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Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 355-357, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596829


We aimed to compare processing speed (PS) and its subcomponents in schizophrenia (SC) and schizoaffective disorder (SA). Thirty-five patients were divided into two groups (SC=18; SA=17). PS tasks from the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Central/South America version were used. Additional PS subcomponents were analyzed (i.e., behavioral execution, response processing, and accuracy). SA obtained significant higher scores than SC in response processing, verbal fluency and the PS general domain. Our results indicate that PS is a potential cognitive marker to differentiate between SC and SA. Further research with larger samples must be conducted.

Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos Piloto , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Esquizofrenia/complicações
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 14: 2981-2987, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464483


Purpose: The efficacy of schizophrenia treatments using antipsychotics (APs) has long been established, but the benefit obtained by several patients using conventional APs (typical or atypical) has not been enough. Currently, the genetic study of the primary mechanisms of action of the APs has been focused on the dopaminergic pathways. The objective of this study was to determine if the response phenotypes (responder, resistance to treatment, and ultra-resistance to treatment groups) are associated with six single-nucleotide polymorphisms: COMT (Val158Met), DRD2 (A-241G, C376G, C939T, Taq1A), and DRD3 (Ser9Gly). Patients and methods: We classified the patients through a retrospective/prospective methodology to define response phenotypes. Results: COMT/Val158Met and DRD3/Ser9Gly were associated with the responder group (P<0.05). The single-nucleotide polymorphism A-241G of DRD2 gene was related with the resistant-to-treatment group (P<0.001). Finally, Met/Met of COMT and Ser/Gly of DRD3 genes showed a predictive effect associated with the resistant-to-treatment phenotype. Conclusion: Further analyses should be performed to validate these genetic markers as mediators for the response to APs.

Psychiatry Res ; 259: 450-454, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179136


Impaired insight into illness, a core feature of schizophrenia with negative clinical implications, is a multidimensional phenomenon existing on a continuum. However, the degree to which illness perception in distinct cultures influences the appraisal of insight into illness in schizophrenia remains unclear. As such, we aimed to determine if the psychometric properties of the VAGUS insight into psychosis scale (, which was originally assessed in English speaking Canadians, were similar in a sample of Latino Mexican Spanish speaking patients with schizophrenia. To accomplish this, the VAGUS - Self-Report (SR) version was translated from English to Spanish and psychometrically evaluated in 95 participants. The Spanish version of the VAGUS-SR was internally consistent (á¾³ = 0.713), and demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with the subscales of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Factor analysis identified two components of insight, congruent with two of the components of the English version of the VAGUS-SR. In conclusion, the VAGUS-SR is a brief, novel, and valid measure of insight into illness in schizophrenia, which demonstrated similar psychometric properties in two culturally and linguistically distinct samples with schizophrenia. Future studies should assess whether the VAGUS demonstrates similar psychometric properties in non-Western cultures.

Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Autoimagem , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resolução de Problemas , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
J Affect Disord ; 172: 251-8, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25451424


INTRODUCTION: AFECTS is a novel psychometric instrument that provides an integrated framework based on affective temperamental traits and their trait dimensions. It has the potential to be used in clinical and research fields to study psychopathology and mental health. It is now necessary to field-test this instrument with diverse populations and psychopathological entities. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to test the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Spanish Version of the AFECTS instrument on Mexican subjects. AFECTS characteristics were then compared between general population and stable psychiatric patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional design involving 350 subjects from the general population in México City and 91 stable patients with a bipolar disorder (BPD, n=20), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=35), or with a schizophrenia (n=36) diagnosis. RESULTS: A six-factor structure in trait dimensions, explaining 61.4% of the variance, with a Cronbach׳s alpha of 0.93 was found. Euthymic (23%) and hyperthymic (12%) affective temperaments were the most frequent, while dysphoric (3%) and apathetic (3%) were the least. Trait dimension differences were found in Volition, Sensitivity, and the Instability Index between the groups, particularly those with a bipolar disorder. LIMITATIONS: Use of a self report instrument, and a small sample not representative of the Mexican population or patients with psychiatric conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish Version of the AFECTS instrument has adequate psychometric properties. This version of AFECTS will allow the use of this instrument among Spanish speaking populations and contribute to the continued research efforts on integrative models such as AFECT.

Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Temperamento , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria
Bipolar Disord ; 16(4): 410-21, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24636483


OBJECTIVE: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are among the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, but have a tendency to generate metabolic disturbances. These features resemble a metabolic syndrome for which a central autonomic imbalance has been proposed that may originate from the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei. In a clinical trial, we hypothesized that melatonin, a hormone that regulates the suprachiasmatic nucleus, could attenuate SGA-induced adverse metabolic effects. METHODS: In an eight-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial, we evaluated the metabolic effect of melatonin in SGA-treated patients in terms of weight, blood pressure, lipid, glucose, body composition, and anthropometric measures. A total of 44 patients treated with SGAs, 20 with bipolar disorder and 24 with schizophrenia, randomly received placebo (n = 24) or melatonin 5 mg (n = 20). RESULTS: The melatonin group showed a decrease in diastolic blood pressure (5.1 versus 1.1 mmHg for placebo, p = 0.003) and attenuated weight gain (1.5 versus 2.2 kg for placebo, F = 4.512, p = 0.040) compared to the placebo group. The strong beneficial metabolic effects of melatonin in comparison to placebo on fat mass (0.2 versus 2.7 kg, respectively, p = 0.032) and diastolic blood pressure (5.7 versus 5.5 mmHg, respectively, p = 0.001) were observed in the bipolar disorder and not in the schizophrenia group. No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that melatonin is effective in attenuating SGAs' adverse metabolic effects, particularly in bipolar disorder. The clinical findings allow us to propose that SGAs may disturb a centrally mediated metabolic balance that causes adverse metabolic effects and that nightly administration of melatonin helps to restore. Melatonin could become a safe and cost-effective therapeutic option to attenuate or prevent SGA metabolic effects.

Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Antropometria , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
Salud ment ; 35(4): 339-344, jul.-ago. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-675572


In recent years, research on the comorbidity of personality disorders and other clinical conditions has increased. Nevertheless, it is quite surprising that very little research has been done in terms of personality and its disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Most of the studies related to the binomial construct of personality disorders and schizophrenia are limited to the study of premorbid personality, which emphasizes the importance of the interaction between trait-personality disorder-schizophrenia symptoms. The study of personality in patients with schizophrenia suggests several issues that must be considered, including the trait-state interactions and the role of personality in the course of schizophrenia. The conceptual definition of trait emerges from the dimensional classification of models of personality. In this way, knowing that some personality features are present in all individuals, we can assume that their deviation in a quantitative level results in abnormal personality features that constitute personality disorders or even can be expressed as a specific expression of some schizophrenia symptoms. Although there is growing evidence in the knowledge of schizophrenia, there are very few models that include the scientific neurobio-logical evidence of the disease and personality features. An inclusive model may promote our understanding of the relationship between schizophrenia symptoms and the personality features of the patient who suffers the disease. So far, we are still far from reaching scientific consensus to be unanimously shared by all researchers with respect to both issues. Nevertheless, the importance of personality in schizophrenia is undeniable, so future longitudinal that assess personality characteristics since illness onset should be warranted. These studies may be extremely useful to determine personality stability during the course of the illness and may help to determine the prognosis and treatment implications of personality in schizophrenia.

En los últimos años han proliferado las investigaciones y publicaciones sobre la comorbilidad de los trastornos de personalidad con otras entidades clínicas. En este marco sorprende la escasez de estudios que se centren en la personalidad y sus trastornos en los pacientes con esquizofrenia. Las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en el binomio trastorno de personalidad-esquizofrenia se han limitado al estudio de la personalidad premórbida, las cuales se orientan hacia la importancia de la interacción rasgo-trastorno de personalidad-síntomas en la esquizofrenia. El estudio de la personalidad en la esquizofrenia sugiere varias cuestiones que deben ser consideradas, incluyendo las interacciones rasgo-estado y la función de la personalidad en la esquizofrenia. El concepto de rasgo surge en los modelos dimensionales de clasificación de la personalidad. Si consideramos que los rasgos de la personalidad están presentes en todos los individuos, cabría decir que una desviación en el nivel cuantitativo de los mismos caracteriza los rasgos anormales que constituirán los trastornos de personalidad o en una expresión específica de los síntomas de la esquizofrenia. A pesar de los avances crecientes en el conocimiento de la esquizofrenia, existen pocos modelos que integren los avances neurobiológicos con la personalidad, lo cual permitiría un mayor entendimiento de la relación entre los síntomas de la esquizofrenia y la personalidad del individuo que la padece. Hasta el momento, aún nos encontramos lejos de poder alcanzar acuerdos científicos que sean compartidos unánimemente por todos los investigadores con respecto a ambas cuestiones. Sin embargo, la importancia de la personalidad en la esquizofrenia es innegable, lo que hace necesario la realización de estudios longitudinales que evalúen de forma específica las características de la personalidad desde el inicio de la esquizofrenia para poder determinar su estabilidad o variabilidad de acuerdo al curso del padecimiento y sus implicaciones pronósticas y de tratamiento.

Salud ment ; 33(2): 169-178, mar.-abr. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-632760


Schizophrenia is one of the most studied diseases in psychiatry and different dysfunctions of thinking, emotions, perception, movement, and behavior converge in it. These dysfunctions affect the quality of life of the patients in different ways. It is a disease that has been observed in the whole world, with a 0.5 to 1.5% prevalence among adults. Although the biological basis of schizophrenia is not clear enough, the dopaminergic hypothesis is preponderant in our understanding of the symptoms of the disease. A mesolimbic pathway hyperactivity is related to a positive symptomathology, while a prefrontal dopaminergic hypofunction relates to negative symptoms. It has been observed that using serotoninergic antagonists, which promote dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex, translates in to a reduction of the intensity of negative symptoms. This negative syndrome includes a difficulty to initiate new activities (apathy), speech and creativity impoverishment (alogia), alterations in emotional expression, and a lack of capacity to experiment joy. Patients with negative symptoms present gray and white matter loss in left-sided cerebral structures, including temporal lobe, anterior cingulated, and medial frontal cortex. Such a loss seems to be more evident in prefrontal regions, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal region, which connects with anterior temporal structures. Persistent negative symptomathology is a concept proposed by Buchanan, which must fulfill the following criteria: symptoms are primary to the disease or secondary but have not responded to current treatment; interfere with the patient's capacity to accomplish normal functioning; persist during periods of clinical stability, and represent an unresolved therapeutic need. They must be measurable by clinical scales and persist, at least, six months. The Food and Drug Administration has recently considered negative symptoms as an investigation target or new treatments due to their prevalence and high negative impact in the life of the schizophrenic population. Nowadays, the current treatments available for such an entity are second generation antipshycotics and glutamatergic agents -such as d-cycloserine and glicine-, amisulpiride and seleginine, even though their efficacy is limited. Dysfunction of the human prefrontal cortex is considered to be implicated in the pathophisiology of negative symptoms. This cerebral region is essential in the regulation of emotions and cognition. Multiple neural networks begin in the prefrontal cortex and go towards other cortical association areas, to insular region, thalamic structures, basal ganglia and limbic system. It regulates dopaminergic mesencephalic activity through activating and inhibitory pathways, allowing a precise regulation of dopaminergic activity. This double modulation model of dopaminergic pathways has been recently sustained by studies which prove that extracellular dopaminergic concentration in nucleus accumbens increases or reduces after a high or low frequency stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, respectively. A prefrontal cortex lesion causes a syndrome similar to the negative symptomathology in schizophrenia. Transcraneal magnetic stimulation (TMS) could be effective in the treatment of negative symptoms by activating the prefrontal cortex, maybe by stimulating the liberation of dopamine in the mesolimbic and mesoestriatal pathways which have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of negative symptoms such as apathy and anhedonia. TMS was introduced in 1985 and since the early 90's its potential as a treatment has been tested in numerous neurological and psychiatric conditions. It is a noninvasive means of stimulating nervous cells in superficial areas of the brain. During a TMS procedure, an electrical current passes through a wire coil placed over the scalp. This induces a magnetic field that can produce a substantive electrical field in the brain. This electrical field produces in turn a depolarization of nervous cells resulting in the stimulation or disruption of brain activity. TMS may be applied as a single stimulus or repeated many times per second (repetitive TMS), with variations in the intensity, site, and orientation of the magnetic field. Most research and interest has focused on the potential application of repetitive TMS (rTMS) in the treatment of depression. In addition, in recent years an increasing number of open and double-blinded studies of rTMS were conducted in patients with schizophrenia. Most investigators have chosen to focus on the treatment of specific refractory symptoms or syndromes within the disorder such as refractory auditory hallucinations or persistent negative symptoms. TMS has become widely used in research, especially as a method to probe normal and abnormal brain function, motor cortical physiology, and cognition. Regarding negative symptoms in schizophrenia, eleven studies using TMS were carried out until 2006, with a total of 172 patients studied. These studies are difficult to compare because they used different stimulation parameters and the symptoms described were heterogenic. Six studies were blind and five were open, using high frequency TMS in all of them (frequencies above 1 Hz), which is the type of stimulation most commonly used in treatment studies. Six of these studies found a reduction in the severity of the symptoms, but the reduction was not significant in two of them. Ten were the maximum number of sessions included in every study, except for one, in which 20 sessions of TMS were given. In this study, the score of negative subscale of the PANSS was reduced in 33%, which is considered a significant response, and this result was sustained within the next month. In one of these studies, researchers compared 3- and 20-Hz stimulation with sham stimulation and stimulation provided at the patient's individual alpha frequency. Alpha-frequency stimulation was calculated as the patient's peak alpha frequency from five frontal EEG leads. Stimulation of alpha frequency resulted in a significantly greater reduction in negative symptoms than the other conditions. This finding could suggest that negative symptoms may specifically relate to alpha EEG oscillations, which is interesting and requires further exploration and confirmation. Another two studies were conducted in 2007; in the first one, no improvement in negative, positive of affective symptoms was found. The second one, which was a double-blinded clinical trial, found a significant reduction in the intensity of negative, positive, and general symptoms with the active TMS. We should remark that TMS produces changes in the cortical activity in ventral and dorsoestratial regions, but other cerebral regions could be stimulated too, since some activation abnormalities in the left globus palidus, bilateral caudate nucleus, prefrontal, and temporal right cortex have been found and are associated with the etiology of the negative syndrome. In addition, it will be interesting to see whether changes in subcortical dopamine release, which were shown with rTMS in normal volunteers, can be demonstrated in clinical populations, such as patients with schizophrenia, and how this may relate to response to treatment. There is still a need for a larger number of controlled studies, with larger samples, longer periods of evaluation, and constant stimulation parameters, so they can be compared between them and the exact efficacy of TMS as a treatment for negative symptoms can be established.

La estimulación magnética transcraneal (EMT) es un método no invasivo que utiliza campos magnéticos alternantes para inducir corrientes eléctricas en el tejido cortical en diferentes áreas cerebrales. Se considera una forma de tratamiento para diferentes trastornos psiquiátricos, especialmente en la depresión, adicciones y esquizofrenia. Está técnica terapéutica ofrece una vía innovadora para estudiar la excitabilidad de la corteza, la conectividad regional cortical, la plasticidad de las respuestas cerebrales y las funciones cognitivas en el estado del enfermo. Aunque se han documentado resultados positivos en la estimulación de la CPF izquierda y en la CPF derecha, se sugiere que puede ejercer su acción beneficiosa a través de diversos mecanismos de acción aún no comprendidos en su totalidad. La corteza prefrontal humana es esencial en el control e integración de las emociones, la cognición y la regulación del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo. Numerosas conexiones neuronales bidireccionales se originan en la CPF y se extienden al resto de las áreas de asociación cortical, región insular, sistema límbico y los ganglios basales. La CPF modula la actividad dopaminérgica mesencefálica mediante una vía activadora y otra inhibidora, lo que permite una regulación sumamente fina de la actividad dopaminérgica. La vía activadora funciona por medio de proyecciones glutamatérgicas directas e indirectas a las células dopaminérgicas. La vía inhibitoria hace lo propio mediante eferencias glutamatérgicas prefrontales a las interneuronas GABAérgicas mesencefálicas y a las neuronas GABAérgicas estriatomesencefálicas. El modelo de la doble modulación del sistema dopaminérgico mesolímbico demuestra que la concentración dopaminérgica extracelular en el núcleo accumbens disminuye o aumenta después de la estimulación de la corteza prefrontal a baja o alta frecuencia, respectivamente. Dentro de los estudios que utilizan la EMT en la esquizofrenia, se ha encontrado que, tras una EMT de alta frecuencia (>1Hz) o repetititiva (EMTr), hay un aumento de la excitabilidad en varias áreas cerebrales, mientras que la excitabilidad cortical disminuye tras una EMT de baja frecuencia (<1Hz). La excitabilidad cortical también depende de la intensidad y duración de la estimulación, lo que quiere decir que a intensidades más altas habrá mayor actividad cortical y a trenes prolongados habrá cambios duraderos en la excitabilidad cortical. Una gama de síntomas de difícil tratamiento en la esquizofrenia son los síntomas negativos persistentes, donde se ha demostrado una disminución de la actividad en la CPF, por lo que la EMT se ha utilizado para revertir dicha hipoactividad y disminuir los síntomas. De forma contraria, los síntomas positivos, como las alucinaciones, se asocian con una hiperactividad de las áreas témporo-parietales y por tanto debería resultar beneficiosa la aplicación de EMT de baja frecuencia en dichas áreas. La EMT de alta frecuencia también se ha utilizado para tratar a sujetos con síntomas catatónicos prominentes y se ha logrado una mejoría con el tratamiento. El objetivo de esta revisión es que se comprendan mejor la EMT y el uso que se le puede dar para tratar diversos síntomas en la esquizofrenia.

Psychiatry Res ; 165(3): 234-40, 2009 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19162333


There is evidence that premorbid adjustment can differentiate schizophrenia from schizoaffective disorder. We recruited 41 patients with schizophrenia and 24 patients with schizoaffective disorder without substance abuse 6 months before the assessment. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Psychotic symptoms were rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale was used to rate global psychosocial functioning. Premorbid adjustment was evaluated with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Patients with schizophrenia showed worse premorbid adjustment compared with the patients with schizoaffective disorder. The areas of "peer relationships" and "scholastic performance" showed deficits in schizophrenia. Significant associations were found between premorbid adjustment life periods and symptom severity in both groups. Differences found between groups may be related to an earlier illness onset in the schizophrenic group. Premorbid adjustment may be a useful clinical feature to differentiate schizoaffective disorder from schizophrenia.

Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Ajustamento Social , Logro , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem