Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 66
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 639, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance of pest insect species to insecticides, including B. thuringiensis (Bt) pesticidal proteins expressed by transgenic plants, is a threat to global food security. Despite the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, being a major pest of maize and having populations showing increasing levels of resistance to hybrids expressing Bt pesticidal proteins, the cell mechanisms leading to mortality are not fully understood. RESULTS: Twenty unique RNA-seq libraries from the Bt susceptible D. v. virgifera inbred line Ped12, representing all growth stages and a range of different adult and larval exposures, were assembled into a reference transcriptome. Ten-day exposures of Ped12 larvae to transgenic Bt Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize roots showed significant differential expression of 1055 and 1374 transcripts, respectively, compared to cohorts on non-Bt maize. Among these, 696 were differentially expressed in both Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize exposures. Differentially-expressed transcripts encoded protein domains putatively involved in detoxification, metabolism, binding, and transport, were, in part, shared among transcripts that changed significantly following exposures to the entomopathogens Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Metarhizium anisopliae. Differentially expressed transcripts in common between Bt and entomopathogen treatments encode proteins in general stress response pathways, including putative Bt binding receptors from the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Putative caspases, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factors were identified among transcripts uniquely up-regulated following exposure to either Bt protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the up-regulation of genes involved in ER stress management and apoptotic progression may be important in determining cell fate following exposure of susceptible D. v. virgifera larvae to Bt maize roots. This study provides novel insights into insect response to Bt intoxication, and a possible framework for future investigations of resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Praguicidas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Besouros/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regulação para Cima , Zea mays/genética
2.
Environ Entomol ; 50(3): 541-549, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008844

RESUMO

Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) populations have declined over the last two decades, attributable in part to declines in its larval host plant, milkweed (Asclepias spp.), across its breeding range. Conservation efforts in the United States call for restoration of 1.3 billion milkweed stems into the Midwestern landscape. Reaching this goal will require habitat establishment in marginal croplands, where there is a high potential for exposure to agrochemicals. Corn and soybean crops may be treated with neonicotinoid insecticides systemically or through foliar applications to provide protection against insect pests. Here, we investigate whether ovipositing monarchs discriminate against milkweed plants exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, either systemically or through foliar application. In our first experiment, we placed gravid females in enclosures containing a choice of two cut stems for oviposition: one in 15 ml of a 0.5 mg/ml aqueous solution of imidacloprid and one in 15 ml water. In a second experiment, females were given a choice of milkweed plants whose leaves were treated with 30 µl of a 0.825 mg/ml imidacloprid-surfactant solution or plants treated with surfactant alone. To evaluate oviposition preference, we counted and removed eggs from all plants daily for 3 d. We also collected video data on a subset of butterflies to evaluate landing behavior. Results indicate that neither systemic nor foliar treatment with imidacloprid influenced oviposition behavior in female monarchs. The implications of these findings for monarch conservation practices will be informed by the results of ongoing egg and larval toxicity studies.


Assuntos
Asclepias , Borboletas , Animais , Feminino , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Oviposição , Óvulo , Estados Unidos
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886610

RESUMO

The European sunflower moth, Homoesoma nebulellum (Denis et Schiffermüller), emerged as a major new pest in Bayannur, China, in 2006. Insecticidal control with a single application is problematic because timing is critical, and multiple applications increase production and environmental costs. Management of H. nebulellum by planting date adjustment can be effective, but the optimal time window for late planting is unknown. Natural levels of H. nebulellum infestation were compared among sunflowers planted on five dates from April 25 to June 5 in two years, and the relationship between timing of adult abundance and flowering assessed. Delaying planting of sunflower from the traditional planting period of April 25 -May 5 to May 15 -June 5 significantly decreased damage by H. nebulellum. Seed infestation rate was 30-40 times higher, and number of larvae/head 75-100 times higher in the earliest two plantings than in the latest two. Within two years of implementing delayed planting in Bayannur city, infestation area decreased from 72% in 2006 to 1.5% in 2008, and production losses decreased from 4.5 ton/ha in 2006 to 0.36 ton/ha in 2008, a 97% decrease compared to 2006. Moreover, the infestation area caused by H. nebulellum was continuously controlled below 5.3% of the planting area since 2008. We found the overlap between the first two days of flowering and peak adult presence was the key factor influencing level of damage caused by H. nebulellum. Because the number of eggs laid in the first two days of flowering accounted for 68% of the total, and sunflower seed infestation rate was positively correlated with the number of trapped adults weighted by proportion of daily oviposition. Oviposition of the majority of eggs in the first two days of flowering suggests an evolutionary mechanism whereby females choose host plants most conducive to larval development, consistent with the preference-performance hypothesis.


Assuntos
Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Horticultura , Inseticidas , Mariposas , Animais , China
4.
Environ Entomol ; 50(3): 523-531, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693559

RESUMO

A facultative commitment to adult migration in the larval stage can be modified again after adult emergence in some Lepidoptera when influenced by an appropriate environmental cue during a sensitive stage. This phenomenon is termed secondary regulation of migration. The sensitive stage in adult beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was determined experimentally by starvation of presumed migrant females reared from gregarious-phase larvae (induced by crowding at 10 larvae per 650-ml jar). When presumed migrant adults were starved for 24 h on either of the first 2 d after emergence, the preoviposition period was shortened. In contrast, preoviposition periods were not significantly shortened for migrants starved on day 3 or when starvation lasted for more than 1 d after emergence. Because the preoviposition period corresponds to the migratory period in beet webworm, the results suggest that the first 2 d of adult life in the beet webworm is the sensitive stage during which presumed migrants can be switched to residents by an appropriate environmental cue. During the sensitive stage or not, starvation did not influence lifetime fecundity, oviposition period, longevity, or hatching rate of eggs laid by the starvation-stressed moths. Starvation on the first day also increased tethered flight performance and accelerated both flight muscle and ovarian development. The results suggest that a pulse of starvation in the sensitive period may inhibit the expected migration by accelerating and compressing the cycle of migratory flight muscle development and degeneration, while accelerating ovarian development, which is normally suppressed until after migration.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Oviposição , Óvulo
5.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572446

RESUMO

Analysis of pooled genomic short read sequence data revealed the presence of nudivirus-derived sequences from U.S. populations of both southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) and western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte). A near complete nudivirus genome sequence was assembled from sequence data for an SCR population with relatively high viral titers. A total of 147,179 bp was assembled from five contigs that collectively encode 109 putative open reading frames (ORFs) including 20 nudivirus core genes. In contrast, genome sequence recovery was incomplete for a second nudivirus from WCR, although sequences derived from this virus were present in three geographically dispersed populations. Only 48,989 bp were assembled with 48 putative ORFs including 13 core genes, representing about 20% of a typical nudivirus genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both corn rootworm nudiviruses grouped with the third known nudivirus of beetles, Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus in the genus Alphanudivirus. On the basis of phylogenetic and additional analyses, we propose further taxonomic separation of nudiviruses within Alphanudivirus and Betanudivirus into two subfamilies and five genera. Identification of nudivirus-derived sequences from two species of corn rootworm highlights the diversity of viruses associated with these agricultural insect pests.


Assuntos
Besouros/virologia , Nudiviridae/genética , Animais , Besouros/classificação , DNA Viral/genética , Genes Virais , Genoma Viral/genética , Genômica , Nudiviridae/classificação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Viroma/genética
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11626, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669571

RESUMO

In migratory insects, increasing evidence has demonstrated juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in regulating adult reproduction and flight. Our previous study demonstrated that the switch from migrants to residents in Mythimna separata could be induced by adverse environmental conditions during a sensitive period in adulthood (the first day post-emergence), but the role of JH in this switch is not clear. Here, we found a significantly different pattern of JH titers between migrants and residents, with migrants showing a slower release of JH during adulthood than residents. Application of JH analogue (JHA) in the 1-day-old adults, significantly accelerated adult reproduction and suppressed flight capacity. The pre-oviposition period and period of first oviposition of migrants treated with JHA were significantly shorter, while the total lifetime fecundity and mating percentage increased. The flight capacity and dorso-longitudinal muscle size of the migrants were decreased significantly when treated with JHA. The effect of JHA on reproduction and flight capacity indicate that JH titers during the sensitive period (first day post-emergence) regulates the shift from migrants to residents in M. separata.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Voo Animal , Hormônios Juvenis/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Músculos/fisiologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Fertilidade , Oviposição , Reprodução
7.
J Vis Exp ; (152)2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736493

RESUMO

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Knowledge of western corn rootworm dispersal is of critical importance for models of resistance evolution, spread, and mitigation. Flight behavior of an insect, especially over a long distance, is inherently difficult to observe and characterize. Flight mills provide a means to directly test developmental and physiological impacts and consequences of flight in the laboratory that cannot be obtained in field studies. In this study, flight mills were used to measure the timing of flight activity, total number of flights, and the distance, duration, and speed of flights taken by female rootworms during a 22-h test period. Sixteen flight mills were housed in an environmental chamber with programmable lighting, temperature, and humidity control. The flight mill described is of a typical design, where a flight arm is free to rotate about a central pivot. Rotation is caused by flight of an insect tethered to one end of the flight arm, and each rotation is recorded by a sensor with a time-stamp. Raw data are compiled by software, which are subsequently processed to provide summary statistics for flight parameters of interest. The most difficult task for any flight mill study is attachment of the tether to the insect with an adhesive, and the method used must be tailored to each species. The attachment must be strong enough to hold the insect in a rigid orientation and to prevent detachment during movement, while not interfering with natural wing motion during flight. The attachment process requires dexterity, finesse, and speed, making video footage of the process for rootworms of value.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Software
8.
Mol Ecol ; 28(19): 4439-4452, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495004

RESUMO

Patterns of mating for the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) moth depend in part on variation in sex-pheromone blend. The ratio of (E)-11- and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11- and Z11-14:OAc) in the pheromone blend that females produce and males respond to differs between strains of O. nubilalis. Populations also vary in female oviposition preference for and larval performance on maize (C4) and nonmaize (C3) host plants. The relative contributions of sexual and ecological trait variation to the genetic structure of O. nubilalis remains unknown. Host-plant use (13 C/14 C ratios) and genetic differentiation were estimated among sympatric E and Z pheromone strain O. nubilalis males collected in sex-pheromone baited traps at 12 locations in Pennsylvania and New York between 2007 and 2010. Among genotypes at 65 single nucleotide polymorphism marker loci, variance at a position in the pheromone gland fatty acyl-reductase (pgfar) gene at the locus responsible for determining female pheromone ratio (Pher) explained 64% of the total genetic differentiation between males attracted to different pheromones (male response, Resp), providing evidence of sexual inter-selection at these unlinked loci. Principal coordinate, Bayesian clustering, and distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) demonstrate that host plant history or geography does not significantly contribute to population variation or differentiation among males. In contrast, these analyses indicate that pheromone response and pgfar-defined strain contribute significantly to population genetic differentiation. This study suggests that behavioural divergence probably plays a larger role in driving genetic variation compared to host plant-defined ecological adaptation.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Genômica , Mariposas/genética , Atrativos Sexuais , Zea mays/parasitologia , Animais , Ecologia , Feminino , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Mariposas/fisiologia , New York , Oviposição , Pennsylvania , Reprodução , Simpatria
9.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212696, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822329

RESUMO

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Knowledge of insect dispersal is of critical importance for models of resistance evolution. Larval density affects survival in the field, and stress from crowding often affects facultative long-distance dispersal of adult insects. In this study, we used laboratory flight mills to characterize western corn rootworm flight performance as a function of larval rearing density. Larvae were reared under three densities and the resulting adult females were either allowed to fly voluntarily for 22 h or forced to fly specified durations. For both experiments we also measured lifetime fecundity following flight. The three rearing densities placed differential levels of stress on individuals, as evidenced by decreased survival to adulthood and decreased size of adults at greater rearing density. When larvae were reared under crowded conditions the resulting females were more likely to engage in flight activity, including long uninterrupted flights lasting >10 min, than those reared under low density conditions. Flight and egg production are both energy intensive processes. However, we found no evidence in either voluntary or forced flight experiments of a tradeoff between flight activity and female fecundity. The results suggest that females emerging from high density populations in cornfields are more likely to disperse and disperse farther than those emerging from low density populations. These results are important because they imply that variation in population density in the landscape will affect dispersal, which may in turn require computer models of resistance evolution to incorporate multiple dispersal rates arising from varying larval densities among fields.


Assuntos
Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
10.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 26: 50-56, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764660

RESUMO

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a model species for elucidating mechanisms underlying adaptively differentiated subpopulations in the face of reciprocal gene flow, and is a major pest of cultivated maize in North America and Eurasia. Strains are characterized by different pheromone communication systems in combination with voltinism strains that are adapted to distinct local climate and photoperiod through adjustments in diapause traits. However, only partial barriers to inter-strain hybridization exist in areas of sympatry. Recent research shows that genes governing important strain-specific isolating traits are disproportionately located on the Z-chromosome. Furthermore, co-adapted combinations of some of these genes are non-recombining due to location within a large chromosomal inversion, and assist in maintaining strain integrity despite hybridization.


Assuntos
Mariposas/genética , Simpatria/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma de Inseto , Hibridização Genética , Masculino , Feromônios/genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Zea mays
11.
J Econ Entomol ; 111(3): 1243-1248, 2018 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635293

RESUMO

To understand the migratory flight behaviors of the loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), both tethered (flight distance, time, and velocity) and free-flight activity (flight action, duration, and frequency) of adults at different ages, sexes, and temperatures were investigated using computer-controlled insect flight mills and an autonomous flight monitoring system. Tethered flight activity differed significantly among ages and rearing temperature, but not sex. Newly emerged adults (the first day after emergence) displayed the lowest flight time, distance, and speed. However, flight performance increased with age, peaking at 3 d. Relatively strong flight performance was maintained up to 5 d postemergence and then declined significantly by day 6. There was no significant difference in flight performance between sexes for 3-d-old moths. Adults reared as larvae at 24°C averaged significantly longer flight duration and distance than those reared at other temperatures. Both lower and higher rearing temperatures negatively affected tethered flight. Similar results among age and rearing temperature treatments were observed in autonomous free-flight tests. During 12-h free-flight tests, flight activity peaked from 6 to 10 h after beginning of darkness. Free-flight activity of 1- and 6-d-old adults was significantly less than that of 3-, 4-, and 5-d-old adults. Adults reared at 24°C showed significantly greater free-flight action, duration, and frequency than those reared at other temperatures. The results suggest that M. loreyi may be a migratory species.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Mariposas/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Migração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Temperatura
12.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 21: 68-74, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822491

RESUMO

Gene flow via immigration affects rate of evolution of resistance to a pest management tactic, while emigration from a resistant population can spread resistance alleles spatially. Whether resistance detected across the landscape reflects ongoing de novo evolution in different hotspots or spread from a single focal population can determine the most effective mitigation strategy. Pest dispersal dynamics determine the spatio-temporal scale at which mitigation tactics must be applied to contain or reverse resistance in an area. Independent evolution of resistance in different populations appears common but not universal. Conversely, spatial spread appears to be almost inevitable. However, rate and scale of spread depends largely on dispersal dynamics and interplay with factors such as fitness costs, spatially variable selection pressure and whether resistance alleles are spreading through an established population or being carried by populations colonizing new territory.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Insetos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fluxo Gênico , Insetos/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores
13.
J Econ Entomol ; 110(4): 1583-1591, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541530

RESUMO

The Mythimna (=Leucania) loreyi (Duponchel) has recently emerged as a major pest of grain crops in China. Little is known about its basic biology and ecology, making it difficult to predict its population dynamics. An age-stage, two-sex life table was constructed for this insect when reared on maize in the laboratory at five constant temperatures (18, 21, 24, 27, and 30 °C). Both the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate increase (λ) increased as temperature significantly increased and mean generation time (T) decreased significantly with increasing temperature. The highest values for net reproductive rate (R0) and fecundity were observed at 24 °C. However, M. loreyi was able to develop, survive, and lay eggs at all temperatures tested (18-30 °C). Development rates at different temperatures for the egg, larval, pupal, as well as for a total preoviposition period, fit a linear equation. The lower threshold temperatures of egg, larval, pupal, preoviposition, and total preoviposition period were 8.83, 10.95, 11.67, 9.30, and 9.65 °C, respectively. And their effective accumulated temperatures were 87.64, 298.51, 208.33, 66.47, and 729.93 degree-days, respectively. This study provides insight into the temperature-based phenology and population ecology in M. loreyi. The results will benefit population dynamics monitoring, prediction, and management of this insect pest in the field.


Assuntos
Mariposas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução , Temperatura
14.
Genome Announc ; 5(20)2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522718

RESUMO

The genome of a novel small RNA virus, tentatively named Diabrotica virgifera virgifera virus 2 (DvvV2), was identified in the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, through transcriptome sequencing and confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Here, we report the near-complete nucleotide sequence and the genome organization of DvvV2.

15.
Genome Announc ; 5(20)2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522719

RESUMO

The genome sequence of a novel small RNA virus was assembled from the transcriptome of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera The assembled genome has 13,182 nucleotides with a 3' polyadenylated tail. Two open reading frames are predicted to encode polyproteins of 2,838 and 1,073 amino acids.

16.
Genome Announc ; 5(6)2017 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183753

RESUMO

The genome sequence of a novel iflavirus was identified from the transcriptome of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera The RNA sequence consists of 9,823 nucleotides (nt) with a 3' polyadenylated tail, containing a single open reading frame that encodes a 3,028-amino-acid polyprotein.

17.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166859, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27893835

RESUMO

Flight and reproduction are usually considered as two life history traits that compete for resources in a migratory insect. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L., manages the costs of migratory flight and reproduction through a trade-off in timing of these two life history traits, where migratory behavior occurs during the preoviposition period. To gain insight into how migratory flight and reproduction are coordinated in the female beet webworm, we conducted experiments beginning at the end of the preoviposition period. We used flight mills to test whether flight performance and supportive flight musculature and fuel are affected by the number of eggs oviposited, or by the age of mated and unmated females after onset of oviposition by the former. The results showed that flight distance, flight velocity, flight duration, and flight muscle mass decreased abruptly at the onset of oviposition, compared to that of virgin females of the same age which did not change over the next 7 d. These results indicate that onset of oviposition triggers a decrease in flight performance and capacity in female beet webworms, as a way of actively managing reallocation of resources away from migratory flight and into egg production. In addition to the abrupt switch, there was a gradual, linear decline in flight performance, flight muscle mass, and flight fuel relative to the number of eggs oviposited. The histolysis of flight muscle and decrease of triglyceride content indicate a progressive degradation in the ability of adults to perform additional migratory flights after onset of oviposition. Although the results show that substantial, albeit reduced, long-duration flights remain possible after oviposition begins, additional long-distance migratory flights probably are not launched after the initiation of oviposition.


Assuntos
Voo Animal/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Oviposição/fisiologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
J Econ Entomol ; 109(4): 1603-11, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27329620

RESUMO

To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatch, survival of first-fifth instars, survival of the full larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were investigated at combinations of four temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) and five relative humidities (RH; 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). We found that greatest egg hatch rate, survival rates of the first and second instars, and survival rate of the complete larval stage occurred at 22°C and 60-80% RH; the lowest values for these parameters were observed at 30°C and 20% RH. Survival of first instars was significantly affected by the interaction of temperature and relative humidity. However, survival of third and fourth instars was neither affected by temperature nor relative humidity, and that of fifth instars was significantly affected only by relative humidity level. The survival curve for larvae was well described by a type III Weibull distribution. Duration of larval stage decreased as temperature increased, but was not affected by relative humidity. We therefore conclude that eggs and early instars are the most critical stages for survival to the pupal stage, and 22-26°C and 60-80% RH are the optimum conditions for their survival and development. These findings confirm that temperature and relative humidity are the critical environmental factors affecting the population growth of L. sticticalis, with temperature being more important.


Assuntos
Mariposas/fisiologia , Animais , Umidade , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Longevidade , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Temperatura
19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 26873, 2016 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27324469

RESUMO

Tritrophic interactions between Mythimna separata, its tachinid parasite Exorista civilis and the Cry1Ab were examined. Although 6th instar M. separata mortality increased with increasing Cry1Ab concentration, some tolerance was evident. Likewise, parasitization by E. civilis resulted in only 18% host mortality. However, combination of Cry1Ab and E. civilis parasitization resulted in a significant Cry1Ab dose-dependent increase in mortality over that of either alone, including a 50-56% synergistic increase in efficacy at the two concentrations tested. Pupal weight, adult emergence and lifetime fecundity of M. separata derived from larvae surviving both agents were negatively affected. The ability of E. civilis to parasitize and subsequently develop on the host was not adversely influenced by Cry1Ab. Instead, pupation rate increased significantly among host larvae fed 3.125 µg/g Cry1Ab diet. Overall, our results demonstrate that use of Cry1Ab to control M. separata not only is compatible with the use of the tachinid parasitoid, but that the two methods can act synergistically to manage this destructive pest, provide support for the safety of transgenic Cry1Ab Bt plants in China. This example of two independent pest management strategies acting synergistically against a difficult pest offers a new perspective of broad significance in striving for agricultural sustainability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , China , Dípteros/patogenicidade , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/parasitologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/parasitologia
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 109(1): 1-12, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26362989

RESUMO

Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high-dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field, leading to local loss of efficacy for some corn rootworm Bt maize events. Documenting and responding to this resistance has been complicated by a lack of rapid diagnostic bioassays and by regulatory triggers that hinder timely and effective management responses. These failures are of great concern to the scientific and agricultural community. Specific challenges posed by western corn rootworm resistance to Bt maize, and more general concerns around Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose of Bt toxin, have caused uncertainty around current IRM protocols. More than 15 years of experience with IRM has shown that high-dose and refuge-based IRM is not applicable to Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose. Adaptive IRM approaches and pro-active, integrated IRM-pest management strategies are needed and should be in place before release of new technologies that produce less than a high-dose. We suggest changes in IRM strategies to preserve the utility of corn rootworm Bt maize by 1) targeting local resistance management earlier in the sequence of responses to resistance and 2) developing area-wide criteria to address widespread economic losses. We also favor consideration of policies and programs to counteract economic forces that are contributing to rapid resistance evolution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Resistência a Inseticidas , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...