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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197475


Adolescence is a stage when individuals are especially vulnerable to the influence of their peer group, which could lead to the development of problematic behavior, such as drinking alcohol, due to perceived pressure. The objective of this study was to analyze the role of self-esteem, impulsivity, anxiety sensitivity and expectations for use under perceived pressure to drink alcohol among young people. METHODS: The sample was made up of 1287 high school students aged 14 to 18, with a mean age of 15.11. The Bayes factor and mediation models were estimated to evaluate the data. RESULTS: The results showed the existence of a positive relationship of impulsivity, anxiety sensitivity and expectations for use with perceived pressure. However, this relationship was negative with self-esteem and perception of pressure to drink alcohol. Furthermore, the model results showed that self-esteem mediates the relationship between physical, cognitive and social anxiety sensitivity and positive expectations with perceived pressure to drink alcohol in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Given the strong need for affiliation during youth, it is hard to control grouping and peer influence on drinking behavior. However, knowledge of the role of individual variables, such as those described here, in perceived pressure could improve the prevention and intervention of such behaviors.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731778


BACKGROUND: Although self-expressive creativity is related to cyberbullying, it can also reinforce strengths that contribute to positive adolescent development. Our study concentrated on the relationships between personality traits and self-expressive creativity in the digital domain in an adolescent population. For this, we analyzed the effect of self-esteem and emotional intelligence as assets for positive development related to personality traits and self-expressive creativity. METHODS: The study population included a total of 742 adolescents that were high-school students in the province of Almería, Spain. The following instruments were used: Big Five Inventory (BFI) to evaluate the five broad personality factors, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Expression, Management, and Emotion Recognition Evaluation Scale (TMMS-24), and the Creative Behavior Questionnaire: Digital (CBQD). RESULTS: The cluster analysis revealed the existence of two profiles of adolescents based on their personality traits. The analysis showed that the group with the highest levels of extraversion and openness to experience and lowest levels of neuroticism were those who showed the highest scores in self-esteem, clarity, and emotional repair, as well as in self-expressive creativity. Higher scores in neuroticism and lower scores in extraversion and openness to experience showed a direct negative effect on self-expressive creativity and indirect effect through self-esteem and emotional attention, which acted as mediators in series. CONCLUSIONS: To counteract certain characteristics that increase adolescents' vulnerability to social network bullying, a plan must be developed for adequate positive use of the Internet from a creative model that enables digital self-expression for acquiring identity and self-efficacy through the positive influence of peers, which promotes feelings of empowerment and self-affirmation through constructive tasks that reinforce self-esteem and emotional intelligence.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652560


INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown significant associations between parenting practices, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, and the role of parenting practices in adolescent adjustment, emphasizing its influence on wellbeing. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationships between parenting practices, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and test the mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between the different parenting practices and life satisfaction of adolescents. METHOD: The sample came to a total of 742 adolescents, with an average age of 15.63 (SD = 1.24; range 13-19). The Parenting Style Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were used. RESULTS: Perception by adolescents of high levels of affect and communication, self-disclosure, and a sense of humor related to their parents, as well as low levels of psychological control, explained the life satisfaction of the adolescents. Self-esteem exerted a partial mediating effect on the relationship between parenting practices and satisfaction with the life of the adolescent. Finally, self-esteem also appeared to be a moderator variable, specifically in the effect of self-disclosure on the life satisfaction of the adolescent. CONCLUSIONS: The results reinforce the role of personal variables, especially self-esteem, in parent-child interaction and in the improved subjective wellbeing of the adolescent.

Poder Familiar/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho
Front Psychol ; 10: 1464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316429


Parental involvement in school has been demonstrated to be a key factor for children's academic outcomes. However, there is a lack of research in Chile, as well as in Latin American countries in general, leaving a gap in the literature about the generalization of findings outside developed and industrialized countries, where most of the research has been done. The present study aims to analyse the associations between parental involvement in school and children's academic achievement. Cluster analysis results from a sample of 498 parents or guardians whose children attended second and third grades in 16 public elementary schools in Chile suggested the existence of three different profiles of parental involvement (high, medium, and low) considering different forms of parental involvement (at home, at school and through the invitations made by the children, the teachers, and the school). Results show that there are differences in children's academic achievement between the parental involvement profiles, indicating children whose parents have a low involvement have lower academic achievement. Findings are in line with international research evidence, suggesting the need to focus on this variable too in Latin American contexts.

Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357525


(1) Background: The work schedule of nursing personnel often involves double or continuous shifts and sources of stress derived from the work context, making it necessary to ensure their rest and eating habits contribute to a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this study was to analyze the mediating role of stress management on the effect that sleep quality has on uncontrolled and emotional eating by nursing professionals. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 was applied to measure uncontrolled and emotional eating, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of sleep quality, and the EQ-i-20M for the stress management component of emotional intelligence. (2) Methods: A sample of 1073 nurses aged 22 to 57 years was selected for this purpose. (3) Results: The main result of this study was that stress management was a mediator in the effect of sleep quality on uncontrolled and emotional eating. Furthermore, low scores for sleeping problems correlated with high scores for stress management. The results also revealed a strong negative association between stress management and uncontrolled and emotional eating. (4) Conclusions: The results are discussed from the perspective of promoting health at work as well as improving the psychosocial wellbeing of nursing professionals and increasing the quality of patient care.

Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/terapia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Sono , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Estresse Ocupacional/fisiopatologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
Front Psychol ; 10: 335, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873076


There is an extensive body of evidence to support both family involvement and students' socioemotional development as key factors in the promotion of learning outcomes. However, there is insufficient evidence to establish exactly what this impact is when both factors are considered simultaneously. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the influence of family involvement and socioemotional development on learning outcomes of Chilean students, identifying the structure that most correctly identifies the influence of the predictor variables (family involvement and socioemotional development) on learning outcomes. We present the following three hypotheses that consider possible basic interrelation structures: (1) The influence of family involvement on learning outcomes is mediated by students' socioemotional development (mediation hypothesis); (2) The influence of family involvement on learning outcomes is moderated by students' socioemotional development (moderation hypothesis); (3) Family involvement and students' socio emotional development directly affect learning outcomes (covariance hypothesis). The structures were evaluated by means of a structural equation model analysis. The study included 768 students who attended second and third elementary grades in Chilean schools. The children were between 7 and 11 years old (M = 8.29, SD = 0.86); 41.3% were girls and 58.7% were boys. The results show that family involvement and students' emotional development directly affect learning outcomes (CFI = 0.995, TLI = 0.993, RMSEA = 0.016). From the results, we can conclude that the data support the hypothesis that both family involvement and socioemotional development are predictors of learning outcomes, thereby rejecting that the impact of family involvement on learning outcomes is mediated or moderated by socioemotional development.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441763


This study explored the associations between family support and satisfaction with life, food-related life and family life. It also assessed the associations between both parents' work-life balance and satisfaction with life, food-related life and family life among adolescent children from dual-earner families. Questionnaires were administered to 303 dual-earner families with one child between 10 and 17 years in Temuco, Chile. Adolescents answered the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life scale (SWFoL), Satisfaction with Family Life scale (SWFaL) and the Family subscale of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Both parents answered the Work-life Balance (WLB) scale. Using structural equation modelling and having controlled for adolescents' gender, age and socioeconomic status, we confirmed that adolescent life satisfaction is associated with satisfaction with family life and food-related life. Food-related life satisfaction and family life satisfaction had complete mediating roles between perceived family support and adolescents' life satisfaction. Satisfaction with food-related life also had a complete mediating role between both parents' WLB and adolescents' life satisfaction. Satisfaction with family life had a complete mediating role between mothers' WLB and adolescents' life satisfaction. In addition, mothers' WLB was positively associated with perceived family support among adolescents. These findings suggest the need to improve family support and work-life balance among mothers in order to enhance adolescents' satisfaction with different domains of life in dual-earner families.

Relações Familiares , Alimentos , Pais/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Apoio Social
Front Psychol ; 9: 1492, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233442


In recent decades there have been significant changes in the conceptualization of reading as well as in the perception of how this activity should be assessed. Interest in the analysis of reading processes has led to the emergence of new explanatory models based primarily on the contributions of cognitive psychology. In parallel, there have been notable advances in measurement procedures, especially in models based on Item Response Theory (IRT), as well as in the capacity and performance of specific software programs that allow data to be managed and analyzed. These changes have contributed significantly to the rise of testing procedures such as computerized adaptive tests (CATs), whose fundamental characteristic is that the sequence of items presented in the tests is adapted to the level of competence that the subject manifests. Likewise, the incorporation of elements of dynamic assessment (DA) as the prompts are gradually offered allows for obtaining information about the type and degree of support required to optimize the subject's performance. In this sense, the confluence of contributions from DA and CATs offers a new possibility for approaching the assessment of learning processes. In this article, we present a longitudinal research developed in two phases, through which a computerized dynamic adaptive assessment battery of reading processes (EDPL-BAI) was configured. The research frame involved 1,831 students (46% girls) from 13 public schools in three regions of Chile. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differential contribution on reading competence of dynamic scores obtained in a subsample composed of 324 (47% girls) students from third to sixth grade after the implementation of a set of adaptive dynamic tests of morpho-syntactic processes. The results achieved in the structural equation modeling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show a significant contribution of calibrated score that reflects estimated knowledge level on reading competence, as well as dynamic scores based on the assigned value of graduated prompts required by the students. These results showed significant predictive values on reading competence and incremental validity in relation to predictions made by static criterion tests.

Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 15(1): 267-279, ene. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-836176


En este artículo comparamos percepciones de niños y niñas de Chile con sus madres, respecto a tensiones y estrategias de articulación trabajo y familia. Realizamos un análisis situado en la trama de relaciones entre sujetos, y abordamos hallazgos emergentes de la interpretación de entrevistas a niños y niñas y adultas, estableciendo una comparación entre perspectivas en torno a tensiones, cuidado, tiempo y bienestar. Los resultados muestran que existe una percepción generalizada, y que el trabajo tensiona más a las madres que a los padres, debido a una carga de trabajo global mayor. Las madres reconocen que el principal equilibrio a alcanzar es cumplir adecuadamente ambas funciones. Los niños y las niñas tienen posiciones menos conservadoras que las que reflejan los estereotipos adultos.

This article analyses a range of perceptions of Chilean childrencompared to those of their mothers regarding tensions and strategies to articulate family life and work. An analysis is conducted based on the structure of the relationship between subjects. This studyaddresses the emerging findings from interviews with children and adults, establishing a comparisonof the perspectives regarding tension, care, time and well‒being. The results show that there is awidespread perception among children and their mothers that having a job causes more stress formothers than fathers, because they have an increased overall workload. Mothers recognized that themain balance to achieve is to fulfil both roles adequately. For these perspectives, children have lessconservative positions in comparison to those reflected in adults’stereotypes.

Este artigo compara percepções de crianças chilenas com suas mães,com relação às tensões e estratégias de articulação do trabalho e da família. Uma análise é realizada sobre a estrutura de relações entre sujeitos e aborda descobertas emergentes da interpretação de entrevistas com crianças e adultas, estabelecendo uma comparação entre perspectivas sobre tensões,cuidado, tempo e bem‒estar. Os resultados mostram a existência duma percepção generalizada,que o trabalho produz maior tensão nas mães do que nos pais, porque elas possuem maior carga de trabalho global. As mães reconhecem que o principal equilíbrio que se pode atingir é cumprir adequadamente as duas funções. As crianças têm posições menos conservadoras que as que refletemos estereótipos adultos.

Humanos , Família , Mudança Social