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1.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe and life-threatening form of alcohol-associated liver disease. Only a minority of heavy drinkers acquires AH, suggesting a genetic basis for the susceptibility to and severity of AH. METHODS: A cohort consisting of 211 patients with AH and 176 heavy drinking controls was genotyped for five variants in five candidate genes that previously had been associated with chronic liver diseases: rs738409 in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3), rs72613567 in hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13), rs58542926 in transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2), rs641738 in membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7), and the copy number variant in the haptoglobin (HP) gene. We tested the effects of individual variants and the combined/interacting effects of variants on AH risk and severity. RESULTS: We found significant associations between AH risk and the risk alleles of rs738409 (P=0.0081) and HP (P=0.0371), but not rs72613567 (P=0.3132), rs58542926 (P=0.2180), nor rs641738 (P=0.7630), after adjusting for patient's age and sex. A multiple regression model indicated that PNPLA3 rs738409:G [OR=1.59 (95% CI: 1.15-2.22), P=0.0055] and HP*2 [OR=1.38 (95% CI: 1.04-1.82), P=0.0245] combined and adjusted for age and sex also had a large influence on AH risk among heavy drinkers. In the entire cohort, variants in PNPLA3 and HP were associated with increased total bilirubin and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, two measures of AH severity. The HSD17B13 rs72613567:AA allele was not found to reduce risk of AH in patients carrying the G allele of PNPLA3 rs738409 (P=0.0921). CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrates that PNPLA3 and HP genetic variants increase AH risk and are associated with total bilirubin and MELD score, surrogates of AH severity.

2.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21415, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566377

RESUMO

Acute liver failure (ALF) causes severe liver dysfunction that can lead to multi-organ failure and death. Previous studies suggest that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) protects against hepatocyte injury, yet not much is still known about its involvement in ALF. This study examines the role of SphK1 in D-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALF, which is a well-established experimental mouse model that mimics the fulminant hepatitis. Here we report that deletion of SphK1, but not SphK2, dramatically decreased GalN/LPS-induced liver damage, hepatic apoptosis, serum alanine aminotransferase levels, and mortality rate compared to wild-type mice. Whereas GalN/LPS treatment-induced hepatic activation of NF-κB and JNK in wild-type and SphK2-/- mice, these signaling pathways were reduced in SphK1-/- mice. Moreover, repression of ALF in SphK1-/- mice correlated with decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that SphK1 in bone marrow-derived infiltrating immune cells but not in host liver-resident cells, contribute to the development of ALF. Interestingly, LPS-induced TNFα production was drastically suppressed in SphK1-deleted macrophages, whereas IL-10 expression was markedly enhanced, suggesting a switch to the anti-inflammatory phenotype. Finally, treatment with a specific SphK1 inhibitor ameliorated inflammation and protected mice from ALF. Our findings suggest that SphK1 regulates TNFα secretion from macrophages and inhibition or deletion of SphK1 mitigated ALF. Thus, a potent inhibitor of SphK1 could potentially be a therapeutic agent for fulminant hepatitis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568794

RESUMO

Our understanding of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathophysiology continues to advance rapidly. Accordingly, the field has moved from describing the clinical phenotype through the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and degree of fibrosis to deep phenotyping with a description of associated comorbidities, genetic polymorphisms and environmental influences that could be associated with disease progression. These insights have fuelled a robust therapeutic pipeline across a variety of new targets to resolve steatohepatitis or reverse fibrosis, or both. Additionally, some of these therapies have beneficial effects that extend beyond the liver, such as effects on glycaemic control, lipid profile and weight loss. In addition, emerging therapies for NASH cirrhosis would have to demonstrate either reversal of fibrosis with associated reduction in portal hypertension or at least delay the progression with eventual decrease in liver-related outcomes. For non-cirrhotic NASH, it is the expectation that reversal of fibrosis by one stage or resolution of NASH with no worsening in fibrosis will need to be accompanied by overall survival benefits. In this Review, we summarize NASH therapies that have progressed to phase II and beyond. We also discuss some of the potential clinical challenges with the use of these new therapies when approved.

4.
Adv Cancer Res ; 149: 143-169, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579423

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major drivers for the rising trend in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Over the past three decades, the incidence of both NAFLD and HCC have increased two- to threefold. It has been forecasted that the number of patients with NAFLD in the Unites States will reach 101 million by 2030; global increase is also foreseen. This trend will likely continue to translate into increased HCC in the Unites States and across the globe. In this chapter, we summarize the current evidence linking NAFLD, metabolic syndrome, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and HCC. We describe the main molecular mechanisms connecting these metabolic perturbations and hepatocarcinogenesis.

5.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydrothermal duodenal mucosal resurfacing (DMR) is a safe, outpatient endoscopic procedure. REVITA-2, a double-blind, superiority randomised controlled trial, investigates safety and efficacy of DMR using the single catheter Revita system (Revita DMR (catheter and system)), on glycaemic control and liver fat content in type 2 diabetes (T2D). DESIGN: Eligible patients (haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 59-86 mmol/mol, body mass index≥24 and ≤40 kg/m2, fasting insulin >48.6 pmol/L, ≥1 oral antidiabetic medication) enrolled in Europe and Brazil. Primary endpoints were safety, change from baseline in HbA1c at 24 weeks, and liver MRI proton-density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) at 12 weeks. RESULTS: Overall mITT (DMR n=56; sham n=52), 24 weeks post DMR, median (IQR) HbA1c change was -10.4 (18.6) mmol/mol in DMR group versus -7.1 (16.4) mmol/mol in sham group (p=0.147). In patients with baseline liver MRI-PDFF >5% (DMR n=48; sham n=43), 12-week post-DMR liver-fat change was -5.4 (5.6)% in DMR group versus -2.9 (6.2)% in sham group (p=0.096). Results from prespecified interaction testing and clinical parameter assessment showed heterogeneity between European (DMR n=39; sham n=37) and Brazilian (DMR n=17; sham n=16) populations (p=0.063); therefore, results were stratified by region. In European mITT, 24 weeks post DMR, median (IQR) HbA1c change was -6.6 mmol/mol (17.5 mmol/mol) versus -3.3 mmol/mol (10.9 mmol/mol) post-sham (p=0.033); 12-week post-DMR liver-fat change was -5.4% (6.1%) versus -2.2% (4.3%) post-sham (p=0.035). Brazilian mITT results trended towards DMR benefit in HbA1c, but not liver fat, in context of a large sham effect. In overall PP, patients with high baseline fasting plasma glucose ((FPG)≥10 mmol/L) had significantly greater reductions in HbA1c post-DMR versus sham (p=0.002). Most adverse events were mild and transient. CONCLUSIONS: DMR is safe and exerts beneficial disease-modifying metabolic effects in T2D with or without non-alcoholic liver disease, particularly in patients with high FPG. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02879383.

6.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464677

RESUMO

AIMS: To conduct a systematic literature review to identify recent epidemiological, biomarker, genetic and clinical evidence that expands our understanding of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a metabolic disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a literature search using PubMed to identify trials, observational studies and meta-analyses published in the past 5 years. RESULTS: A total of 95 publications met prespecified inclusion criteria and reported on the interplay between NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic dysfunction, in terms of disease burden and/or epidemiology (n = 10), pathophysiology, risk factors and associated conditions (n = 29), diagnosis and biomarkers (n = 34), and treatment approaches (n = 22). There is a growing body of evidence on the links between NAFLD/NASH pathogenesis and mechanisms of metabolic dysfunction, through liver lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrogenic remodelling within the liver. The frequent co-occurrence of NAFLD with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes supports this premise. Therapeutic approaches originally envisaged for type 2 diabetes or obesity (such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, insulin sensitizers and bariatric surgery) have shown promising signs of benefit for patients with NAFLD/NASH. CONCLUSIONS: Given the complex interplay between NAFLD and metabolic dysfunction, there is an urgent need for multidisciplinary collaboration and established protocols for care of patients with NAFLD that are individualized and ideally support reduction of overall metabolic risk as well as treatment for NASH.

7.
Patient ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease characterized by excessive liver fat accumulation, inflammation, cell injury, and fibrosis. It is viewed as largely asymptomatic in its earlier (non-cirrhotic) stages, and information on the patient-perceived impact of NASH is scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a NASH-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure (NASH-CHECK) for use as a trial endpoint, using methods compliant with regulatory expectations. METHODS: A NASH conceptual model was developed based on the literature and clinical/patient expert review. The model guided concept elicitation (CE) interviews in patients with non-cirrhotic NASH recruited via a US tertiary care center. NASH-CHECK content was generated via thematic analysis of CE data and review by clinical/patient experts. Cognitive debriefing (CD) interviews with US patients evaluated content validity. RESULTS: The literature review confirmed that NASH impacts on functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Overall, 23 CE and 20 CD interviews were conducted. Key symptoms reported in CE interviews included pain in the upper-right abdomen (n = 14), fatigue (n = 18), poor sleep quality (n = 12), impaired memory (n = 13), and reduced focus (n = 11); key HRQoL impacts included impaired physical functioning, reduced ability to conduct daily living tasks, reduced quality of relationships, low mood, anxiety, and self-consciousness. The 52-item first-draft NASH-CHECK was reduced to 31 items based on patient feedback on item relevance, acceptability, and comprehension. CONCLUSIONS: The interviews revealed key symptoms and broad HRQoL impacts of NASH. As a disease-specific PRO measure assessing symptoms and HRQoL, the NASH-CHECK is relevant, comprehensive, and acceptable to patients and clinicians.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common disease that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but treatment options are limited. The efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist semaglutide in patients with NASH is not known. METHODS: We conducted a 72-week, double-blind phase 2 trial involving patients with biopsy-confirmed NASH and liver fibrosis of stage F1, F2, or F3. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 3:3:3:1:1:1 ratio, to receive once-daily subcutaneous semaglutide at a dose of 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg or corresponding placebo. The primary end point was resolution of NASH with no worsening of fibrosis. The confirmatory secondary end point was an improvement of at least one fibrosis stage with no worsening of NASH. The analyses of these end points were performed only in patients with stage F2 or F3 fibrosis; other analyses were performed in all the patients. RESULTS: In total, 320 patients (of whom 230 had stage F2 or F3 fibrosis) were randomly assigned to receive semaglutide at a dose of 0.1 mg (80 patients), 0.2 mg (78 patients), or 0.4 mg (82 patients) or to receive placebo (80 patients). The percentage of patients in whom NASH resolution was achieved with no worsening of fibrosis was 40% in the 0.1-mg group, 36% in the 0.2-mg group, 59% in the 0.4-mg group, and 17% in the placebo group (P<0.001 for semaglutide 0.4 mg vs. placebo). An improvement in fibrosis stage occurred in 43% of the patients in the 0.4-mg group and in 33% of the patients in the placebo group (P = 0.48). The mean percent weight loss was 13% in the 0.4-mg group and 1% in the placebo group. The incidence of nausea, constipation, and vomiting was higher in the 0.4-mg group than in the placebo group (nausea, 42% vs. 11%; constipation, 22% vs. 12%; and vomiting, 15% vs. 2%). Malignant neoplasms were reported in 3 patients who received semaglutide (1%) and in no patients who received placebo. Overall, neoplasms (benign, malignant, or unspecified) were reported in 15% of the patients in the semaglutide groups and in 8% in the placebo group; no pattern of occurrence in specific organs was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This phase 2 trial involving patients with NASH showed that treatment with semaglutide resulted in a significantly higher percentage of patients with NASH resolution than placebo. However, the trial did not show a significant between-group difference in the percentage of patients with an improvement in fibrosis stage. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02970942.).

10.
Hepatology ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The mechanisms by which the I148M mutant variant of the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3I148M ) drives development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not known. The aim of this study was to obtain insights on mechanisms underlying PNPLA3I148M induced acceleration of NASH. APPROACH & RESULTS: Hepatocyte-specific overexpression of empty vector (Luc), human wild-type PNPLA3 (PNPLA3WT ), or PNPLA3I148M was achieved using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-8 in DIAMOND mice followed by chow diet or high fat Western diet with ad lib administration of sugar in drinking water (WDSW) for 8 weeks. Under WDSW, PNPLA3I148M overexpression accelerated steatohepatitis with increased steatosis, inflammation ballooning and fibrosis (p< 0.001 vs other groups for all). Silencing PNPLA3I148M after its initial overexpression abrogated these findings. PNPLA3I148M caused 22:6n3 docosahexanoic acid depletion and increased ceramides under WDSW in addition to increasing triglycerides and diglycerides especially enriched with unsaturated fatty acids. It also increased oxidative stress and ER-stress. Increased total ceramides was associated with STAT3 activation with downstream activation of multiple immune-inflammatory pathways at a transcriptomic level by network analyses. Silencing PNPLA3I148M reversed STAT3 activation. Conditioned media from HepG2 cells overexpressing PNPLA3I148M increased procollagen mRNA expression in LX2 cells; this was abrogated by hepatocyte STAT3 inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Under WDSW, PNPLA3I148M overexpression promotes steatosis and NASH by metabolic reprogramming characterized by increased triglycerides and diglycerides, n3 PUFA depletion and increased ceramides with resultant STAT3 phosphorylation and downstream inflammatory pathway activation driving increased stellate cell fibrogenic activity.

11.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145763

RESUMO

Apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor (AATF), an interacting partner of RNA polymerase II is a multifunctional protein that is highly conserved in eukaryotes. In addition to the regulation of gene expression as a transcriptional coactivator, AATF is shown to play a dual role in regulating the cell cycle by displacing histone deacetylases 1 (HDAC1) from the retinoblastoma-E2F transcription factor (Rb-E2F) complex and also from the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor responsible for p21 expression, thereby ensuring cell proliferation and growth arrest, respectively, at different checkpoints of the cell cycle. Notably, AATF has emerged as one of the most important modulators of various cellular responses such as proliferation, apoptosis, and survival. Studies have demonstrated that AATF protects cells from multiple stress stimuli such as DNA damage, ER stress, hypoxia, or glucose deprivation by inducing cell cycle arrest, autophagy, or apoptosis inhibition. Furthermore, AATF serves as a critical regulator in various cancers and promotes tumorigenesis by protecting cancer cells from apoptosis induction, favoring cell proliferation, or promoting cell survival by autophagy. Recent studies have demonstrated the key role of AATF in ribosome biosynthesis and have also provided insights into the mechanistic role of AATF, offering impressive cytoprotection in myocardial infarction, neurologic diseases, and nephronophthisis. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the role of AATF and shed light on its emerging roles underlining the potential use of AATF as a novel biomarker and as an effective therapeutic target.

12.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 3(4): e00105, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102791

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in western populations, and is closely associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. The burden of disease is set to rise exponentially, and this is further compounded by the lack of good medications. In addition, these patients tend to have multiple comorbidities that may not be adequately managed. In this article, we review the biological basis of potential therapies in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the current drugs being tested in clinical trials, as well some practical considerations in managing patients in the clinic.

13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a serious clinical syndrome often associated with muscle wasting. Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily, has been studied in diseases with muscle wasting; however, the role of myostatin in AH is unknown. AIMS: To investigate the association between myostatin, clinical variables, and outcomes in AH. METHODS: We analyzed data for cases of AH and controls of heavy drinkers (HD) in TREAT001 (NCT02172898) with serum myostatin levels (AH: n = 131, HD: n = 124). We compared characteristics between the two groups at baseline, 30, and 90 days and explored correlations between myostatin and clinical variables. We then modeled the relationship of myostatin to other variables, including mortality. RESULTS: Baseline median myostatin was lower in AH compared to HD (males: 1.58 vs 3.06 ng/ml, p < 0.001; females: 0.84 vs 2.01 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In multivariable linear regression, bilirubin, WBC, and platelet count remained negatively correlated with myostatin in AH. AH females who died at 90 days had significantly lower myostatin, but in a multivariable logistic model with MELD and myostatin, only MELD remained significantly associated with 90-day mortality. During 1-year follow-up, AH cases (n = 30) demonstrated an increase in myostatin (mean, 1.73 ng/ml) which correlated with decreasing MELD scores (ρ = - 0.42, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Myostatin levels are significantly lower in AH compared to HD and are negatively correlated with total bilirubin, WBC, and platelet count. Myostatin increased as patients experienced decreases in MELD. Overall, myostatin demonstrated a dynamic relationship with AH outcomes and future studies are needed to understand the prognostic role of myostatin in AH.

14.
Hepatology ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111374

RESUMO

The role of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has evolved along with the increased recognition of the significance of this disease, and the unmet medical need it presents. Drug development and clinical trials are rapidly growing, as are non-invasive tests for markers of steatosis, inflammation, injury and fibrosis. Liver biopsy evaluation remains necessary for both drug development and clinical trials as the most specific means of diagnosis and patient identification for appropriate intervention. This White Paper, sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease NASH Task Force, is a focused review of liver biopsy evaluation in fatty liver disease in subjects with presumed NAFLD for practicing clinical hepatologists and pathologists. The goal is to provide succinct and specific means for reporting the histopathologic elements of NASH, distinguishing NASH from nonalcoholic fatty liver without steatohepatitis (NAFL), and from alcoholic steatohepatitis when possible. The discussion includes the special situations of NASH in advanced fibrosisor cirrhosis, and in the pediatric population. Finally, there is discussion of semiquantitative methods of evaluation of lesions of "disease activity" and fibrosis. Tables are present for scoring and a suggested model for final reporting. Figures presented highlight the histopathologic elements of NASH.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007508

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common cause of chronic liver disease,1 is independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD.2 This is likely caused by the centrality of the liver in lipid homeostasis. Prior cross-sectional studies have shown that NAFLD is associated with perturbations in lipid profile and atherogenic lipoprotein subparticles.3 Although statins improve lipid profile and CVD-associated mortality, residual CVD risk has been demonstrated in major statin trials.4,5 A key contributor to this residual risk is the limited ability of the standard lipid profile to precisely quantify atherogenic lipoprotein subparticles, such as small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL), which might confer higher atherogenic risk. There are currently no studies evaluating the longitudinal impact of sdLDL on atherosclerotic events in NAFLD. Thus, we conducted a prospective study in patients with histologically confirmed NAFLD to better define the relationship among NAFLD, residual CVD risk, and sdLDL.

16.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(10): 1430-1440, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024914

RESUMO

Hypogonadism affects hepatic lipid metabolism and is expected to promote nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aims of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of NAFLD in hypogonadal males and (2) the impact of correction of hypogonadism by LPCN 1144 (Lipocine, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), an oral testosterone prodrug, on NAFLD in this population. Data were derived from a multicenter open-label single-arm trial of LPCN 1144 for hypogonadal males, in which a subset (n = 36) had serial magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction measurements (National Clinical Trial 03868059). NAFLD prevalence, defined by magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction ≥5%, was 66%. Eighty-one percent of those with baseline liver fat (BL) ≥5% had improvement in liver fat content, and NAFLD resolved in 33% of subjects at 8 weeks (mean relative reduction: 45%) and 48% (mean relative reduction: 55%) after 16 weeks of LPCN 1144 therapy. The reduction in liver fat was greater in those with higher BL (BL ≥5%: 71%; BL ≥8%: 80%; and BL ≥10%: 75%). Normalization rate of alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase greater than the upper limit of normal range were 100% and 50% of treated patients, respectively. LPCN 1144 was not associated with major adverse events. Conclusion: Treatment with LPCN 1144 (oral T prodrug) in hypogonadal males with NAFLD resolved NAFLD in approximately half of the affected patients without any safety signals. Further studies are needed to validate its use in hypogonadal males with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

18.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(9): 1263-1278, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923831

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently one of most common forms of chronic liver disease globally. NAFLD represents a wide spectrum of liver involvement from nonprogressive isolated steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), characterized by liver necroinflammation and fibrosis and currently one of the top causes of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, there is a lack of effective treatments, and a central barrier to the development of therapies is the requirement for an invasive liver biopsy for diagnosis of NASH. Discovery of reliable, noninvasive biomarkers are urgently needed. In this study, we tested whether circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell-derived small membrane-surrounded structures with a rich cargo of bioactive molecules, may serve as reliable noninvasive "liquid biopsies" for NASH diagnosis and assessment of disease severity. Total circulating EVs and hepatocyte-derived EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography from serum samples of healthy individuals, patients with precirrhotic NASH, and patients with cirrhotic NASH. EVs were further characterized by flow cytometry, electron microscopy, western blotting, and dynamic light scattering assays before performing a proteomics analysis. Our findings suggest that levels of total and hepatocyte-derived EVs correlate with NASH clinical characteristics and disease severity. Additionally, using proteomics data, we developed understandable, powerful, and unique EV-based proteomic signatures for potential diagnosis of advanced NASH. Conclusion: Our study shows that the quantity and protein constituents of circulating EVs provide strong evidence for EV protein-based liquid biopsies for NAFLD/NASH diagnosis.

19.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(8): e00222, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: AXA1665 is a novel investigational amino acid (AA) composition specifically designed to impact AA imbalance, ammoniagenesis, and dysregulated anabolic activity associated with cirrhosis. METHODS: This 2-part study examined AXA1665 effects on safety, tolerability, and hepatic/muscle physiology in subjects with Child-Pugh A and B cirrhosis. Part 1 established plasma ammonia and AA concentration baselines with a standardized protein supplement. Part 2 included two 15-day domiciled periods separated by a 14-day washout. In period 1, subjects were randomly distributed to 2 groups: AXA1665 14.7 g t.i.d. (group 1) or control t.i.d. (group 2). In period 2, subjects from group 1 crossed over to control and those in group 2 crossed over to AXA1665 4.9 g t.i.d. All subjects were maintained on standard of care (standardized meals; 30-minute daily, supervised, mandatory physical activity; and daily late-evening snack). RESULTS: In parts 1 and 2, 23 and 17 participants were enrolled, respectively. Dose-dependent increases were observed in plasma concentrations of AXA1665-constituent AAs. Fasted branched-chain AA-to-aromatic AA and valine-to-phenylalanine ratios were both increased (AXA1665 14.7 g t.i.d. control-adjusted change: 44.3% ± 2.7% and 47.2% ± 3.9%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Despite provision of additional nitrogen, mean fasted plasma ammonia concentration at day 15 numerically decreased (-21.1% in AXA1665 14.7 g t.i.d. vs -3.8% in control; P > 0.05). AXA1665 14.7 g t.i.d. produced a leaner body composition and significantly decreased Liver Frailty Index at day 15 vs control (-0.70 ± 0.15 vs -0.14 ± 0.17; P < 0.05). AXA1665 was safe and well tolerated. DISCUSSION: AXA1665 has potential to mitigate core metabolic derangements associated with cirrhosis.

20.
J Infect Dis ; 222(11): 1794-1797, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856702

RESUMO

The Fibrosis-4 Index (FIB-4), developed to predict fibrosis in liver disease, was used to identify patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who will require ventilator support as well as those associated with 30-day mortality. Multivariate analysis found obesity (odds ratio [OR], 4.5), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.55), and FIB-4 ≥2.67 (OR, 3.09) independently associated with need for mechanical ventilation. When controlling for ventilator use, sex, and comorbid conditions, FIB-4 ≥2.67 was also associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR, 8.4 [95% confidence interval, 2.23-31.7]). Although it may not be measuring hepatic fibrosis, its components suggest that increases in FIB-4 may be reflecting systemic inflammation associated with poor outcomes.

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