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1.
Anesthesiology ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651439

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Low vitamin D is common in the general populationIn nonsurgical populations, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and coronary artery diseaseIn nonsurgical populations, low vitamin D concentrations are also associated with increased risk of some infections and renal injury WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Vitamin D deficiency was common in this surgical populationPreoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomesThere was an association between low vitamin D and a composite of infectious complications, and also evidence for an association with decreased kidney function BACKGROUND:: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and infectious risks. Postsurgical patients are susceptible to similar complications, but whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to postoperative complications remains unclear. We tested whether low preoperative vitamin D is associated with cardiovascular events within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We evaluated a subset of patients enrolled in the biobank substudy of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) study, who were at least 45 yr with at least an overnight hospitalization. Blood was collected preoperatively, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored samples. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial injury, nonfatal cardiac arrest, stroke, congestive heart failure) within 30 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were kidney injury and infectious complications. RESULTS: A total of 3,851 participants were eligible for analysis. Preoperative 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 70 ± 30 nmol/l, and 62% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Overall, 26 (0.7%) patients died, 41 (1.1%) had congestive heart failure or nonfatal cardiac arrest, 540 (14%) had myocardial injury, and 15 (0.4%) had strokes. Preoperative vitamin D concentration was not associated with the primary outcome (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.93 [0.85, 1.01] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P = 0.095). However, it was associated with postoperative infection (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.94 [0.90, 0.98] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.005) and kidney function (estimated mean change in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [95% CI]: 0.29 [0.11, 0.48] ml · min · 1.73 m per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomes. However, there was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and a composite of infectious complications and decreased kidney function. While renal effects were not clinically meaningful, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on infectious complications requires further study.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(20): e009684, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371261

RESUMO

Background Noncardiovascular death is increasingly common in people with chronic heart failure ( CHF ), yet its causes remain poorly characterized. We aimed to define the prevalence of sepsis death in people with CHF and to ascertain its risk marker profile. Methods and Results We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1802 patients with CHF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% attending CHF clinics in 4 United Kingdom hospitals between 2006 and 2014. Mode of death was defined over a 10.3-year follow-up period (mean 4 years). Competing risk regression defined mode-specific hazard ratios for sepsis, other noncardiovascular, progressive heart failure, and sudden cardiac death in relation to established heart failure prognostic markers. Of 737 deaths, 173 (23.5%) were due to sepsis; respiratory tract infections accounted for 69.9% (n=121) of these events. Those who died from sepsis were older, had higher platelet counts, and had a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than those who died from other causes. Sepsis death was independently associated with older age (hazard ratio=1.05; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.07), greater prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.43; 1.74-3.40), male sex (1.73; 1.16-2.60), lower log serum vitamin D (0.68; 0.49-0.95), and higher platelet count (1.002; 1.000-1.005) than nonsepsis death. Established heart failure prognostic markers exhibited different patterns of association with sepsis death, other noncardiovascular death, progressive heart failure death, and sudden cardiac death. Conclusions Sepsis is a major contributor to death in people with CHF and has a different risk marker profile from other modes of death, suggesting that it may be amenable to targeted preventative strategies.

3.
Can J Surg ; 61(3): 185-194, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a mostly asymptomatic condition that is strongly associated with 30-day mortality; however, it remains mostly undetected without systematic troponin T monitoring. We evaluated the cost and consequences of postoperative troponin T monitoring to detect MINS. METHODS: We conducted a model-based cost-consequence analysis to compare the impact of routine troponin T monitoring versus standard care (troponin T measurement triggered by ischemic symptoms) on the incidence of MINS detection. Model inputs were based on Canadian patients enrolled in the Vascular Events in Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study, which enrolled patients aged 45 years or older undergoing inpatient noncardiac surgery. We conducted probability analyses with 10 000 iterations and extensive sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The data were based on 6021 patients (48% men, mean age 65 [standard deviation 12] yr). The 30-day mortality rate for MINS was 9.6%. We determined the incremental cost to avoid missing a MINS event as $1632 (2015 Canadian dollars). The cost-effectiveness of troponin monitoring was higher in patient subgroups at higher risk for MINS, e.g., those aged 65 years or more, or with a history of atherosclerosis or diabetes ($1309). CONCLUSION: The costs associated with a troponin T monitoring program to detect MINS were moderate. Based on the estimated incremental cost per health gain, implementation of postoperative troponin T monitoring seems appealing, particularly in patients at high risk for MINS.

4.
Heart ; 104(12): 993-998, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the association between socioeconomic deprivation and adverse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS: We prospectively observed 1802 patients with CHF and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45%, recruited in four UK hospitals between 2006 and 2014. We assessed the association between deprivation defined by the UK Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) and: mode-specific mortality (mean follow-up 4 years); mode-specific hospitalisation; and the cumulative duration of hospitalisation (after 1 year). RESULTS: A 45-point difference in mean IMD score was noted between patients residing in the least and most deprived quintiles of geographical regions. Deprivation was associated with age, sex and comorbidity, but not CHF symptoms, LVEF or prescribed drug therapy. IMD score was associated with the risk of age-sex adjusted all-cause mortality (6% higher risk per 10-unit increase in IMD score; 95% CI 2% to 10%; P=0.004), and non-cardiovascular mortality (9% higher risk per 10-unit increase in IMD score; 95% CI 3% to 16%; P=0.003), but not cardiovascular mortality. All-cause, but not heart failure-specific, hospitalisation was also more common in the most deprived patients. Overall, patients spent a cumulative 3.3 days in hospital during 1 year of follow-up, with IMD score being associated with the age-sex adjusted cumulative duration of hospitalisations (4% increase in duration per 10-unit increase in IMD score; 95% CI 3% to 6%; P<0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic deprivation in people with CHF is linked to increased risk of death and hospitalisation due to an excess of non-cardiovascular events.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 41(1): 136-142, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes increases mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Studies have questioned the safety of ß-adrenoceptor blockers (ß-blockers) in some patients with diabetes and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. We examined whether ß-blockers and ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) are associated with differential effects on mortality in CHF patients with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,797 patients with CHF recruited between 2006 and 2014, with mean follow-up of 4 years. ß-Blocker dose was expressed as the equivalent dose of bisoprolol (mg/day) and ACEI dose as the equivalent dose of ramipril (mg/day). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between diabetes and drug dose on all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes were prescribed larger doses of ß-blockers and ACEIs than were patients without diabetes. Increasing ß-blocker dose was associated with lower mortality in patients with diabetes (8.9% per mg/day; 95% CI 5-12.6) and without diabetes (3.5% per mg/day; 95% CI 0.7-6.3), although the effect was larger in people with diabetes (interaction P = 0.027). Increasing ACEI dose was associated with lower mortality in patients with diabetes (5.9% per mg/day; 95% CI 2.5-9.2) and without diabetes (5.1% per mg/day; 95% CI 2.6-7.6), with similar effect size in these groups (interaction P = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing ß-blocker dose is associated with a greater prognostic advantage in CHF patients with diabetes than in CHF patients without diabetes.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Ann Surg ; 268(2): 357-363, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic relevance, clinical characteristics, and 30-day outcomes associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) in vascular surgical patients. BACKGROUND: MINS has been independently associated with 30-day mortality after noncardiac surgery. The characteristics and prognostic importance of MINS in vascular surgery patients are poorly described. METHODS: This was an international prospective cohort study of 15,102 noncardiac surgery patients 45 years or older, of whom 502 patients underwent vascular surgery. All patients had fourth-generation plasma troponin T (TnT) concentrations measured during the first 3 postoperative days. MINS was defined as a TnT of 0.03 ng/mL of higher secondary to ischemia. The objectives of the present study were to determine (i) if MINS is prognostically important in vascular surgical patients, (ii) the clinical characteristics of vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, (iii) the 30-day outcomes for vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, and (iv) the proportion of MINS that probably would have gone undetected without routine troponin monitoring. RESULTS: The incidence of MINS in the vascular surgery patients was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 15.7%-22.6%). 30-day all-cause mortality in the vascular cohort was 12.5% (95% CI 7.3%-20.6%) in patients with MINS compared with 1.5% (95% CI 0.7%-3.2%) in patients without MINS (P < 0.001). MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality in vascular patients (odds ratio, 9.48; 95% CI, 3.46-25.96). The 30-day mortality was similar in MINS patients with (15.0%; 95% CI, 7.1-29.1) and without an ischemic feature (12.2%; 95% CI, 5.3-25.5, P = 0.76). The proportion of vascular surgery patients who suffered MINS without overt evidence of myocardial ischemia was 74.1% (95% CI, 63.6-82.4). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 5 patients experienced MINS after vascular surgery. MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality. The majority of patients with MINS were asymptomatic and would have gone undetected without routine postoperative troponin measurement.

7.
JAMA ; 317(16): 1642-1651, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444280

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about the relationship between perioperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measurements and 30-day mortality and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). Objective: To determine the association between perioperative hsTnT measurements and 30-day mortality and potential diagnostic criteria for MINS (ie, myocardial injury due to ischemia associated with 30-day mortality). Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years or older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a postoperative hsTnT measurement. Starting in October 2008, participants were recruited at 23 centers in 13 countries; follow-up finished in December 2013. Exposures: Patients had hsTnT measurements 6 to 12 hours after surgery and daily for 3 days; 40.4% had a preoperative hsTnT measurement. Main Outcomes and Measures: A modified Mazumdar approach (an iterative process) was used to determine if there were hsTnT thresholds associated with risk of death and had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.0 or higher and a risk of 30-day mortality of 3% or higher. To determine potential diagnostic criteria for MINS, regression analyses ascertained if postoperative hsTnT elevations required an ischemic feature (eg, ischemic symptom or electrocardiography finding) to be associated with 30-day mortality. Results: Among 21 842 participants, the mean age was 63.1 (SD, 10.7) years and 49.1% were female. Death within 30 days after surgery occurred in 266 patients (1.2%; 95% CI, 1.1%-1.4%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that compared with the reference group (peak hsTnT <5 ng/L), peak postoperative hsTnT levels of 20 to less than 65 ng/L, 65 to less than 1000 ng/L, and 1000 ng/L or higher had 30-day mortality rates of 3.0% (123/4049; 95% CI, 2.6%-3.6%), 9.1% (102/1118; 95% CI, 7.6%-11.0%), and 29.6% (16/54; 95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%), with corresponding adjusted HRs of 23.63 (95% CI, 10.32-54.09), 70.34 (95% CI, 30.60-161.71), and 227.01 (95% CI, 87.35-589.92), respectively. An absolute hsTnT change of 5 ng/L or higher was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.52-6.25). An elevated postoperative hsTnT (ie, 20 to <65 ng/L with an absolute change ≥5 ng/L or hsTnT ≥65 ng/L) without an ischemic feature was associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.37-4.32). Among the 3904 patients (17.9%; 95% CI, 17.4%-18.4%) with MINS, 3633 (93.1%; 95% CI, 92.2%-93.8%) did not experience an ischemic symptom. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, peak postoperative hsTnT during the first 3 days after surgery was significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Elevated postoperative hsTnT without an ischemic feature was also associated with 30-day mortality.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
8.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 13(5): 331-40, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of death and hospitalisation in patients with chronic heart failure. Better understanding of potential underlying mechanisms may aid the development of diabetes mellitus-specific chronic heart failure therapeutic strategies. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of 628 patients with chronic heart failure associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction receiving contemporary evidence-based therapy. Indices of cardiac structure and function, along with symptoms and biochemical parameters, were compared in patients with and without diabetes mellitus at study recruitment and 1 year later. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes mellitus (24.2%) experienced higher rates of all-cause [hazard ratio, 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.0)] and chronic heart failure-specific mortality and hospitalisation despite comparable pharmacological and device-based therapies. At study recruitment, patients with diabetes mellitus were more symptomatic, required greater diuretic doses and more frequently had radiologic evidence of pulmonary oedema, despite higher left ventricular ejection fraction. They also exhibited echocardiographic evidence of increased left ventricular wall thickness and pulmonary arterial pressure. Diabetes mellitus was associated with reduced indices of heart rate variability and increased heart rate turbulence. During follow-up, patients with diabetes mellitus experienced less beneficial left ventricular remodelling and greater deterioration in renal function. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus is associated with features of adverse structural and functional cardiac remodelling in patients with chronic heart failure.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/terapia , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Inglaterra , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia
9.
Heart ; 102(10): 735-40, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Define the real-world performance of recently updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (TA314) on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use in people with chronic heart failure. METHODS: Multicentre prospective cohort study of 1026 patients with stable chronic heart failure, associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% recruited in cardiology outpatient departments of four UK hospitals. We assessed the capacity of TA314 to identify patients at increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or appropriate ICD shock. RESULTS: The overall risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock was 2.1 events per 100 patient-years (95% CI 1.7 to 2.6). Patients meeting TA314 ICD criteria (31.1%) were 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.6 to 3.9) more likely to suffer SCD or appropriate ICD shock; they were also 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2) more likely to die from non-cardiovascular causes and 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3) more likely to die from progressive heart failure. Patients with diabetes not meeting TA314 criteria experienced comparable absolute risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock to patients without diabetes who met TA314 criteria. Patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy not meeting TA314 criteria experienced comparable absolute risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock to patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy who met TA314 criteria. CONCLUSIONS: TA314 can identify patients with reduced LVEF who are at increased relative risk of sudden death. Clinicians should also consider clinical context and the absolute risk of SCD when advising patients about the potential risks and benefits of ICD therapy.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/normas , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/mortalidade , Cardioversão Elétrica/normas , Inglaterra , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Falha de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
10.
Int J Cardiol ; 203: 141-4, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26512829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an established adverse prognostic factor in patients sustaining myocardial infarction (MI). However, its impact on long-term survival remains less clear. The aim of this observational study was to quantify lifetime mortality and years of life lost after MI in patients with and without DM. METHODS: In 1995, 2153 individuals with MI were recruited from 20 adjacent hospitals within Yorkshire, UK. Median survival, all-cause mortality at 20 years and lost years of life when compared to actuarial predictions were compared in patients with and without DM. Landmark analyses were conducted to define the ongoing impact of DM beyond specified time points. RESULTS: 13% (279/2153) had known DM. They experienced higher mortality at 30 days (33.1% vs 24.6%; p<0.0001) and at 20 years (84.9% vs 75.7%; p<0.0001). Overall, there was a 48% increased risk of death (p<0.0001), which persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. There was no interaction between DM and prior MI in predicting mortality (p=0.67). Median survival decreased by 3.3 years (p<0.0001). The adverse impact of DM persisted in sequential landmark analyses at 1, 5 and 10 years. Presence of DM conferred 2 extra years of life lost when compared with actuarial predictions (8 vs 6 years; p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: DM remains an independent adverse prognostic factor in the long-term after MI. Persistently diverging survival curves support enduring efforts to reduce mortality late after MI.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Previsões , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Heart ; 102(3): 223-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26674986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to define the prognostic value of the heart rate range during a 24 h period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of 791 patients with CHF associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation were linked with ambulatory heart rate range (AHRR; calculated as maximum minus minimum heart rate using 24 h Holter monitor data, including paced and non-sinus complexes) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings were then corroborated in a validation cohort of 408 patients with CHF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS: After a mean 4.1 years of follow-up, increasing AHRR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause, sudden, non-cardiovascular and progressive heart failure death in univariate analyses. After accounting for characteristics that differed between groups above and below median AHRR using multivariate analysis, AHRR remained strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 0.991/bpm increase in AHRR (95% CI 0.999 to 0.982); p=0.046). AHRR was not associated with the risk of any non-elective hospitalisation, but was associated with heart-failure-related hospitalisation. AHRR was modestly associated with the SD of normal-to-normal beats (R(2)=0.2; p<0.001) and with peak exercise-test heart rate (R(2)=0.33; p<0.001). Analysis of the validation cohort revealed AHRR to be associated with all-cause and mode-specific death as described in the derivation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: AHRR is a novel and readily available prognosticator in patients with CHF, which may reflect autonomic tone and exercise capacity.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade
12.
Anesthesiology ; 120(3): 564-78, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24534856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) was defined as prognostically relevant myocardial injury due to ischemia that occurs during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. The study's four objectives were to determine the diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes of MINS. METHODS: In this international, prospective cohort study of 15,065 patients aged 45 yr or older who underwent in-patient noncardiac surgery, troponin T was measured during the first 3 postoperative days. Patients with a troponin T level of 0.04 ng/ml or greater (elevated "abnormal" laboratory threshold) were assessed for ischemic features (i.e., ischemic symptoms and electrocardiography findings). Patients adjudicated as having a nonischemic troponin elevation (e.g., sepsis) were excluded. To establish diagnostic criteria for MINS, the authors used Cox regression analyses in which the dependent variable was 30-day mortality (260 deaths) and independent variables included preoperative variables, perioperative complications, and potential MINS diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: An elevated troponin after noncardiac surgery, irrespective of the presence of an ischemic feature, independently predicted 30-day mortality. Therefore, the authors' diagnostic criterion for MINS was a peak troponin T level of 0.03 ng/ml or greater judged due to myocardial ischemia. MINS was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.96-5.08) and had the highest population-attributable risk (34.0%, 95% CI, 26.6-41.5) of the perioperative complications. Twelve hundred patients (8.0%) suffered MINS, and 58.2% of these patients would not have fulfilled the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Only 15.8% of patients with MINS experienced an ischemic symptom. CONCLUSION: Among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery, MINS is common and associated with substantial mortality.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina T/sangue
13.
Dig Liver Dis ; 46(1): 1-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23768727

RESUMO

Defects in mitochondrial function are increasingly recognised as central to the pathogenesis of many diseases, both inherited and acquired. Many of these mitochondrial defects arise from abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA and can result in multisystem disease, with gastrointestinal involvement common. Moreover, mitochondrial disease may present with a range of non-specific symptoms, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed, or even considered to be non-organic. We describe the clinical, histopathological and genetic findings of six patients from three families with gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial disease. In two of the patients, anorexia nervosa was considered as an initial diagnosis. These cases illustrate the challenges of both diagnosing and managing mitochondrial disease and highlight two important but poorly understood aspects, the clinical and the genetic. The pathophysiology of gastrointestinal involvement in mitochondrial disease is discussed and emerging treatments are described. Finally, we provide a checklist of investigations for the gastroenterologist when mitochondrial disease is suspected.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/fisiopatologia , Miopatias Mitocondriais/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Óptica Autossômica Dominante/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Humanos , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Miopatias Mitocondriais/complicações , Miopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Atrofia Óptica Autossômica Dominante/complicações , Atrofia Óptica Autossômica Dominante/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 10(4): 330-6, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23349368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether diabetes mellitus (DM) is an adverse prognostic factor in chronic heart failure (CHF) of ischaemic and non-ischaemic aetiology managed with contemporary evidence-based care. METHODS: In total, 1091 outpatients with CHF with reduced ejection fraction were prospectively observed for a mean of 960 days. Total and cardiovascular mortality was quantified after accounting for potential confounders. RESULTS: In total, 25.7% of patients had DM; this group was more likely to have CHF of ischaemic aetiology and was more symptomatic. Patients with DM received comparable medical- and device-based therapies, except for greater doses of loop diuretic. DM was associated with approximately doubled crude and adjusted risk of total and cardiovascular mortality. The association of diabetes with these outcomes in patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies was of similar magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of advances in the management of CHF, DM remains a major adverse prognostic feature, irrespective of ischaemic/non-ischaemic aetiology.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
15.
Br J Haematol ; 158(3): 409-14, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22639982

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension is becoming a recognized complication of the hereditary and acquired haemolytic anaemias, associated with a poor prognosis. Recently we reported that patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) have high levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker associated with both right and left ventricular dysfunction and cardiac dysfunction. In the current study we evaluated a cohort of patients (N = 29) with haemolytic PNH for elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure and cardiac function by Doppler-echocardiography. Of the 29 patients, eight were further studied using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as two additional patients (number of patients studied using cardiac MRI = 10). Plasma from the first cohort (N = 29) demonstrated intravascular haemolysis associated with a 12-fold increase in median nitric oxide (NO) consumption when compared with healthy volunteers (P < 0·001). Doppler echocardiography demonstrated normal left ventricular function and elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure in 41% of patients. Cardiac MRI from the second cohort (N = 10) demonstrated depressed right ventricular function in 80% of PNH patients tested, and 60% had findings suggestive of subclinical small pulmonary emboli. Together, these data suggest a high prevalence of haemolysis-associated NO scavenging, Doppler-estimated systolic pulmonary hypertension, and depressed right ventricular function in patients with PNH.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/sangue , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/sangue , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Cardiol ; 109(3): 307-13, 2012 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22071208

RESUMO

Risk assessment is central to the management of acute coronary syndromes. Often, however, assessment is not complete until the troponin concentration is available. Using 2 multicenter prospective observational studies (Evaluation of Methods and Management of Acute Coronary Events [EMMACE] 2, test cohort, 1,843 patients; and EMMACE-1, validation cohort, 550 patients) of unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes, a point-of-admission risk stratification tool using frontal QRS-T angle derived from automated measurements and age for the prediction of 30-day and 2-year mortality was evaluated. Two-year mortality was lowest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles <38° and highest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles >104° (44.7% vs 14.8%, p <0.001). Increasing frontal QRS-T angle-age risk (FAAR) scores were associated with increasing 30-day and 2-year mortality (for 2-year mortality, score 0 = 3.7%, score 4 = 57%; p <0.001). The FAAR score was a good discriminator of mortality (C statistics 0.74 [95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.78] at 30 days and 0.77 [95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.79] at 2 years), maintained its performance in the EMMACE-1 cohort at 30 days (C statistics 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.8] at 30 days and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.83] at 2 years), in men and women, in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and compared favorably with the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score. The integrated discrimination improvement (age to FAAR score at 30 days and at 2 years in EMMACE-1 and EMMACE-2) was p <0.001. In conclusion, the FAAR score is a point-of-admission risk tool that predicts 30-day and 2-year mortality from 2 variables across a spectrum of patients with acute coronary syndromes. It does not require the results of biomarker assays or rely on the subjective interpretation of electrocardiograms.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Admissão do Paciente , Medição de Risco/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Intervalos de Confiança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Circ Heart Fail ; 4(4): 396-403, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21562056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapies for patients with chronic heart failure caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction have advanced substantially over recent decades. The cumulative effect of these therapies on mortality, mode of death, symptoms, and clinical characteristics has yet to be defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was a comparison of 2 prospective cohort studies of outpatients with chronic heart failure caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction performed between 1993 and 1995 (historic cohort: n=281) and 2006 and 2009 (contemporary cohort: n=357). In the historic cohort, 83% were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and 8.5% were prescribed ß-adrenoceptor antagonists, compared with 89% and 80%, respectively, in the contemporary cohort. Mortality rates over the first year of follow-up declined from 12.5% to 7.8% between eras (P=0.04), and sudden death contributed less to contemporary mortality (33.6% versus 12.7%; P<0.001). New York Heart Association class declined between eras (P<0.001). QTc dispersion across the chest leads declined from 85 ms (SD, 2) to 34 ms (SD, 1) and left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions declined from 65 mm (SD, 0.6) to 59 mm (SD, 0.5) (both P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Survival has significantly improved in patients with chronic heart failure caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction over the past 15 years; furthermore, sudden death makes a much smaller contribution to mortality, and noncardiac mortality is a correspondingly greater contribution. This has been accompanied by an improvement in symptoms and some markers of adverse electric and structural left ventricular remodeling.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Estudos de Coortes , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido
18.
Eur Heart J ; 28(5): 540-5, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17289742

RESUMO

AIMS: Over the last decade, advances in treatment for patients sustaining an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have reduced mortality rates. We aimed to assess whether patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have derived similar benefits as patients without DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared characteristics, management, and survival of patients with and without DM who sustained an AMI in 1995 (n = 1762) with a second group of patients who sustained an AMI in 2003 (n = 1642). All patients were followed up for 18 months or until death. Between 1995 and 2003 the prevalence of DM in AMI patients increased from 12.5 to 16.6% (P < 0.001). Involvement of cardiologists, provision of secondary prevention agents and early revascularization rates improved in both groups. Thirty-day mortality improved significantly in patients with and without DM [40% (P = 0.006) and 30% (P < 0.001) relative reductions, respectively]. Despite this, there was no significant change in mortality at 18 months in patients with DM when comparing 1995 and 2003 (absolute mortality 38.0 vs. 36.4%, P = 0.71). The interaction between DM and study period in predicting long-term mortality was highly significant (P = 0.008); this persisted after adjustment for baseline characteristics and treatment variables. CONCLUSION: Although early post-AMI mortality has fallen in patients with and without DM, these improvements were only maintained in the longer term in those without DM; more effective diabetes-related management strategies are required post-AMI.


Assuntos
Angiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
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