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1.
Blood Press Monit ; 25(1): 42-49, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare two oscillometric devices used in national health surveys in Germany, Datascope Accutorr Plus and Mobil-O-Graph PWA and to develop formulas for the conversion of blood pressure (BP) values. METHODS: One hundred and four adults aged 21-86 years had nine alternate same-arm BP measurements according to the International Protocol revision 2010 for the validation of BP measuring devices in adults of the European Society of Hypertension. Measurements 2-8 yielded six pairs of measurements at 30- to 60-second interval with the two devices, totaling 743 pairs used for analysis. RESULTS: Mean Mobil-O-Graph SBP and DBP were higher than those from Datascope. Mean differences (Mobil-O-Graph minus Datascope) increased within BP ranges (optimal, normal, high normal, hypertensive stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3): SBP 0.5 ± 8.5, 3.1 ± 8.2, 3.7 ± 8.0, 5.3 ± 8.8, 13.8 ± 10.2 and 15.0 ± 25.9, respectively, and DBP 2.6 ± 5.6, 6.0 ± 4.9, 6.6 ± 5.2, 8.4 ± 4.8, 12.3 ± 4.6 and 20.4 ± 4.2, respectively. For Mobil-O-Graph pulse pressure less than 43 mm Hg, the DBP difference was 6.3 ± 5.5, and for Mobil-O-Graph pulse pressure more than 50 mm Hg, the SBP difference was 7.4 ± 9.3. The prevalence of BP at least 140/90 mm Hg was 28.8% with Mobil-O-Graph and 20.5% with Datascope. Bidirectional conversion models of SBP and DBP adjusting for BP, pulse pressure, sex, age and cuff width to arm circumference ratio were developed. CONCLUSION: The disagreement in oscillometric devices can reach a magnitude that can be relevant for clinical and epidemiological contexts. The here generated conversion formulas may help to improve comparability.

2.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529182

RESUMO

In KiGGS Wave 2, data from 3­ to 17-year-olds were collected from a total of 3462 persons using a standardized interview on the current use of AM/NEM in the last seven days. For trends analysis, data from 14,679 study participants in the same age group from the KiGGS baseline study were used.In KiGGS Wave 2, 36.4% (95% CI 34.1-38.8) of the 3­ to 17-year-olds had used at least one AM/NEM in the last seven days. The prevalence was highest at 46.5% in 14- to 17-year-olds and significantly different between girls and boys (56.4% vs. 37.3%). Only among girls were there significant differences by migrant background with a higher prevalence of use among girls without a migrant background.Most frequently, the preparations used were for treatment of the respiratory tract (girls: 14.2%, boys: 14.9%), followed by "Varia" (girls: 8.7%, boys: 9.3%) and preparations for the treatment of the musculoskeletal system (girls: 8.9%, boys: 5.8%). There was a significant decrease in the overall prevalence of medicine use compared to the KiGGS baseline study (46.4% vs. 36.4%). This decrease was mainly due to lower prevalences of use in the ATC main groups "N Nervous System" (7.5% vs. 5.4%), "J Systemic Anti-infectives" (2.5% vs. 1.4%) and "H Systemic Hormones, excl. Sexual Hormones and Insulins" (2.0% vs. 1.1%).The results describe key points in the use of AM/NEM, including self-medication for children and adolescents in Germany. They illustrate the use behaviour and represent a valuable supplement to prescription data.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain not only causes suffering in children and adolescents, but also leads to school absenteeism, medication intake, medical treatment, and an increased risk of recurrent pain in adulthood. OBJECTIVES: Based on data from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017), the 3­month prevalence of recurrent headache, abdominal and back pain in girls and boys is reported, and is compared with the prevalence from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006). The consequences of recurrent headache were also explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from >11,000 participants (KiGGS Wave 2) and from >12,000 (KiGGS baseline) participants aged between 3 and 17 years were analyzed. For 3­ to 10-year-olds, parents/guardians answered the questions, while 11- to 17-year-olds provided information themselves. RESULTS: In 3­ to 10-year-olds, recurrent abdominal pain was most prevalent, affecting one third of girls and one quarter of boys. Headache was the most frequent type of pain in 11- to 17-year-olds, affecting almost every second girl and about every third boy. The 3­month prevalence of recurrent headache, abdominal and back pain has increased in girls and boys, especially in the age groups 7 to 10 years and 11 to 13 years. Among recurrent headache sufferers, adolescents take medication almost twice as often as children. CONCLUSIONS: Headache, abdominal, and back pain are still and with increasing prevalence very common symptoms in children and adolescents in Germany. Their prevention requires a holistic view of children's health in the psychosocial living environment, and healthcare context.


Assuntos
Dor/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
4.
Int J Hypertens ; 2019: 2314029, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186951

RESUMO

Universal blood pressure (BP) screening in children and adolescents is questioned in prevention guidelines, while measuring blood pressure in the young in the context of overweight, obesity, or parental hypertension is promoted. This study quantifies with population data the underestimation of elevated blood pressure that would result from limiting BP screening only to those with overweight, obesity, or parental hypertension in the young. Selective screening was simulated with representative national health examination data from Germany (age 3-17, N=14,633, KiGGS0 study 2003-2006; age 18-39, N=1,884, DEGS1 2008-2011 study), with mean of two oscillometric measurements on one occasion; cutoffs for hypertensive BP in children were the 95th percentile using KiGGS percentiles, and for sensitivity analyses Fourth Report percentiles, in adults 140/90 mmHg; childhood overweight and obesity were classified according to the International Obesity Task Force and for adults as BMI ≥25 and ≥30 kg/m2. In 3-17-year-olds, different selective BP screening scenarios were simulated: screening only in those with obesity, overweight, parental hypertension, combination of overweight and parental hypertension, resulting in screening 5.6%, 20.0%, 28.5%, and 42.6% of the population and detecting 17.2%, 38.6%, 30.3%, and 58.2% of all hypertensive cases in the population. In conclusion our results show a large screening gap that would result from selective BP screening only in those with overweight, obesity, or parental hypertension.

5.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of medicines in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been demonstrated in women and men. However, gender-specific differences have been observed in the prescription of these medicines. Information on trends in prevalence use in women and men from population-based studies are still lacking. METHODS: Data of people aged 40-79 years with CHD from the national health interview and examination surveys for adults in Germany from 1997-1999 (GNHIES98, n = 411) and from 2008-2011 (DEGS1, n = 440) were analyzed. Trend analyses via multivariable regression models, taking into account relevant covariables, were used to calculate the prevalence of medicine use in secondary prevention of CHD between GNHIES98 and DEGS1. The following groups were considered: antiplatelet, statins, beta-receptor blockers, agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS blocker), calcium-channel blockers, and nitrate. RESULTS: In one decade, the prevalence had increased for antiplatelet (24.0% vs. 59.6%), statins (18.5% vs. 56.2%), beta-receptor blockers (24.7% vs. 65.5%), and RAS blockers (31.6% vs. 69.0%). The prevalence of calcium-channel blockers (33.3% vs. 20.5%) and nitrate (40.6% vs. 10.1%) had decreased. In GNHIES98, men were more likely to use RAS blockers. Significant gender differences were found in DEGS1 only for angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. CONCLUSION: This study showed an improvement in the use of drugs for the secondary prevention of CHD in both sexes.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Secundária
6.
Transplantation ; 103(11): 2423-2433, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular comorbidity is of increasing importance after transplantation. Metabolic syndrome (MS) contributes to the risk for cardiovascular sequelae. Our aim was to assess the risk for MS in pediatric solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients by comparing them with matched untransplanted peers in a multicenter study. METHODS: We prospectively assessed MS in 295 pediatric transplant recipients and compared them with 1475 age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: Posttransplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS) was most frequent in lung (43%) and kidney (39%), followed by liver (16%) and stem cell (13%) recipients, compared with nontransplanted peers (4%; P < 0.01). The risk of displaying PTMS was almost 22-fold higher after lung (95% confidence interval, CI, 8.2-57.4), 16-fold higher after kidney (95% CI, 9.1-28.9), 5-fold higher after liver (95% CI, 2.1-10.1), and 4-fold higher after stem cell (95% CI, 1.4-9.5) transplantation. The contribution of individual components leading to MS differed depending on transplant type. In the combined analysis of all transplant groups, older age, less physical activity, calcineurin or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based immunosuppression, and hypovitaminosis D were associated with PTMS. CONCLUSIONS: By investigating a large group of patients, our study not only shows a high prevalence of PTMS but also identifies kidney and lung transplant patients as being at a particularly high risk. Moreover, knowledge on the factors associated with PTMS allows for individualized treatment approaches as well as potential preventive measures.

7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(3): 448-453, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are lacking to provide cutoffs for hypotension in children based on outcome studies and Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) definitions are based on normal populations. The goal of this study was to compare different normal population based cutoffs including fifth percentile of systolic blood pressure (P5-SBP) in children and adolescents from the German Health Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), US population data (Fourth Report), and cutoffs from PALS and ATLS guidelines. METHODS: Fifth percentile of systolic blood pressure according to age, sex, and height was modeled based on standardized resting oscillometric BP measurements (12,199 children aged 3-17 years) from KiGGS 2003-2006. In addition, we applied the age-adjusted pediatric shock index in the KiGGS study. RESULTS: The KiGGS P5-SBP was on average 7 mm Hg higher than Fourth Report P5-SBP (5-10 mm Hg depending on age-sex group). For children aged 3 to 9 years, KIGGS P5-SBP at median height follows the formula 82 mm Hg + age; for age 10 to 17 years, the increase was not linear and is presented in a simplified table. Pediatric Advanced Life Support/ATLS thresholds were between KiGGS and Fourth Report until age of 11 years. The adult threshold of 90 mm Hg was reached by KiGGS P5-SBP median height at 8 years, PALS/ATLS at age of 10 years, and Fourth Report P5-SBP at 12 years. The pediatric shock index, which is supposed to identify severely injured children, was exceeded by 2.3% nonacutely ill KiGGS participants. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that percentile cutoffs vary by reference population. The 90 mm Hg cutoff for adolescents targets only those in the less than 1% of the low SBP range and represents an undertriage compared with P5 at younger ages according to both KiGGS and Fourth Report. Finally, current pediatric shock index cutoffs when applied to a healthy cohort lead to a relevant percentage of false positives. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic/prognostic, level III.

8.
Int J Hypertens ; 2018: 8429891, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356390

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) tracking from childhood to adulthood has two aspects: the ranking stability relative to others over time and the prediction of future values. This study investigates BP tracking in children and adolescents in Germany in the context of hypertension risk factors. BP was measured and analyzed in 2542 participants of the German Health Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (t0 2003-2006; 3 to 17-year olds) and of a six year follow-up "Motorik Modul" (t1 2009-2012; 9 to 24-year olds). BP tracking coefficients were calculated from Spearman's rank-order correlations. Predictive values and logistic regression models were used to forecast t1-BP above the hypertension threshold from t0-BP as well as from baseline and follow-up hypertension risk factors. BP tracking was moderate (0.33-0.50 for SBP and 0.19-0.39 for DBP) with no statistically significant differences between sex and age groups. Baseline hypertensive BP was the strongest independent predictor of hypertensive BP at follow-up (OR 4.3 and 3.4 for age groups 3-10 and 11-17 years) after adjusting for sex, BMI trajectories, birthweight, parental hypertension, and age-group dependent-sports/physical activity. However, the positive predictive value of baseline hypertensive BP for hypertensive BP at follow-up in 3- to 10-year olds was only 39% (34% in 11- to 17-year olds) and increased only moderately in the presence of additional risk factors. Our analysis with population-based data from Germany shows that BP in children and adolescents tracks only moderately over six years. BP in childhood is the strongest independent predictor of future BP but its predictive value is limited.

9.
J Pediatr ; 187: 174-181.e3, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present population-based resting heart rate (RHR) percentiles and associated factors in children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Standardized RHR measurements with an oscillometric device were obtained from 3- to 17-year-olds who participated in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (n = 11 986). Age- and sex-specific RHR percentiles were derived using flexible age-dependent modeling. Linear regression was used to test associations of RHR and associated factors. RESULTS: RHR decreased with age and mean RHR was on average 3.0 beats per minute (bpm) higher in girls than in boys (P < .01). The 95th RHR-KiGGS-percentile (P95) in boys and girls are up to 10 bpm lower than P95 based on pooled heterogeneous international studies and more similar to percentiles based on population data from NHANES (higher or lower by ≤5 bpm, depending on age). Factors independently associated with RHR in both sexes were age, SBP and height in children aged 3-10 years; and age, systolic blood pressure, and high aerobic fitness in adolescents aged 11-17 years. In girls, we further found an association between RHR and underweight (OR 3.3 and 4.7 for underweight girls aged 3-10 and 11-17, respectively, compared with normal weight girls). Associations between RHR and aerobic fitness, physical activity, and media use were stronger in boys than in girls. CONCLUSION: This study provides population-based RHR percentiles and evidence for sex-dependent associations of cardiovascular risk factors with RHR in children and adolescents, many of which are lifestyle related.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Oscilometria , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 18(11): 1146-1154, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27481706

RESUMO

The prevalence and associated factors of untreated, uncontrolled, and apparent-resistant hypertension (RH) in Germany are unknown. Based on European Society of Hypertension criteria, apparent RH was defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 mm Hg in diabetics) under treatment with three different classes of antihypertensive agents including a diuretic. Data from the German Health Examination Survey (2008-2011; n=7115, age 18-79 years) including standardized BP measurements and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical-coded taken medications were analyzed. Among patients aware of their hypertensive status (n=2205), 37.9% were uncontrolled and, among those, 33.4% were untreated. Being aware and having untreated and uncontrolled BP was associated with male sex, young age, not having cardiovascular disease, not performing BP self-measurement, not being obese, and not smoking. Apparent RH occurred in 6.8% of treated aware hypertensive patients and was positively associated with having diabetes. The proportion of uncontrolled BP is still high. Not having "obvious risk factors" has become a risk itself for having untreated and uncontrolled hypertension.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/classificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hypertens Res ; 39(6): 457-66, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818655

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity; therefore, its control is very important. International Guidelines recommend the same hypertension management in men and women; however, studies suggest that management of hypertension differs. This study explores gender-age disparities in the management and control of hypertension in Germany in 1998 and 2008-2011. Data from the German Health Examination Surveys (GNHIES98 1998, n=7124 and DEGS1 2008-2011, n=7988, age 18-79 years), including standardized blood pressure measurements and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical medication codes, were analyzed by gender and two age groups. For 1998 and 2008-2011 in Germany, the gender gap in hypertension management persisted without significant changes. Hypertensive men in 2008-2011 had lower awareness of their condition (78.3 vs. 86.8%), less treatment for hypertension (65.3 vs. 79.2%), less control of hypertension (45.4 vs. 57.5%) and less treatment among those aware of their condition (83.9 vs. 91.5%) than did women. These gender differences were greater in younger compared with older adults (18-54 years vs. 55-79 years). No gender differences were observed in control of hypertension among those treated in 1998; however, subsequent improvement was less in younger men compared with the other age-gender groups, leading to a new gender gap in 18-54-year olds (women 84.8%, men 63.9%). Younger women used more ß-blockers and less angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) than younger men. Factors positively associated with control among those treated for hypertension in the younger group were being a woman, using ß-blockers or using ACEI, or angiotensin-receptor blockers. In the older group, diabetes was negatively associated with control of hypertension, whereas having cardiovascular comorbidities was positively associated. Gender disparities in hypertension management and control still exist in Germany but may be masked because they are age-dependent.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Hypertens ; 29(1): 104-13, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25968124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality, therefore its control is of great importance. In this study we compare the use of antihypertensive medication among adults with hypertension in Germany 1998 and 2008-2011 and determine factors associated with use and control. METHODS: Data from German Health Examination Surveys (GNHIES98 1998, n = 7,124 and DEGS1 2008-2011 n = 7,988, age 18-79 years) including standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) medication codes were analyzed. RESULTS: The use of antihypertensive medication among adults with hypertension in Germany increased from 54% to 72% in 1 decade. In 2008-2011, 67% of users were treated with polytherapy. The most commonly used antihypertensive class in 1998 was diuretics (43%) and in 2008-2011 beta-blockers (54%). Ramipril and metoprolol are currently the most commonly used monotherapy agents, while ramipril in combination with hydrochlorothiazide is the most frequent polytherapy. Being a woman, older age, having statutory health insurance, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and obesity were positively associated with antihypertensive use. The control rate among treated increased from 42% to 72%. Young women (18-54 years) had better control compared to older women or to men. Having CHD or stroke was positively associated with BP control. CONCLUSIONS: Increased and improved antihypertensive use might be a main contributor to the decrease in BP observed in Germany in the last decade. However, there are still socio-demographic and health disparities in hypertension treatment and control.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 16: 28, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26428626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the public health relevance of analgesic use, large-scale studies on this topic in Germany are lacking. This study describes the prevalence, trends, associations and patterns of use of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, focusing on five of the most common agents: aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen and paracetamol. METHODS: Data from two representative population-based surveys: The German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98 n = 7099) and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS1 n = 7091) was investigated. Information on all medicines consumed in the previous 7 days was collected via computer-assisted personal interviews with adults aged 18-79 years. Associations between analgesic use and socio-demographic and health-behaviour factors were analysed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Analgesic use has increased over the last decade from 19 to 21%. This was exclusively due to the rise in OTC analgesic use from 10.0 to 12.2%. Prescribed analgesic use remained constant (7.9%). Findings from DEGS1 indicate that ibuprofen is the most commonly used analgesic followed by aspirin and paracetamol. OTC analgesic use is higher among women and smokers, but lower among older adults (65-79 years). Prescribed analgesics use is higher among women, older adults, smokers and obese adults with medium or high socio- economic status. Adults performing more than 2 h/week of physical exercise use fewer analgesics. DISCUSSION: Among the adult population of Germany, the prevalence of OTC analgesic use has significantly increased over the last decade. We found differences between adults consuming OTC and prescribed analgesics (or both) concerning their health behaviour and health conditions. International direct comparison between prevalence rates of analgesic use was limited due to varying availability of analgesics between countries and to methodological differences. CONCLUSIONS: About one in five community dwelling adults aged 18-79 years in Germany use analgesics in a given week. Considering the potential harms of analgesic use, monitoring of prevalence, patterns and determinants of use at the population level are important steps to inform disease prevention and health promotion policies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Dor/prevenção & controle , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Diclofenaco/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Farmacológico/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Naproxeno/uso terapêutico , Dor/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pharmacotherapy ; 35(5): e61-5, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25823967

RESUMO

Dronedarone is a promising, relatively new antiarrhythmic agent characterized by structural similarities to amiodarone but without amiodarone's severe organ toxicity. The proarrhythmic potential of dronedarone, however, is of increasing concern. We describe a 76-year-old woman who had been receiving dronedarone 400 mg twice/day to prevent recurrent atrial tachycardia with rapid ventricular response. Several months later, she came to the emergency department with decompensated congestive heart failure and episodes of atrial tachycardia; digoxin 0.5 mg and furosemide 40 mg were administered intravenously. Thereafter nonsustained torsade de pointes (TdP) tachycardia occurred. She was transferred to the intensive care unit where a dose of amiodarone 150 mg was administered intravenously by mistake. Thereafter, the patient showed sustained TdP necessitating cardiac resuscitation. Dronedarone was discontinued, and digoxin and amiodarone were not administered again. Under dronedarone a relevant QT prolongation was documented that was additionally augmented after concomitant treatment with digoxin and amiodarone. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable adverse drug reaction to dronedarone (score of 7). To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient who experienced TdP tachycardias while receiving dronedarone therapy in connection with a worsening of heart failure and possible drug interactions with digoxin and amiodarone. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse drug reaction and perform repeated heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval measurements as well as screening for congestive heart failure in patients receiving dronedarone therapy.


Assuntos
Amiodarona/análogos & derivados , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Amiodarona/efeitos adversos , Dronedarona , Feminino , Humanos
15.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 79(6): 988-99, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25444550

RESUMO

AIM: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is often responsible for acute liver failure, drug withdrawal, boxed warnings or drug non-approval. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to determine the hepatotoxic risk of a wide range of drugs. METHODS: The Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study FAKOS included all 51 Berlin hospitals in a hospital network. Between 2002 and 2011, 198 patients with acute idiopathic hepatitis, 377 inpatient controls and 708 outpatient controls were ascertained. Case patients were thoroughly validated using anamnestic, clinical, laboratory and histological data. Drug exposure was obtained in a face-to-face interview. A possible drug aetiology was assessed in individual patients by applying the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale. Drug risks were further quantified [odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)] in a case-control design with unconditional logistic regression analysis. Drug intake in the last 28 days before index date was considered for the analysis. RESULTS: The study corroborated hepatotoxic risks for a number of drugs, including phenprocoumon (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5, 6.7), amiodarone (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.3, 21.2), clozapine (OR 34.6, 95% CI 2.8, 824.9) and flupirtine (OR 40.2, 95% CI 5.5, 856.9). Increased risks were also suggested for less commonly reported substances such as angiotensin II receptor blockers, atypical antipsychotics and for biperiden, a drug never before reported to be hepatotoxic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified a large number of drugs as possible causes of hepatotoxicity. The observed risk for seldom reported substances highlights the need for further post-authorization safety studies not exclusively focusing on drugs already labelled as potentially hepatotoxic.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Hospitais , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Berlim , Bilirrubina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/sangue , Falência Hepática Aguda/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Hepática , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 71(2): 219-27, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25378038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treatment with metamizole (dipyrone) has steadily increased in Germany over the last decade. The consequences of this increase for metamizole-induced agranulocytosis (MIA) are unclear. The present study addressed this topic using data from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. METHODS: Adult patients (≥18 years of age) with acute nonchemotherapy-induced agranulocytosis were identified by active surveillance in all 51 Berlin hospitals between 2000 and 2010. Cases related to metamizole were ascertained applying the drug causality criteria of the World Health Organization. The incidence rate of MIA was calculated and standardised by age and sex based on the German standard population in 2010. RESULTS: Twenty-six MIA cases out of 88 (30 %) patients with validated agranulocytosis were ascertained. The incidence of MIA was 0.96 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.97) cases per million per year. The median age of MIA cases was 50 years (quartile (Q)1 31 years; Q3 68 years) and 19 (73 %) of them were women. In 17 (65 %) cases, neutrophil granulocytes dropped below the value of 0.1 × 10(9) cells/L with three patients suffering from sepsis. Headache and postoperative pain were the most frequent indications for metamizole in outpatients (n = 16) and inpatients (n = 10), respectively. The median treatment duration was 6 days (Q1 4 days; Q3 19 days). CONCLUSIONS: MIA persists as a severe condition in current pharmacotherapy. The continuous increase of metamizole applications should be critically assessed, especially in regard to indications in the outpatient setting and with respect to metamizole treatment duration.


Assuntos
Agranulocitose/induzido quimicamente , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Dipirona/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agranulocitose/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 15: 44, 2014 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25106446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicines to treat common colds (CC) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are widely used among children, but there are only few data about treatments actually applied for these diseases. In the present study we analyze the prevalence and correlations of self-medicated and prescribed drug use for the treatment of CCs and URTIs among children and adolescents in Germany. METHODS: Medicine use during the week preceding the interview was recorded among 17,450 children (0-17 years) who participated in the drug interview of the 2003-2006 German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The definition of CCs and URTIs in the present study included the WHO-ICD-10 codes J00, J01.0, J01.9, J02.0, J02.9, J03.0, J03.9, J04.0, J06.8, J06.9, J11.1, J11.8, R05 and R07.0. Using the complex sample method, the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors of self-medication, prescribed medicines and antibiotics were defined. RESULTS: 13.8% of the participating girls and boys use drugs to treat a CC or an URTI. About 50% of this group use prescribed medications. Among the users of prescribed medication, 11.5% use antibiotics for the treatment of these diseases. Looking at all prescribed medicines we find associations with younger age, immigration background, and lower social status. Antibiotic use in particular is associated with female sex, higher age, residency in the former East Germany and immigration background. CONCLUSIONS: The use of medicines to treat CCs or URTIs is widespread among children and adolescents in Germany. Thus, longitudinal studies should investigate the risks associated with this drug use. Differences in socio-demographic variables regarding exposure to antibiotic use indicate that there could be an implausible prescribing behavior among physicians in Germany.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
18.
BMC Fam Pract ; 15: 103, 2014 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24885100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policy efforts focus on a reorientation of health care systems towards primary prevention. To guide such efforts, we analyzed the role of primary prevention in general practice and general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes toward primary prevention. METHODS: Mixed-method study including a cross-sectional survey of all community-based GPs and focus groups in a sample of GPs who collaborated with the Institute of General Practice in Berlin, Germany in 2011. Of 1168 GPs 474 returned the mail survey. Fifteen GPs participated in focus group discussions. Survey and interview guidelines were developed and tested to assess and discuss beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding primary prevention. RESULTS: Most respondents considered primary prevention within their realm of responsibility (70%). Primary prevention, especially physical activity, healthy eating, and smoking cessation, was part of the GPs' health care recommendations if they thought it was indicated. Still a quarter of survey respondents discussed reduction of alcohol consumption with their patients infrequently even when they thought it was indicated. Similarly 18% claimed that they discuss smoking cessation only sometimes. The focus groups revealed that GPs were concerned about the detrimental effects an uninvited health behavior suggestion could have on patients and were hesitant to take on the role of "health policing". GPs saw primary prevention as the responsibility of multiple actors in a network of societal and municipal institutions. CONCLUSIONS: The mixed-method study showed that primary prevention approaches such as lifestyle counseling is not well established in primary care. GPs used a selective approach to offer preventive advice based upon indication. GPs had a strong sense that a universal prevention approach carried the potential to destroy a good patient-physician relationship. Other approaches to public health may be warranted such as a multisectoral approach to population health. This type of restructuring of the health care sector may benefit patients who are unable to afford specific prevention programmes and who have competing demands that hinder their ability to focus on behavior change.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Europace ; 16(1): 101-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23833046

RESUMO

AIMS: Drug-induced long QT syndrome (diLQTS) leading to Torsade de Pointes (TdP) is a potentially lethal condition, which has led to several post-marketing drug withdrawals in the past decade. The true incidence of diLQTS/TdP is largely unknown. One explanation is under-reporting of this potentially life-threatening adverse event by physicians and other medical staff to pharmacovigilance agencies. To gain more insight into the incidence of diLQTS and TdP, the Berlin Pharmacovigilance Center (PVZ-FAKOS) has actively and prospectively identified patients who developed this particular type of drug-induced adverse event. Here, the basic characteristics of the affected patients are summarized and suspected drugs are discussed. Furthermore, an extrapolation of the Berlin incidence rates to the German Standard Population is presented. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a Berlin-wide network of 51 collaborating hospitals (>180 clinical departments), adult patients presenting with long QT syndrome (LQTS/TdP) between 2008 and 2011 were identified by active surveillance of these hospitals. Drug exposures as well as other possible risk factors were obtained from the patient's files and in a face-to-face interview with the patient. One-hundred and seventy patients of possible LQTS/TdP were reported to the Pharmacovigilance Center of whom 58 cases were confirmed in a thorough validation process. The majority (66%) of these cases were female and 60% had developed LQTS/TdP in the outpatient setting. Thirty-five (60%) of 58 confirmed cases were assessed as drug-related based on a standardized causality assessment applying the criteria of the World Health Organization. Drugs assessed as related in more than two cases were metoclopramide, amiodarone, melperone, citalopram, and levomethadone. The age-standardized incidence of diLQTS/TdP in Berlin was estimated to be 2.5 per million per year for males and 4.0 per million per year for females. CONCLUSION: While European annual reporting rates based on spontaneous reports suggest an annual diLQTS/TdP incidence of 0.26 per million in Germany, we estimated a considerably higher incidence of diLQTS/TdP in an active surveillance approach. Further measures are warranted to better sensitize physicians against this potentially life-threatening drug-induced adverse event.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/mortalidade , Síndrome do QT Longo/epidemiologia , Torsades de Pointes/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 13: 631, 2013 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23822744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based self-reported data on off-label medicine use independent from health care provisions are lacking. The purpose of this study is to investigate off-label medicine use in children and adolescents in Germany in a non-clinical setting and to identify prevalence, determinants and spectrum of off-label medicine use. METHODS: Data were obtained from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (2003-2006). 17,450 randomly selected children aged 0-17 years took part in the drug interviews. Of those, 8,899 took at least one medicine during the 7 days preceding the interview. Off-label medicine use was defined as the discrepancy between actual use and the intended use described in the summary of product characteristics. Off-label medicine use was stratified into off-label indication, off-label age, off-label over-dosing, and off-label under-dosing. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of off-label medicine use among those who used medicines amount of is 40.2%. The prevalence rate is significantly higher in boys (41.4%), in children aged 3 to 6 years (48.7%), without migration background (40.9%), with high social status (42.5%), living in small (42.0%) and medium sized cities (41.6%), and with a poor parents rated health status (41.7%). 12,667 preparations (attributable in respect to off-label use) were taken by 8,899 children. 30% of the medicines have been used off-label. Off-label medicine use was highest in preparations of the ATC-class "C00 Cardiovascular System". In all origins of medicine, all age groups and all ATC-classes under-dosing was the most frequent reason for off-label medicine use. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable level of self-reported off-label medicines use in the general paediatric population. Further investigations are needed to examine in how far off-label medicine use is based on lack of knowledge or on empiricism in paediatric pharmacotherapy. Attention also needs to be paid to under-dosing which potentially exposes drug users to risks of side effects without the benefit of a therapeutic effect. Clinical trials for licensing of paediatric medicines, education of health care professionals, but also of parents and carers are needed to ensure the rational use of medicines.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Uso Off-Label , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Automedicação
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