston score >10 than in those with an Agatston score ≤ 10 (3.63 ± 0.55 versus 3.49 ± 0.52 mg/dl; p = 0.02). In the patients with Friesinger scores >4, serum phosphorus was higher (3.6 ± 0.5 versus 3.5 ± 0.6 mg/dl, p = 0.04) and median intact fibroblast growth factor 23 was lower (40.3 pg/ml versus 45.7 pg/ml, p = 0.01). Each 0.1-mg/dl higher serum phosphate was associated with a 7.4% higher odds of having a Friesinger score >4 (p = 0.03) and a 6.1% greater risk of having an Agatston score >10 (p = 0.01). Fibroblast growth factor 23 was a negative predictor of Friesinger score (p = 0.002). In conclusion, phosphorus is positively associated with coronary artery calcification and obstruction in patients with suspected coronary artery disease and preserved renal function.


Assuntos
Calcinose/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Estenose Coronária/sangue , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Fósforo/sangue , Idoso , Calcinose/mortalidade , Calcinose/patologia , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/patologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 68(3): 273-9, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21928084

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent studies reported the association of SLCO1B1 haplotypes with the development of musculoskeletal side effects during simvastatin use. The aim was to evaluate the pharmacogenetic association of SLCO1B1 haplotypes with atorvastatin-induced myalgia in a sample of individuals on high-dose atorvastatin regimens. METHODS: One hundred and forty-three patients with familial hypercholesterolemia were followed for at least 12 months while receiving atorvastatin. Genotypes for the rs2306283 (c.A388G) and rs4149056 (c.T521C) polymorphisms were detected by high-resolution melting analysis. These markers form four distinct haplotypes (*1A, *1B, *5 and *15). RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 14 (9.8%) patients developed myalgia and 16 (11.2%) presented CK levels more than 3 times the upper limit of the normal range. No association of the SLCO1B1 rs2306283 and rs4149056 genotypes or haplotypes with the presence of myalgia or creatine kinase (CK) values was found. Presence of rs2306283 AG + GG genotypes was not associated with increased risks of myalgia or abnormal CK values (OR 2.08, 95% CI 0.62-7.00, p = 0.24 and OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.21-1.26, p = 0.15 respectively). The presence of rs4149056 TC + CC genotypes was also not associated with increased risk of myalgia or abnormal CK values (OR 2.24, 95% CI 0.47-10.72, p = 0.31 and OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.57-3.96, p = 0.41 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reaffirm that the SLCO1B1 genetic risk appears to be greater in those patients receiving simvastatin compared with those receiving atorvastatin. This suggests that the importance of SLCO1B1 haplotypes depends on the specific statin that has been used.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Ácidos Heptanoicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Atorvastatina , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculares/epidemiologia
10.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 13(6): 350-3, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21809732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-lipoprotein lipase antibodies have been described in rare cases of patients with hypertriglyceridemia. However, no systematic study evaluating these antibodies in patients with this lipid abnormality has been undertaken. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the correlation of anti-lipoprotein lipase (anti-LPL) antibodies with other laboratory findings in patients with hypertriglyceridemia but no autoimmune disease. METHODS: We evaluated 44 hypertriglyceridemic patients without autoimmune disease. Clinical and laboratory evaluations included analyses of comorbidities, fasting lipid profile and anti-LPL antibodies. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 55 +/- 10 years; 46% of the patients were female and 64% were Caucasian. The mean disease duration was 94.4 months and mean body mass index 28.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m2; 34.0% were diabetic, 25.0% were obese, 72.7% had systemic arterial hypertension, 75% were sedentary, 15.9% were smokers, 56.8% had a family history of dyslipidemia, 45.5% had a family history of coronary insufficiency, 20.5% had acute myocardial infarction, 9.0% had undergone revascularization and 11.0% angioplasty, 79.5% were being treated with statins and 43.2% were taking fibrates. Median triglyceride levels were 254 mg/dl (range 100-3781 mg/dl), and total cholesterol level was 233 t 111 mg/dl. High-density lipoprotein was 42.6 +/- 15.4 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein 110.7 +/- 42.4 mg/dl and very low-density lipoprotein 48 +/- 15 mg/dl. Anti-LPL antibodies were identified in 2 patients (4.5%), both of whom had a family history of dyslipidemia, coronary insufficiency and acute myocardial infarction; one had undergone myocardial revascularization and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and both were using fibrates and had normal triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a correlation between the immune response and dyslipoproteinemia in hypertriglyceridemic patients, suggesting that autoimmune disease contributes to the dyslipidemia process.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes , Autoimunidade , Hipertrigliceridemia/imunologia , Lipase Lipoproteica/imunologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/enzimologia , Lipase Lipoproteica/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Rev. bras. hipertens ; 14(4): 252-257, out.-dez. 2007. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-482160

RESUMO

A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) pode estar associada ou mesmo fazer parte de um conjunto de fatores de risco metabolicamente interligados, os quais determinarão a presença futura de complicações cardiovasculares. É importante o conhecimento dos mecanismos envolvidos com o aumento da pressão arterial e o os níveis elevados das lipoproteínas ricas em colesterol. Evidências sugerem que a hipercolesterolemia colabora para a progressão da hipertensão arterial por meio da ativação do sistema renina-angiotensina, da redução da disponibilidade de óxido nítrico e da disfunção endotelial. Outros mecanismos descritos são sensibilidade ao sal, secreção de substâncias vasoativas e enriquecimento das membranas celulares com excesso de colesterol. Esses mecanismos agem sinergicamente na exacerbação do processo aterosclerótico. A otimização terapêutica no controle pressórico e na redução dos níveis de colesterol deve ser alcançada, principalmente nos pacientes de alto risco para eventos cardiovasculares.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Hipercolesterolemia , Hipertensão , Óxido Nítrico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Fatores de Risco
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