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1.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058947

RESUMO

Importance: Translating evidence into clinical practice in the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is challenging, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: To assess the effect of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention on adherence to evidence-based therapies for care of patients with AIS and TIA. Design, Setting and Participants: This 2-arm cluster-randomized clinical trial assessed 45 hospitals and 2336 patients with AIS and TIA for eligibility before randomization. Eligible hospitals were able to provide care for patients with AIS and TIA in Brazil, Argentina, and Peru. Recruitment started September 12, 2016, and ended February 26, 2018; follow-up ended June 29, 2018. Data were analyzed using the intention-to-treat principle. Interventions: The multifaceted quality improvement intervention included case management, reminders, a roadmap and checklist for the therapeutic plan, educational materials, and periodic audit and feedback reports to each intervention cluster. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite adherence score for AIS and TIA performance measures. Secondary outcomes included an all-or-none composite end point of performance measures, the individual process measure components of the composite end points, and clinical outcomes at 90 days after admission (stroke recurrence, death, and disability measured by the modified Rankin scale). Results: A total of 36 hospitals and 1624 patients underwent randomization. Nineteen hospitals were randomized to the quality improvement intervention and 17 to routine care. The overall mean (SD) age of patients enrolled in the study was 69.4 (13.5) years, and 913 (56.2%) were men. Overall mean (SD) composite adherence score for the 10 performance measures in the intervention group hospitals compared with control group hospitals was 85.3% (20.1%) vs 77.8% (18.4%) (mean difference, 4.2%; 95% CI, -3.8% to 12.2%). As a secondary end point, 402 of 817 patients (49.2%) at intervention hospitals received all the therapies that they were eligible for vs 203 of 807 (25.2%) in the control hospitals (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.22-5.53; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: A multifaceted quality improvement intervention did not result in a significant increase in composite adherence score for evidence-based therapies in patients with AIS or TIA. However, when using an all-or-none approach, the intervention resulted in improved adherence to evidence-based therapies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02223273.

2.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(2): 211-217, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) results in significant weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors improvements; there is no consensus whether limb lengths may influence these results. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlations between the common limb length (CLL) and hypertension remission rate, cardiometabolic risk factors, and nutritional parameters after RYGB. SETTINGS: Private Hospital, Brazil. METHODS: GATEWAY is a randomized trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of RYGB on hypertension improvement and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with grade I and II obesity compared with medical therapy. The follow-up was 1 year. We measured the entire bowel in all patients and used a 150-cm alimentary limb and a 100-cm biliopancreatic limb. Univariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between CLL and hypertension remission. Pearson and Spearman correlation were used to evaluate the correlation between the CLL and the percentage changes of cardiometabolic risk factors and nutritional parameters. RESULTS: From 100 randomized patients, 45 were submitted to RYGB and completed the follow-up. Mean CLL was 466.3 ± 86.4 cm. Of patients, 55.6% from the RYGB group showed remission of hypertension. CLL length was not significantly associated with hypertension remission (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] for 50 units increase in CLL: .97 [.68; 1.38], P = .88). Consistently, we found no correlations between CLL and all changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and nutritional parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In a proximal RYGB, CLL does not influence hypertension remission, cardiometabolic risk factors, and nutritional parameters.

3.
Am Heart J ; 207: 49-57, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Translating evidence into clinical practice in the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is challenging especially in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention on adherence to evidence-based therapies for AIS and TIA patients care. DESIGN: We designed a pragmatic, 2-arm cluster-randomized trial involving 36 clusters and 1624 patients from Brazil, Argentina, and Peru. Hospitals are randomized to receive a multifaceted quality improvement intervention (intervention group) or to routine care (control group). The BRIDGE Stroke multifaceted quality improvement intervention includes case management, reminders, health care providers' educational materials (including treatment algorithms), interactive workshops, and audit and feedback reports. Primary outcome is a composite adherence score to AIS and TIA performance measures. Secondary outcomes include an "all or none" composite end point to performance measures, the individual components of the composite end points, and clinical outcomes at 90 days following admission (stroke recurrence, death, and disability measured by the modified Rankin scale). SUMMARY: The BRIDGE Stroke Trial is an international pragmatic evaluation of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention. If effective, this intervention could be potentially extended widely to improve the quality of care and outcomes of patients with AIS or TIA.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(11): 1113-1118, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264159

RESUMO

Importance: Loading doses of atorvastatin did not show reduction on clinical outcomes in the overall population of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) enrolled in the Statins Evaluation in Coronary Procedures and Revascularization (SECURE-PCI) trial, but a potential benefit was identified in patients who subsequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objectives: To determine whether periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin are associated with decreased 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ACS undergoing PCI according to type of ACS and timing of atorvastatin administration before PCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted at 53 sites that enrolled 4191 patients with ACS intended to be treated with PCI between April 18, 2012, and October 06, 2017. Interventions: Patients were randomized to 2 loading doses of 80 mg of atorvastatin or matching placebo before and 24 hours after a planned PCI. By protocol, all patients (regardless of treatment group) received 40 mg of atorvastatin for 30 days starting 24 hours after the second dose of study medication. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was MACE through 30 days, composed by all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization. Cox regression models adjusting for key baseline characteristics were used to assess the association between atorvastatin and MACE in patients undergoing PCI. Results: From the overall trial population, 2710 (64.7%) underwent PCI (650 women [24.0%]; mean [SD] age, 62 [11.3] years). Loading atorvastatin was associated with reduced MACE at 30 days by 28% in the PCI group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% CI 0.54-0.97; P = .03). Loading dose of atorvastatin was administered less than 12 hours before PCI in 2548 patients (95.3%) (45.1% < 2 hours and 54.3% between 2 and 12 hours). There was no significant interaction between treatment effect and timing of study drug administration. The treatment effect of loading atorvastatin was more pronounced in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction than in patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS (adjusted HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.38-0.92; P = .02; HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.58-1.27; P = .43, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with ACS undergoing PCI, periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin appeared to reduce the rate of MACE at 30 days, most clearly in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. This beneficial effect seemed to be preserved and consistent, irrespective of the timing of atorvastatin administration, including within 2 hours before PCI. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01448642.

5.
Am Heart J ; 198: 129-134, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous evidence suggests that acute treatment with statins reduce atherosclerotic complications, including periprocedural myocardial infarction, but currently, there are no large, adequately powered studies to define the effects of early, high-dose statins in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management. OBJECTIVES: The main goal of Statins Evaluation in Coronary procedUres and REvascularization (SECURE-PCI) Trial is to determine whether the early use of a loading dose of 80 mg of atorvastatin before an intended percutaneous coronary intervention followed by an additional dose of 80 mg 24 hours after the procedure will be able to reduce the rates of major cardiovascular events at 30 days in patients with an ACS. DESIGN: The SECURE-PCI study is a pragmatic, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial planned to enroll around 4,200 patients in 58 different sites in Brazil. The primary outcome is the rate of major cardiovascular events at 30 days defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and coronary revascularization. SUMMARY: The SECURE PCI is a large randomized trial testing a strategy of early, high-dose statin in patients with ACS and will provide important information about the acute treatment of this patient population.

6.
JAMA ; 319(13): 1331-1340, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525821

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of loading doses of statins on clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management remain uncertain. Objective: To determine if periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin decrease 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ACS and planned invasive management. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted at 53 sites in Brazil among 4191 patients with ACS evaluated with coronary angiography to proceed with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if anatomically feasible. Enrollment occurred between April 18, 2012, and October 6, 2017. Final follow-up for 30-day outcomes was on November 6, 2017. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive 2 loading doses of 80 mg of atorvastatin (n = 2087) or matching placebo (n = 2104) before and 24 hours after a planned PCI. All patients received 40 mg of atorvastatin for 30 days starting 24 hours after the second dose of study medication. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was MACE, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization through 30 days. Results: Among the 4191 patients (mean age, 61.8 [SD, 11.5] years; 1085 women [25.9%]) enrolled, 4163 (99.3%) completed 30-day follow-up. A total of 2710 (64.7%) underwent PCI, 333 (8%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 1144 (27.3%) had exclusively medical management. At 30 days, 130 patients in the atorvastatin group (6.2%) and 149 in the placebo group (7.1%) had a MACE (absolute difference, 0.85% [95% CI, -0.70% to 2.41%]; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.11; P = .27). No cases of hepatic failure were reported; 3 cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported in the placebo group (0.1%) and 0 in the atorvastatin group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with ACS and planned invasive management with PCI, periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin did not reduce the rate of MACE at 30 days. These findings do not support the routine use of loading doses of atorvastatin among unselected patients with ACS and intended invasive management. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01448642.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia
7.
Circulation ; 137(11): 1132-1142, 2018 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research efforts on bariatric surgery have focused on metabolic and diabetes mellitus resolution. Randomized trials designed to assess the impact of bariatric surgery in patients with obesity and hypertension are needed. METHODS: In this randomized, single-center, nonblinded trial, we included patients with hypertension (using ≥2 medications at maximum doses or >2 at moderate doses) and a body mass index between 30.0 and 39.9 kg/m2. Patients were randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass plus medical therapy or medical therapy alone. The primary end point was reduction of ≥30% of the total number of antihypertensive medications while maintaining systolic and diastolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg and 90 mm Hg, respectively, at 12 months. RESULTS: We included 100 patients (70% female, mean age 43.8±9.2 years, mean body mass index 36.9±2.7 kg/m2), and 96% completed follow-up. Reduction of ≥30% of the total number of antihypertensive medications while maintaining controlled blood pressure occurred in 41 of 49 patients from the gastric bypass group (83.7%) compared with 6 of 47 patients (12.8%) from the control group with a rate ratio of 6.6 (95% confidence interval, 3.1-14.0; P<0.001). Remission of hypertension was present in 25 of 49 (51%) and 22 of 48 (45.8%) patients randomized to gastric bypass, considering office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, respectively, whereas no patient submitted to medical therapy was free of antihypertensive drugs at 12 months. A post hoc analysis for the primary end point considering the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) target reached consistent results, with a rate ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-10.6; P=0.005). Eleven patients (22.4%) from the gastric bypass group and none in the control group were able to achieve SPRINT levels without antihypertensives. Waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, glycohemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and 10-year Framingham risk score were lower in the gastric bypass than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery represents an effective strategy for blood pressure control in a broad population of patients with obesity and hypertension. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01784848.

8.
Circulation ; 137(11): 1132-1142, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research efforts on bariatric surgery have focusedon metabolic and diabetes mellitus resolution. Randomized trials designedto assess the impact of bariatric surgery in patients with obesity andhypertension are needed.METHODS: In this randomized, single-center, nonblinded trial, we includedpatients with hypertension (using ≥2 medications at maximum doses or >2 atmoderate doses) and a body mass index between 30.0 and 39.9 kg/m2. Patientswere randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass plus medical therapy or medicaltherapy alone. The primary end point was reduction of ≥30% of the totalnumber of antihypertensive medications while maintaining systolic and diastolicblood pressure <140 mmHg and 90 mmHg, respectively, at 12 months. RESULTS: We included 100 patients (70% female, mean age 43.8±9.2 years,mean body mass index 36.9±2.7 kg/m2), and 96% completed follow-up.Reduction of ≥30% of the total number of antihypertensive medicationswhile maintaining controlled blood pressure occurred in 41 of 49 patientsfrom the gastric bypass group (83.7%) compared with 6 of 47 patients(12.8%) from the control group with a rate ratio of 6.6 (95% confidenceinterval, 3.1–14.0; P<0.001). Remission of hypertension was present in 25of 49 (51%) and 22 of 48 (45.8%) patients randomized to gastric bypass,considering office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring...(AU)


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade , Hipertensão
9.
Am Heart J ; 168(2): 213-9.e1, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25066561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early termination of clinical trials due to low recruitment represents an understudied challenge for clinical research. We aimed to describe characteristics of cardiovascular trials terminated because of low recruitment and identify the major predictors of such early termination. METHODS: We reviewed all cardiovascular clinical trials (7,042 studies) registered in ClinicalTrials.gov from February 29, 2000, to January 17, 2013, and assessed information about trials that were completed and those that were terminated early. Logistic regression models were developed to identify independent predictors of early termination due to low recruitment. RESULTS: Our search strategy identified 6,279 cardiovascular clinical trials, of which 684 (10.9%) were terminated prematurely. Of these halted trials, the main reason for termination was lower than expected recruitment (278 trials; 53.6%). When comparing trials that terminated early because of low recruitment with those that were completed, we found that studies funded by the National Institutes of Health or other US federal agencies (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.89), studies of behavior/diet intervention (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.65), and single-arm design studies (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.78) were associated with a lower risk of early termination. University/hospital-funded (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10-2.10) and mixed-source-funded studies (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.52-3.01) were associated with a higher likelihood of early termination due to lower than expected recruitment rates. CONCLUSIONS: Low recruitment represents the main cause of early termination of cardiovascular clinical trials. Funding source, type of intervention, and study design are factors associated with early termination due to low recruitment and might be good targets for improving enrollment into cardiovascular clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Library of Medicine (U.S.) , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Viés de Seleção , Estados Unidos
10.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 21(1): 30-35, jan.-mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-674485

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: O registro ACCEPT foi idealizado com o propósito de identificar a incorporação de evidências no tratamento da síndrome coronária aguda. O objetivo da presente análise é descrever a terapia antitrombótica adotada no tratamento de pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) primária em centros participantes desse projeto nacional. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos o subgrupo de pacientes submetidos a ICP primária, aferindo as variáveis relacionadas às características demográficas bem como à prescrição de intervenções baseadas em evidências, com enfoque na farmacoterapia antitrombótica hospitalar e aos 6 meses de seguimento. RESULTADOS: No período de agosto de 2010 a dezembro de 2011 foram avaliados 588 pacientes com média de idade de 61,8 ± 12,3 anos, 75,2% pertencentes ao sexo masculino e 24,1% portadores de diabetes melito. A terapia antiplaquetária dupla mais comumente administrada foi a associação ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) e clopidogrel. Heparina não-fracionada e enoxaparina foram a terapêutica anticoagulante predominante durante e após o término do procedimento, respectivamente. Comparativamente à prescrição na fase intra-hospitalar, constatou-se, aos 6 meses de seguimento, queda significativa da taxa de pacientes em uso de AAS (98,3% vs. 93,9%; P < 0,0001) e clopidogrel (95,4% vs. 67,7%; P < 0,0001). CONCLUSÕES: No registro ACCEPT, elevado porcentual de prescrição hospitalar de terapia antiplaquetária dupla foi observado em pacientes submetidos a ICP primária, notadamente da associação AAS e clopidogrel, com redução inadvertida do último aos 6 meses de seguimento, motivando esforços para adequação das práticas fundamentadas por evidências.


BACKGROUND: The ACCEPT registry was designed with the purpose of identifying the incorporation of evidence in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The objective of this analysis is to describe the antithrombotic therapy adopted in the treatment of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in centers participating in this national project. METHODS: We evaluated the subgroup of patients undergoing primary PCI, measuring variables related to demographic characteristics as well as the prescription of evidence-based interventions, focusing on in-hospital and 6-month antithrombotic therapy. RESULTS: From August 2010 to December 2011, 588 patients with mean age of 61.8 ± 12.3 years were studied, 75.2% were males and 24.1% had diabetes mellitus. The dual antiplatelet therapy most commonly given was the combination of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel. Unfractionated heparin and enoxaparin were the predominant anticoagulation therapy during and after the procedure, respectively. When compared to in-hospital prescription, a significant decrease in the rate of patients using ASA (98.3% vs 93.9%; P < 0.0001) and clopidogrel (95.4% vs 67.7%; P < 0.0001) was observed at the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In the ACCEPT registry, a high percentage of in-hospital prescription of dual antiplatelet therapy was observed in patients undergoing primary PCI, notably the combination of ASA and clopidogrel, with an inadvertent reduction of clopidogrel at the 6-month follow-up, encouraging efforts to use evidence-based practices.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Angioplastia/métodos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Stents
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 7(4): 245-250, jul.-ago. 2009. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-522651

RESUMO

Justificativa e objetivos: Estudos clínicos em Medicina de urgência e emergência apresentam algumas peculiaridades em relação aos demais estudos, que por vezes dificultam sua condução, de acordo com princípios éticos e aspectos organizacionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as peculiaridades da pesquisa clínica em Medicina de urgência e emergência, para que o estudo clínico seja desenvolvido de acordo com as normas éticas, bem como discutir aspectos organizacionais de um centro de pesquisa nesta área. Conteúdo: Conforme as resoluções e normatizações nacionais e internacionais permitem-se a inclusão de sujeitos de pesquisa incapazes de fornecer consentimento informado prévio e sem possibilidade de contato com um representante legal e/ou familiar, somente quando esta for uma característica necessária para a população da pesquisa e após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em pesquisa, devendo a equipe e o centro de pesquisa organizado e adaptado a estas necessidades. Conclusão: A condução de estudos clínicos em medicina de urgência e emergência requer uma equipe qualificada e experiente a assuntos referentes à pesquisa clínica e uma estrutura física adequada. Apresenta peculiaridades, particularmente na abordagem do paciente e termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido, porém isto não isenta a aprovação de um Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa para os devidos procedimentos.


Background and objectives: Clinical trials in urgency and emergency medicine have some peculiarities in relation to other studies, thus hindering the conduct in accordance with ethical principles and organizational aspects. This article aims to describe the peculiarities of clinical research in urgency and emergency medicine for the clinical study is developed in accordance with ethical standards, and also discusses the aspects of a research center organization in this area. Contents: According to national and international laws It is possible the inclusion of subjects incapable of providing informed consent and without prior opportunity to contact a legal representative and/or family, only when it is a necessary feature for the population of the survey and only after the Ethical Committee approval, with the team and the research center are adapted to these needs. Conclusion: The conduct of clinical studies in urgency and emergency medicine and rescue team requires a qualified and experienced in the clinical research and an appropriate physical structure. Presents peculiarities with regard to the approach end of the patient and informed consent, but is not dispense for approval of the independent ethics committee.


Assuntos
Ética em Pesquisa , Medicina de Emergência/ética , Medicina de Emergência/organização & administração
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