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2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28840, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is an important clinical and psychological aspect for a significant number of children affected by immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). To date, few studies have explored fatigue and its relationship with chronic ITP in pediatric age. The aim of the present multicentric pilot study is to determine fatigue perception in a large group of children with chronic ITP and their caregivers using the PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (PedsQL MFS), and to compare the results with those of healthy control subjects. PROCEDURE: Children with chronic ITP aged 5-18 years and/or caregivers of children aged 2-18 years were enrolled. Child/adolescent self-report was used for patients aged 5-18 years, and parent proxy-report for patients aged 2-18 years. The questionnaire was offered as online survey. PedsQL MFS is composed of 18 items covering three dimensions: General Fatigue Scale, Sleep/Rest Fatigue Scale, and Cognitive Fatigue Scale. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-one patients affected by chronic ITP and 248 caregivers answered the PedsQL MFS. We have highlighted that lower values of PedsQL MFS scores are obtained in the 13-18 age group. Moreover, sleep/rest fatigue domain appears to be more compromised in all age groups. For all PedsQL MFS scores, pediatric patients with chronic ITP and their caregivers reported statistically significant worse fatigue than healthy children. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that fatigue is relevant among children and adolescents affected by chronic ITP. The PedsQL MFS represents an adequate instrument for measuring fatigue in patients with chronic ITP. Therefore, symptoms of fatigue should be routinely assessed in clinical practice.

3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple investigators have described an increased incidence of thromboembolic events in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Data concerning haemostatic complications in children hospitalised for COVID-19/MIS-C are scant. OBJECTIVES: To share our experience in managing SARS-CoV-2 associated pro-coagulant state in hospitalised children. METHODS: D-dimer values were recorded at diagnosis in children hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 related manifestations. In moderately to critically ill patients and MIS-C cases, coagulation and inflammatory markers were checked at multiple time-points and median results were compared. Pro-thrombotic risk factors were appraised for each child and thromboprophylaxis was started in selected cases. RESULTS: 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. D-dimer values did not discriminate COVID-19 of differing severity, whereas were markedly different between the COVID-19 and the MIS-C cohorts. In both cohorts, D-dimer and C Reactive Protein levels increased upon clinical worsening but were not accompanied by decreased fibrinogen or platelet values, with all parameters returning to normal upon disease resolution. 6 patients had multiple thrombotic risk factors and were started on pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. No deaths, thrombotic or bleeding complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pediatric patients show mildly altered coagulation and inflammatory parameters; on the other hand, MIS-C cases show laboratory signs of an inflammatory driven pro-coagulant status. Universal anticoagulant prophylaxis in hospitalised children with SARS-CoV-2 related manifestations is not warranted, but may be offered to patients with other pro-thrombotic risk factors in the context of a multi-modal therapeutic approach.

4.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6250-6258, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351120

RESUMO

Anticoagulant treatment of pediatric cerebral venous thrombosis has not been evaluated in randomized trials. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and standard anticoagulants in the predefined subgroup of children with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) who participated in the EINSTEIN-Jr trial. Children with CVT were randomized (2:1), after initial heparinization, to treatment with rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulants (continued on heparin or switched to vitamin K antagonist). The main treatment period was 3 months. The primary efficacy outcome, symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), and principal safety outcome, major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding,were centrally evaluated by blinded investigators. Sinus recanalization on repeat brain imaging was a secondary outcome. Statistical analyses were exploratory. In total, 114 children with confirmed CVT were randomized. All children completed the follow-up. None of the 73 rivaroxaban recipients and 1 (2.4%; CVT) of the 41 standard anticoagulant recipients had symptomatic, recurrent VTE after 3 months (absolute difference, 2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.6% to 13.5%). Clinically relevant bleeding occurred in 5 (6.8%; all nonmajor and noncerebral) rivaroxaban recipients and in 1 (2.5%; major [subdural] bleeding) standard anticoagulant recipient (absolute difference, 4.4%; 95% CI, -6.7% to 13.4%). Complete or partial sinus recanalization occurred in 18 (25%) and 39 (53%) rivaroxaban recipients and in 6 (15%) and 24 (59%) standard anticoagulant recipients, respectively. In summary, in this substudy of a randomized trial with a limited sample size, children with CVT treated with rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulation had a low risk of recurrent VTE and clinically relevant bleeding. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02234843.

5.
Blood Adv ; 4(19): 4632-4639, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002131

RESUMO

Anticoagulant treatment of pediatric central venous catheter-related venous thromboembolism (CVC-VTE) has not been specifically evaluated. In EINSTEIN-Jr, 500 children with any VTE received rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulants. A predefined analysis of the CVC-VTE cohort was performed. Children with CVC-VTE (age, birth to 17 years) were administered rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulants during the 1-month (children <2 years) or 3-month (all other children) study period. Predefined outcomes were recurrent VTE, change in thrombotic burden on repeat imaging, and bleeding. Predictors for continuation of anticoagulant therapy beyond the study period were evaluated. One hundred twenty-six children with symptomatic (n = 76, 60%) or asymptomatic (n = 50, 40%) CVC-VTE received either rivaroxaban (n = 90) or standard anticoagulants (n = 36). There was no recurrent VTE (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0%-2.8%). Three children had the principal safety outcome: none had major bleeding and 3 children had clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (2.4%; 95% CI, 0.7%-6.5%), all in the rivaroxaban arm. Complete or partial vein recanalization occurred in 57 (55%) and 38 (37%) of 103 evaluable children, respectively. Results were similar for symptomatic and asymptomatic CVC-VTE. Continuation of anticoagulant therapy beyond the study period occurred in 61 (48%) of children and was associated with residual VTE but only in children <2 years (odds ratio [OR], 20.9; P = .003) and continued CVC use (OR, 6.7; P = .002). Anticoagulant therapy appeared safe and efficacious and was associated with reduced clot burden in most children with symptomatic or asymptomatic CVC-VTE. Residual VTE and continued CVC use were associated with extended anticoagulation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02234843.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 66, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181255

RESUMO

Background: The thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag has been shown to be safe and effective for children with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The aim of the present study was to characterize eltrombopag use in current clinical practice. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study conducted in 17 centers affiliated to the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP). The primary objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of eltrombopag use in Italian children affected by chronic ITP, after EMA authorization for pediatric age. The secondary objective was to assess efficacy in the first 6 months and safety during the whole period of eltrombopag treatment in current clinical practice. A total of 386 children with chronic ITP were retrospectively enrolled and eligible for analysis. Among these patients, 71 received eltrombopag. Results: The prevalence of eltrombopag use was 19% (95% CI 0.15-0.23). Thirty-one patients (44%) were male and 40 patients (56%) were female. The median age at the first dose of eltrombopag was 12 years (3-17 years). The median duration of eltrombopag treatment was 11 months (1-32 months) and the median starting dose was 50 mg/day (12, 5-75 mg/day). Thirty-two patients (45%) required one or more concomitant ITP medications during the first 6 months of treatment with eltrombopag. Thirty-nine patients (55%) never required concomitant medications. Median platelet counts and proportion of patients achieving the target platelet count of at least 30 × 109/L and 100 × 109/L significantly increased during the first 6 months of treatment (p < 0.0001). Additionally, eltrombopag has been proved effective in the absence of concomitant therapies. The most common Adverse Events were headache (7%) and thrombocytosis (6%). Conclusion: Our study highlighted the crucial role of eltrombopag as second line treatment in children with chronic ITP.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(1): 273-282, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 mAb) is a treatment option in children with refractory immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA), and Evans syndrome (ES). Prevalence and clinical course of RTX-induced hypogammaglobulinemia in these patients are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for persistent hypogammaglobulinemia (PH) after RTX use. METHODS: Clinical and immunologic data from children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia, AHA, and ES were collected from 16 Italian centers and 1 UK center at pre-RTX time point (0), +6 months, and yearly, up to 4 years post-RTX. Patients with previously diagnosed malignancy or primary immune deficiency (PID) were excluded. RESULTS: We analyzed 53 children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia (n = 36), AHA (n = 13), and ES (n = 4). Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-48). Thirty-two percent of patients (17 of 53) experienced PH, defined as IgG levels less than 2 SD for age at last follow-up (>12 months after RTX). Significantly delayed B-cell recovery was observed in children experiencing PH (hazard ratio, 0.55; P < .05), and 6 of 17 (35%) patients had unresolved B-cell lymphopenia at last follow-up. PH was associated with IgA and IgM deficiency, younger age at RTX use (51 vs 116 months; P < .01), a diagnosis of AHA/ES, and better response to RTX. Nine patients with PH (9 of 17 [53%]) were eventually diagnosed with a PID. CONCLUSIONS: Post-RTX PH is a frequent condition in children with autoimmune cytopenia; a sizable proportion of patients with post-RTX PH were eventually diagnosed with a PID. In-depth investigation for PID is therefore recommended in these patients.

8.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(1): e18-e27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of venous thromboembolism in children is based on data obtained in adults with little direct documentation of its efficacy and safety in children. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulants in children with venous thromboembolism. METHODS: In a multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised study, children (aged 0-17 years) attending 107 paediatric hospitals in 28 countries with documented acute venous thromboembolism who had started heparinisation were assigned (2:1) to bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban (tablets or suspension) in a 20-mg equivalent dose or standard anticoagulants (heparin or switched to vitamin K antagonist). Randomisation was stratified by age and venous thromboembolism site. The main treatment period was 3 months (1 month in children <2 years of age with catheter-related venous thromboembolism). The primary efficacy outcome, symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (assessed by intention-to-treat), and the principal safety outcome, major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding (assessed in participants who received ≥1 dose), were centrally assessed by investigators who were unaware of treatment assignment. Repeat imaging was obtained at the end of the main treatment period and compared with baseline imaging tests. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02234843 and has been completed. FINDINGS: From Nov 14, 2014, to Sept 28, 2018, 500 (96%) of the 520 children screened for eligibility were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 91 days (IQR 87-95) in children who had a study treatment period of 3 months (n=463) and 31 days (IQR 29-35) in children who had a study treatment period of 1 month (n=37), symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in four (1%) of 335 children receiving rivaroxaban and five (3%) of 165 receiving standard anticoagulants (hazard ratio [HR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·11-1·41). Repeat imaging showed an improved effect of rivaroxaban on thrombotic burden as compared with standard anticoagulants (p=0·012). Major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding in participants who received ≥1 dose occurred in ten (3%) of 329 children (all non-major) receiving rivaroxaban and in three (2%) of 162 children (two major and one non-major) receiving standard anticoagulants (HR 1·58, 95% CI 0·51-6·27). Absolute and relative efficacy and safety estimates of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation estimates were similar to those in rivaroxaban studies in adults. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: In children with acute venous thromboembolism, treatment with rivaroxaban resulted in a similarly low recurrence risk and reduced thrombotic burden without increased bleeding, as compared with standard anticoagulants. FUNDING: Bayer AG and Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
9.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(10): e500-e509, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of venous thromboembolism in adults, and has a reduced risk of bleeding compared with standard anticoagulants. We aimed to develop paediatric rivaroxaban regimens for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in children and adolescents. METHODS: In this phase 2 programme, we did three studies to evaluate rivaroxaban treatment in children younger than 6 months, aged 6 months to 5 years, and aged 6-17 years. Our studies used a multicentre, single-arm design at 54 sites in Australia, Europe, Israel, Japan, and north America. We included children with objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism previously treated with low-molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux, or a vitamin K antagonist for at least 2 months or, in children who had catheter-related venous thromboembolism for at least 6 weeks. We administered rivaroxaban orally in a bodyweight-adjusted 20 mg-equivalent dose, based on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling predictions and EINSTEIN-Jr phase 1 data in young adults, in either a once-daily (tablets; for those aged 6-17 years), twice-daily (in suspension; for those aged 6 months to 11 years), or three times-daily (in suspension; for those younger than 6 months) dosing regimen for 30 days (or 7 days for those younger than 6 months). The primary aim was to define rivaroxaban treatment regimens that match the target adult exposure range. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Analyses were per-protocol. The predefined efficacy outcomes were symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism, asymptomatic deterioration on repeat imaging at the end of the study treatment period. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02564718, NCT02309411, and NCT02234843. FINDINGS: Between Feb 11, 2013, and Dec 20, 2017, we enrolled 93 children (ten children younger than 6 months; 15 children aged 6 months to 1 year; 25 children aged 2-5 years; 32 children aged 6-11 years; and 11 children aged 12-17 years) into our study. 89 (96%) children completed study treatment (30 days of treatment, or 7 days in those younger than 6 months), and 93 (100%) children received at least one dose of study treatment and were evaluable for the primary endpoints. None of the children had a major bleed, and four (4%, 95% CI 1·2-10·6) of these children had a clinically relevant non-major bleed (three children aged 12-17 years with menorrhagia and one child aged 6-11 years with gingival bleeding). We found no symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism in any patients (0%, 0·0-3·9). 24 (32%) of 75 patients with repeat imaging had their thrombotic burden resolved, 43 (57%) patients improved, and eight (11%) patients were unchanged. No patient deteriorated. We confirmed therapeutic rivaroxaban exposures with once-daily dosing in children with bodyweights of at least 30 kg and with twice-daily dosing in children with bodyweights of at least 20 kg and less than 30 kg. Children with low bodyweights (<20 kg, particularly <12 kg) showed low exposures so, for future studies, rivaroxaban dosages were revised for these weight categories, to match the target adult exposure range. 61 (66%) of 93 children had adverse events during the study. Pyrexia was the most common adverse event (ten [11%] events), and anaemia and neutropenia or febrile neutropenia were the most frequent grade 3 or worse events (four [4%] events each). No children died or were discontinued from rivaroxaban because of adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban appears to be safe in children. The treatment regimens that we confirmed in children with bodyweights of at least 20 kg and the revised treatment regimens that we predicted in those with bodyweights less than 20 kg will be evaluated in the EINSTEIN-Jr phase 3 trial in children with acute venous thromboembolism. FUNDING: Bayer AG, Janssen Research and Development.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anemia/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Fator Xa/análise , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutropenia/etiologia , Tempo de Protrombina , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870474

RESUMO

Myelopoiesis was evaluated in 66 pediatric patients with chronic neutropenia who were positive for anti-neutrophil antibodies (median age at diagnosis: 11 months, median neutrophil count at diagnosis: 419/µl). Other causes of neutropenia were excluded. Bone marrow morphology, clonogenic tests and/or the peripheral blood CD 34+ cell count, and apoptotic rate were evaluated in 61 patients with neutropenia lasting > 12 months or severe infections. The peripheral blood CD 34+ cell count and apoptotic rate were evaluated in five patients with shorter neutropenia. The median follow-up time was 29 months (range 7-180 months). Forty-seven patients (71.2%) had a spontaneous recovery after 7-180 months (median 29 months). The group of patients younger than 24 months at diagnosis (n = 50) had a higher probability of recovery (40/50 vs. 7/16 χ2 p<0.01) with a shorter period of neutropenia (median 26 versus 47 months, Kaplan-Meier analysis p = 0.001). The colony-forming units-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) were significantly decreased in 26/35 patients (74%) evaluated for clonogenic tests. All patients with normal CFU-GM recovered (9/9 patients); whereas, neutropenia persisted in 12/26 patients with reduced CFU-GM (46%, Pearson χ2 p = 0.02). In 36/55 (65%) patients evaluated by flow cytometry we observed reduced circulating CD34+ cells compared with controls of the same age. An increase in the circulating CD34+ cell apoptotic rate was observed in 28/55 patients (51%). Infections requiring hospitalization were observed in 9/18 (50%; Pearson χ2, p = 0.03) patients with both decreased circulating CD34+ cells and increased CD34+ apoptotic rates. In the group aged < 24 months, we observed a significant correlation between the persistence of neutropenia and decreased circulating CD34+ cells (Pearson χ2 p = 0.008). In conclusion, reduced CFU-GM and circulating hematopoietic progenitors were observed in a subgroup of children with chronic neutropenia who were positive for anti-neutrophil antibodies and had a higher incidence of severe infections and delayed spontaneous remission.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/patologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Infecções/complicações , Neutropenia/patologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Adolescente , Antígenos CD34/análise , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutropenia/etiologia
11.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 41(4): 275-279, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: In this study we aimed to retrospectively evaluate how centers, belonging to the Associazione Italiana Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP), manage severe acquired hypofibrinogenemia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, particularly evaluating the therapeutic role of human fibrinogen concentrate (HFC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). METHODS: We conducted a survey among AIEOP centers; thereafter, we collected and analyzed data with regard to the treatment of episodes of severe acquired hypofibrinogenemia occurring during the induction and reinduction phases of the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 protocol. RESULTS: In total, 15 of the 37 AIEOP centers invited to join the survey agreed to collect the data, with 10 and 5 centers declaring to react to severe acquired hypofibrinogenemia (<70 mg/dL) by administering HFC or FFP, respectively. Of the 150 episodes of severe hypofibrinogenemia occurring in 101 patients, 47.3% were treated with HFC and 52.7% with FFP, with a normalization of fibrinogen levels achieved in greater proportion and in a shorter amount of time in the HFC group as compared with the FFP group. None of the patients presented with bleeding or thrombosis during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: Even with the limitations of the retrospective nature of this study, HFC seems to be a safe and effective alternative to FFP for replacement therapy in case of severe hypofibrinogenemia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.


Assuntos
Afibrinogenemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinogênio/uso terapêutico , Plasma , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Adolescente , Afibrinogenemia/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(1): e27452, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. Pediatric ITP patients are prone to develop autoantibodies such as antithyroglobulin (TG) and antithyroperoxidase (TPO), even in the absence of clinical signs of autoimmune disease. The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to evaluate (1) the prevalence of positivity of antithyroid antibodies (TPO and TG) in a large cohort of pediatric patients with chronic ITP; (2) the role of autoimmune thyroiditis as a prognostic factor for chronicity of ITP. PROCEDURE: For this retrospective study, we collected data from patients diagnosed as affected by chronic ITP between 2011 and 2014 in six centers belonging to the Italian Association of Pediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP). RESULTS: From the analysis of data, we found a significantly higher prevalence of antithyroid antibodies in children with chronic ITP (11.6%) than in the pediatric population (1.2%-1.3%). No correlation has been found between the platelet count and the prevalence of positive antithyroid antibodies at any detection time of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study demonstrated that (1) the prevalence of positivity for antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-TG) in pediatric patients with chronic ITP results is significantly higher than in the pediatric population; (2) autoimmune thyroiditis does not seem to play a role as a prognostic factor for chronicity of ITP in pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/epidemiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia
13.
Thromb J ; 16: 31, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534007

RESUMO

Background: The EINSTEIN-Jr program will evaluate rivaroxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children, targeting exposures similar to the 20 mg once-daily dose for adults. Methods: This was a multinational, single-dose, open-label, phase I study to describe the pharmacodynamics (PD), pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of a single bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban dose in children aged 0.5-18 years. Children who had completed treatment for a venous thromboembolic event were enrolled into four age groups (0.5-2 years, 2-6 years, 6-12 years and 12-18 years) receiving rivaroxaban doses equivalent to 10 mg or 20 mg (either as a tablet or oral suspension). Blood samples for PK and PD analyses were collected within specified time windows. Results: Fifty-nine children were evaluated. In all age groups, PD parameters (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and anti-Factor Xa activity) showed a linear relationship versus rivaroxaban plasma concentrations and were in line with previously acquired adult data, as well as in vitro spiking experiments. The rivaroxaban pediatric physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, used to predict the doses for the individual body weight groups, was confirmed. No episodes of bleeding were reported, and treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in four children and all resolved during the study. Conclusions: Bodyweight-adjusted, single-dose rivaroxaban had predictable PK/PD profiles in children across all age groups from 0.5 to 18 years. The PD assessments based on prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time demonstrated that the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban was not affected by developmental hemostasis in children. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01145859.

14.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 372, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560107

RESUMO

At delivery, if the cord is not clamped, blood continues to pass from the placenta to the newborn during the first minutes of life, allowing the transfer of 25-35 ml/kg of placental blood to the newborn, depending on gestational age, the timing of cord clamping, the position of the infant at birth, the onset of respiration, and administration of uterotonics to the mother. However, deriving benefits from delayed cord clamping (DCC) are not merely related to placental-to-fetal blood transfusion; establishing spontaneous ventilation before cutting the cord improves venous return to the right heart and pulmonary blood flow, protecting the newborn from the transient low cardiac output, and systemic arterial pressure fluctuations. Recent meta-analyses showed that delayed cord clamping reduces mortality and red blood cell transfusions in preterm newborns and increases iron stores in term newborns. Various authors suggested umbilical cord milking (UCM) as a safe alternative when delayed cord clamping is not feasible. Many scientific societies recommend waiting 30-60 s before clamping the cord for both term and preterm newborns not requiring resuscitation. To improve the uptake of placental transfusion strategies, in 2016 an Italian Task Force for the Management of Umbilical Cord Clamping drafted national recommendations for the management of cord clamping in term and preterm deliveries. The task force performed a detailed review of the literature using the GRADE methodological approach. The document analyzed all clinical scenarios that operators could deal with in the delivery room, including cord blood gas analysis during delayed cord clamping and time to cord clamping in the case of umbilical cord blood banking. The panel intended to promote a more physiological and individualized approach to cord clamping, specifically for the most preterm newborn. A feasible option to implement delayed cord clamping in very preterm deliveries is to move the neonatologist to the mother's bedside to assess the newborn's clinical condition at birth. This option could safely guarantee the first steps of stabilization before clamping the cord and allow DCC in the first 30 s of life, without delaying resuscitation. Contra-indications to placental transfusion strategies are clinical situations that may endanger mother 's health and those that may delay immediate newborn's resuscitation when required.

15.
Thromb J ; 16: 29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410424

RESUMO

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in young children is not well documented. Methods: Clinicians from 12 institutions retrospectively evaluated the presentation, therapeutic management, and outcome of VTE in children younger than 2 years seen in 2011-2016. Feasibility of recruiting these children in EINSTEIN-Jr. phase III, a randomized trial evaluating rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation for VTE, was assessed. Results: We identified 346 children with VTE, of whom 227 (65.6%) had central venous catheter-related thrombosis (CVC-VTE), 119 (34.4%) had non-CVC-VTE, and 156 (45.1%) were younger than 1 month. Of the 309 children who received anticoagulant therapy, 86 (27.8%) had a short duration of therapy (i.e. < 6 weeks for CVC-VTE and < 3 months for non-CVC-VTE) and 17 (5.5%) had recurrent VTE during anticoagulation (n = 8, 2.6%) or shortly after its discontinuation (n = 9, 2.9%). A total of 37 (10.7%) children did not receive anticoagulant therapy and 4 (10.5%) had recurrent VTE.The average number of children aged < 0.5 years and 0.5-2 years who would have been considered for enrolment in EINSTEIN-Jr is approximately 1.0 and 0.9 per year per site, respectively. Conclusions: Young children with VTE most commonly have CVC-VTE and approximately one-tenth and one-fourth received no or only short durations of anticoagulant therapy, respectively. Recurrent VTE rates without anticoagulation, during anticoagulation or shortly after its discontinuation seem comparable to those observed in adults. Short and flexible treatment durations could potentially increase recruitment in EINSTEIN-Jr. phase III.

17.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 59(6): 581-585, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm babies are at high risk of iron deficiency. METHODS: We investigated current practices regarding iron prophylaxis in preterm and low birth weight newborns among Local Neonatal Units (LNUs, n = 74) and Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs, n = 20) of three Italian Regions (Piemonte, Marche and Lazio). RESULTS: Birth weight is considered an indicative parameter in only 64% of LNUs and 71% of NICUs, with a significant difference between LNUs in the three regions (86%, 20% and 62%, respectively; p < 0.001). Iron is recommended to infants with a birth weight between 2000 and 2500 g in only 25% of LNUs and 21% of NICUs, and to late-preterm (gestational age between 34 and 37 weeks) in a minority of Units (26% of LNUs, 7% of NICUs). CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot survey documents a great variability and the urgent need to standardize practices according to literature recommendations.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Itália , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Curr Pediatr Rev ; 14(2): 123-129, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies to prevent anaemia in preterm infants include drawing fewer blood samples, the use of recombinant human erythropoietin and iron supplementation. Although iron sulfate is the most commonly used pharmaceutical formulation for iron supplementation, there are few studies comparing different iron salts in infants. OBJECTIVE: This is a study of retrospective data comparison of two groups of preterm infants receiving erythropoietin to evaluate the efficacy of iron bisglycinate chelate to iron sulfate. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three-hundred infants of gestational age ≤32 weeks were enrolled: 225 were supplemented with iron sulfate (3 mg/kg/day) and 75 were supplemented with iron bisglycinate chelate (0.75 mg/kg/day). The effect on erythropoiesis was assessed with a general linear model that estimates the response variables (values for Haemoglobin, Haematocrit, absolute values and percentage Reticulocytes, Reticulocyte Haemoglobin content) based on treatment, time, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: Supplementation with iron bisglycinate chelate at a dose of 0.75 mg/kg/day demonstrated an efficacy comparable to iron sulfate at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day in both populations of preterm infants. The two cohorts had similar erythropoietic response, without significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: The higher bioavailability of iron bisglycinate chelate resulted in a lower load of elemental iron, a quarter of the dose, and achieved equivalent efficacy compared to iron sulfate. Iron bisglycinate chelate may appear to be an alternative to iron sulfate in the prevention and treatment of preterm newborn anaemia.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Ferrosos/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Blood Transfus ; 16(4): 363-370, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Italian Registry of Thrombosis in Children (RITI) was established by a multidisciplinary team with the aims of improving knowledge about neonatal and paediatric thrombotic events in Italy and providing a preliminary source of data for the future development of specific clinical trials and diagnostic-therapeutic protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the subset of RITI data concerning paediatric systemic venous thromboembolic events that occurred between January 2007 and June 2013. RESULTS: Eighty-five deep venous thromboses and seven pulmonary emboli were registered in the RITI. A prevalence peak was observed in children aged 10 to 18 years and, unexpectedly, in children aged 1 to 5 years. A central venous line was the main risk factor (55% of venous thromboembolic events); surgery (not cardiac) (25%), concomitant infections (23%) and malignancy (22%) were the clinical conditions most often associated with the onset of venous thromboembolism. There was a diagnostic delay of more than 24 hours in 37% of the venous thromboembolic events. Doppler ultrasound was the most widely used test for the objective diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (87%). Antithrombotic therapy was administered in 96% of venous thromboembolic events, mainly low molecular weight heparin (60%). In 2% of cases recurrences occurred, while post-thrombotic syndrome developed in 8.5% of cases. DISCUSSION: Although the data from the RITI are largely in agreement with published data, peaks of prevalence of thrombosis, risk factors and objective tests used for the diagnosis showed some peculiarities which may deserve attention.


Assuntos
Sistema de Registros , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Blood Transfus ; 15(3): 259-267, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151390

RESUMO

Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is an uncommon disorder to which paediatric haematology centres take a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The Red Cell Working Group of the Italian Association of Paediatric Onco-haematology (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica, AIEOP) developed this document in order to collate expert opinions on the management of newly diagnosed childhood autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.The diagnostic process includes the direct and indirect antiglobulin tests; recommendations are given regarding further diagnostic tests, specifically in the cases that the direct and indirect antiglobulin tests are negative. Clear-cut definitions of clinical response are stated. Specific recommendations for treatment include: dosage of steroid therapy and tapering modality for warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; the choice of rituximab as first-line therapy for the rare primary transfusion-dependent cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; the indications for supportive therapy; the need for switching to second-line therapy. Each statement is provided with a score expressing the level of appropriateness and the agreement among participants.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/terapia , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/induzido quimicamente , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/epidemiologia , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Criança , Teste de Coombs/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Hematologia/métodos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Itália/epidemiologia , Pediatria/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
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