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1.
Waste Manag ; 119: 162-171, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065337

RESUMO

The smart waste factory of the future will be monitored and controlled by a combination of various sensors and several real-time data sets. One essential data requirement relates to waste streams at different stages of the treatment process. In order to analyse waste by sensor-based technology, a solid database of representative waste data is necessary. Usually, this data is collected of mixed waste. The present paper describes waste on the level of individual waste particles. In the first step, particles from fine-shredded (<30 mm), non-hazardous, mixed waste have been investigated. As an example for this material, solid recovered fuel (SRF) has been used. 20 samples from five SRF-producers have been collected. From each of these samples, 800 particles have been extracted, covering eight waste fractions. In total, 15,542 particles were examined regarding their projected particle area and their particle mass. Both parameters are log-normal distributed with a median for the area of 3.62 cm2 and for the mass of 0.19 g. To investigate the relationship between the two parameters, the Pearson-Correlation-Coefficient of the logarithmised data has been calculated. The resulting coefficient of 0.57 means a good correlation. Additionally, the fuel parameters of the individual fractions were measured using laboratory analysis on composite samples of the five SRF-producers. The lower heating value, the ash content and the chlorine content are either in the range or slightly lower than the data from literature. Additional work is required to improve the usability of the data obtained for the real-time analysis of waste.


Assuntos
Calefação , Resíduos Sólidos , Cloro , Incineração , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
2.
MethodsX ; 7: 100837, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195149

RESUMO

Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) include non-combustible mineral components (e.g. CaCO3, SiO2, Al2O3) that are required as raw materials for producing clinker and are completely incorporated into the clinker during the thermal recovery of SRF. This paper discusses simple and practicable ways of finding the relative amount of SRF that may be utilised as raw material (given as the recycling index). For this purpose, the entire mineral content of SRF was determined as the ash content and its main components were identified using different analytical methods.•A fusion melt of the previously incinerated sample with subsequent measuring using ICP-OES and XRF as well as a total digestion of the incinerated and non-incinerated sample with subsequent measuring using ICP-OES/ICP-MS were applied.•The results showed a good agreement of all four analytical methods for the elementary oxides Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, SiO2, TiO2, P2O5 and MgO (relative deviation from 6.6 to 38.9%) and slightly higher deviations for K2O, Na2O and SO3 (14.2-96.0%).•It was also shown that different incineration temperatures (550 °C, 815 °C and 950 °C) have no effect on the result of the recycling index unless it is assumed that the recycling index equals the ash content.

3.
Waste Manag Res ; 37(9): 885-897, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333076

RESUMO

Production, quality and quality assurance, as well as co-incineration of solid recovered fuels in cement industry, have become state-of-the-art in the European cement industry. At the global level, average thermal substitution rate is about 17%, whereby, only 13% in Canada and in the USA 16%, while in the European Union 28 it is about 44% (i.e. 11,300,000 t waste fuels utilised in 2016). In Austria, thermal substitution rate was ca. 80% in 2017, which was worldwide the highest one. Regarding solid recovered fuels for the cement industry, two types are relevant, namely solid recovered fuels PREMIUM Quality and solid recovered fuels MEDIUM Quality. In the case study shown, solid recovered fuels PREMIUM Quality from 11 and solid recovered fuels MEDIUM Quality from nine different solid recovered fuels production plants have been investigated. Investigations consist of sorting and sieving analyses (for PREMIUM), as well as physical-chemical analyses (for both solid recovered fuels types) according to the (inter)national standards (i.e. Austrian 'ÖNORM', European 'EN' standards and CEN TC 343 guidelines). The results gained from the first investigation were published in 2014 and here, results of further investigations are updated for 2016 and 2018 and confronted with legal and market relevant requirements. During the investigation, not enough parallel samples could be investigated and therefore no adequate scientific statistical analyses could be elaborated but a more practical indicative interpretation has been made. Finally, it can be confirmed, that all investigated solid recovered fuels fulfil the Austrian legal and international solid recovered fuels and co-incineration market requirements.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Áustria , Canadá , Combustíveis Fósseis , Fósseis , Incineração
4.
Waste Manag Res ; 34(11): 1157-1163, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465841

RESUMO

In Austria, the first basic technological and economic examinations of mass-waste landfills with the purpose to recover secondary raw materials have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Österreich' pilot project. A main focus of its research, and the subject of this article, is the first conceptual design of a comprehensive assessment method for landfill mining plans, including not only monetary factors (like costs and proceeds) but also non-monetary ones, such as the concerns of adjoining owners or the environmental impact. Detailed reviews of references, the identification of influences and system boundaries to be included in planning landfill mining, several expert workshops and talks with landfill operators have been performed followed by a division of the whole assessment method into preliminary and main assessment. Preliminary assessment is carried out with a questionnaire to rate juridical feasibility, the risk and the expenditure of a landfill mining project. The results of this questionnaire are compiled in a portfolio chart that is used to recommend, or not, further assessment. If a detailed main assessment is recommended, defined economic criteria are rated by net present value calculations, while ecological and socio-economic criteria are examined in a utility analysis and then transferred into a utility-net present value chart. If this chart does not support making a definite statement on the feasibility of the project, the results must be further examined in a cost-effectiveness analysis. Here, the benefit of the particular landfill mining project per capital unit (utility-net present value ratio) is determined to make a final distinct statement on the general benefit of a landfill mining project.


Assuntos
Mineração/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Áustria , Análise Custo-Benefício , Mineração/economia , Reciclagem/métodos
5.
Waste Manag Res ; 34(4): 356-67, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26858240

RESUMO

Landfill mining permits recovering secondary raw materials from landfills. Whether this purpose is economically feasible, however, is a matter of various aspects. One is the amount of recoverable secondary raw material (like metals) that can be exploited with a profit. Other influences are the costs for excavation, for processing the waste at the landfill site and for paying charges on the secondary disposal of waste. Depending on the objectives of a landfill mining project (like the recovery of a ferrous and/or a calorific fraction) these expenses and revenues are difficult to assess in advance. This situation complicates any previous assessment of the economic feasibility and is the reason why many landfills that might be suitable for landfill mining are continuingly operated as active landfills, generating aftercare costs and leaving potential hazards to later generations. This article presents a newly developed simulation model for landfill mining projects. It permits identifying the quantities and qualities of output flows that can be recovered by mining and by mobile on-site processing of the waste based on treatment equipment selected by the landfill operator. Thus, charges for disposal and expected revenues from secondary raw materials can be assessed. Furthermore, investment, personnel, operation, servicing and insurance costs are assessed and displayed, based on the selected mobile processing procedure and its throughput, among other things. For clarity, the simulation model is described in this article using the example of a real Austrian sanitary landfill.


Assuntos
Mineração/economia , Mineração/métodos , Modelos Econômicos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/economia , Áustria , Simulação por Computador , Custos e Análise de Custo , Metais , Plásticos , Reciclagem/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/economia , Madeira
6.
Waste Manag Res ; 34(3): 254-64, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26759433

RESUMO

One of the challenges for the cement industry is the quality assurance of alternative fuel (e.g., solid recovered fuel, SRF) in co-incineration plants--especially for inhomogeneous alternative fuels with large particle sizes (d95⩾100 mm), which will gain even more importance in the substitution of conventional fuels due to low production costs. Existing standards for sampling and sample preparation do not cover the challenges resulting from these kinds of materials. A possible approach to ensure quality monitoring is shown in the present contribution. For this, a specially manufactured, automated comminution and sample divider device was installed at a cement plant in Rohoznik. In order to prove its practical suitability with methods according to current standards, the sampling and sample preparation process were validated for alternative fuel with a grain size >30 mm (i.e., d95=approximately 100 mm), so-called 'Hotdisc SRF'. Therefore, series of samples were taken and analysed. A comparison of the analysis results with the yearly average values obtained through a reference investigation route showed good accordance. Further investigations during the validation process also showed that segregation or enrichment of material throughout the comminution plant does not occur. The results also demonstrate that compliance with legal standards regarding the minimum sample amount is not sufficient for inhomogeneous and coarse particle size alternative fuels. Instead, higher sample amounts after the first particle size reduction step are strongly recommended in order to gain a representative laboratory sample.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/análise , Indústria da Construção , Incineração/métodos , Resíduos/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Eslováquia
7.
Waste Manag Res ; 33(11): 962-74, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26347181

RESUMO

Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Áustria , Mineração
8.
Waste Manag Res ; 33(7): 671-80, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26185166

RESUMO

In recent years, the rising need for raw materials by emerging economies (e.g. China) has led to a change in the availability of certain primary raw materials, such as ores or coal. The accompanying rising demand for secondary raw materials as possible substitutes for primary resources, the soaring prices and the global lack of specific (e.g. metallic) raw materials pique the interest of science and economy to consider landfills as possible secondary sources of raw materials. These sites often contain substantial amounts of materials that can be potentially utilised materially or energetically. To investigate the raw material potential of a landfill, boreholes and excavations, as well as subsequent hand sorting have proven quite successful. These procedures, however, are expensive and time consuming as they frequently require extensive construction measures on the landfill body or waste mass. For this reason, this article introduces a newly developed, affordable, theoretical method for the estimation of landfill contents. The article summarises the individual calculation steps of the method and demonstrates this using the example of a selected Austrian sanitary landfill. To assess the practicality and plausibility, the mathematically determined raw material potential is compared with the actual results from experimental studies of excavated waste from the same landfill (actual raw material potential).


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mineração/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
9.
Waste Manag Res ; 32(9 Suppl): 48-58, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25012302

RESUMO

For the first time, basic technical and economic studies for landfill mining are being carried out in Austria on the basis of a pilot project. An important goal of these studies is the collection of elementary data as the basis for an integrated ecological and economic assessment of landfill mining projects with regard to their feasibility. For this purpose, economic, ecological, technical, organizational, as well as political and legal influencing factors are identified and extensively studied in the article. An important aspect is the mutual influence of the factors on each other, as this can significantly affect the development of an integrated assessment system. In addition to the influencing factors, the definition of the spatial and temporal system boundaries is crucial for further investigations. Among others, the quality and quantity of recovered waste materials, temporal fluctuations or developments in prices of secondary raw material and fuels attainable in the markets, and time and duration of dumping, play a crucial role. Based on the investigations, the spatial system boundary is defined in as much as all the necessary process steps, from landfill mining, preparing and sorting to providing a marketable material/product by the landfill operator, are taken into account. No general accepted definition can be made for the temporal system boundary because the different time-related influencing factors necessitate an individual project-specific determination and adaptation to the facts of the on-site landfill mining project.


Assuntos
Mineração/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Áustria , Ecologia , Características da Família , Metais , Mineração/economia , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/economia , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Waste Manag Res ; 30(4): 370-80, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22504629

RESUMO

This contribution describes the processing and the quality assurance of solid recovered fuel (SRF) that is increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. As an example, the preparation of municipal, commercial and industrial wastes for recovering of two different specifications of waste fuels (i.e. primary burner fuel and hot disc fuel used in cement industry) is reported and the multiple stage processing scheme used in SRF production is presented as well as the quality of SRF obtained. It will be shown, that removing of metals and sorting out of unwanted inert materials like stones, glass and concrete only after disintegration of the waste matrix during several crushing and separation steps can be carried out efficiently. In the following chapters, the quality assurance of SRF is demonstrated and described by using two different scenarios (i.e. different sizes of waste streams with different particle sizes, delivered to a cement plant by walking floor trucks). Based on CEN/TS-guidelines for SRF as well as national norms (ÖNORM), two sampling procedures and sample preparation schemes are elaborated for the scenarios and own practical experiences in quality assessment of heterogeneous waste fuels are reported. Finally, references are given on new, innovative laboratory equipment like cutting mills with attached cyclones and a mobile, hand-sized XRF-instrument for fast identification of extraneous materials removed from the laboratory sample prior to chemical analysis.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/classificação , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos/normas , Áustria , Incineração , Controle de Qualidade , Eliminação de Resíduos/instrumentação , Resíduos/classificação
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