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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2210057, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36719140

RESUMO

Direct electrolysis of pH-neutral seawater to generate hydrogen is an attractive approach for storing renewable energy. However, due to the anodic competition between the chlorine evolution and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), direct seawater splitting suffers from a low current density and limited operating stability. Exploration of catalysts enabling an OER overpotential below the hypochlorite formation overpotential (∼ 490 mV) is critical to suppress the chloride evolution and facilitate the seawater splitting. Here we report a proton-adsorption-promoting strategy to increase the OER rate, resulting in a promoted and more stable neutral seawater splitting. The best catalysts herein are strong-proton-adsorption (SPA) materials such as palladium-doped cobalt oxide (Co3- x Pdx O4 ) catalysts. These achieve an OER overpotential of 370 mV at 10 mA/cm2 in pH-neutral simulated seawater, outperforming Co3 O4 by a margin of 70 mV. Co3- x Pdx O4 catalysts provide stable catalytic performance for 450 hours at 200 mA/cm2 and 20 hours at 1 A/cm2 in neutral seawater. Experimental studies and theoretical calculations suggest that the incorporation of SPA cations accelerates the rate-determining water dissociation step in neutral OER pathway, and control studies rule out the provision of additional OER sites as a main factor herein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Light Sci Appl ; 12(1): 13, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593235

RESUMO

All-perovskite tandem cells are attractive candidates for next-generation photovoltaic technology as they hold the potential to combine high-efficiency with low weight and reduced energy-payback times. Now, researchers show that such tandem cells can be engineering to be bifacial, allowing them to utilize stray light reflected off the surrounding environment, resulting in a 17% boost in the power output.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7513, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36473874

RESUMO

The black perovskite phase of CsPbI3 is promising for optoelectronic applications; however, it is unstable under ambient conditions, transforming within minutes into an optically inactive yellow phase, a fact that has so far prevented its widespread adoption. Here we use coarse photolithography to embed a PbI2-based interfacial microstructure into otherwise-unstable CsPbI3 perovskite thin films and devices. Films fitted with a tessellating microgrid are rendered resistant to moisture-triggered decay and exhibit enhanced long-term stability of the black phase (beyond 2.5 years in a dry environment), due to increasing the phase transition energy barrier and limiting the spread of potential yellow phase formation to structurally isolated domains of the grid. This stabilizing effect is readily achieved at the device level, where unencapsulated CsPbI3 perovskite photodetectors display ambient-stable operation. These findings provide insights into the nature of phase destabilization in emerging CsPbI3 perovskite devices and demonstrate an effective stabilization procedure which is entirely orthogonal to existing approaches.

4.
Nature ; 612(7941): 679-684, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543955

RESUMO

Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) with an external quantum efficiency exceeding 20% have been achieved in both green and red wavelengths1-5; however, the performance of blue-emitting PeLEDs lags behind6,7. Ultrasmall CsPbBr3 quantum dots are promising candidates with which to realize efficient and stable blue PeLEDs, although it has proven challenging to synthesize a monodispersed population of ultrasmall CsPbBr3 quantum dots, and difficult to retain their solution-phase properties when casting into solid films8. Here we report the direct synthesis-on-substrate of films of suitably coupled, monodispersed, ultrasmall perovskite QDs. We develop ligand structures that enable control over the quantum dots' size, monodispersity and coupling during film-based synthesis. A head group (the side with higher electrostatic potential) on the ligand provides steric hindrance that suppresses the formation of layered perovskites. The tail (the side with lower electrostatic potential) is modified using halide substitution to increase the surface binding affinity, constraining resulting grains to sizes within the quantum confinement regime. The approach achieves high monodispersity (full-width at half-maximum = 23 nm with emission centred at 478 nm) united with strong coupling. We report as a result blue PeLEDs with an external quantum efficiency of 18% at 480 nm and 10% at 465 nm, to our knowledge the highest reported among perovskite blue LEDs by a factor of 1.5 and 2, respectively6,7.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e2209567, 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584285

RESUMO

Upgrading carbon dioxide/monoxide to multi-carbon C2+ products using renewable electricity offers one route to more sustainable fuel and chemical production. One of the most appealing products is acetate, the profitable electrosynthesis of which demands a catalyst with higher efficiency. Here, a coordination polymer (CP) catalyst is reported that consists of Cu(I) and benzimidazole units linked via Cu(I)-imidazole coordination bonds, which enables selective reduction of CO to acetate with a 61% Faradaic efficiency at -0.59 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode at a current density of 400 mA cm-2 in flow cells. The catalyst is integrated in a cation exchange membrane-based membrane electrode assembly that enables stable acetate electrosynthesis for 190 h, while achieving direct collection of concentrated acetate (3.3 molar) from the cathodic liquid stream, an average single-pass utilization of 50% toward CO-to-acetate conversion, and an average acetate full-cell energy efficiency of 15% at a current density of 250 mA cm-2 .

6.
Nature ; 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379225

RESUMO

The open circuit voltage (VOC) deficit in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is greater in wide bandgap (>1.7 eV) cells than in ~1.5 eV perovskites.1,2 Quasi-Fermi level splitting (QFLS) measurements reveal VOC-limiting recombination at the electron transport layer (ETL) contact.3-5 This, we find, stems from inhomogeneous surface potential and poor perovskite-ETL energetic alignment. Common monoammonium surface treatments fail to address this; instead we introduce diammonium molecules to modify the perovskite surface states and achieve a more uniform spatial distribution of surface potential. Using 1,3-propane diammonium (PDA), QFLS increases by 90 meV, enabling 1.79 eV PSCs with a certified 1.33 V VOC, and > 19% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Incorporating this layer into a monolithic all-perovskite tandem, we report a record VOC of 2.19 V (89% of the detailed balance VOC limit) and > 27% PCE (26.3% certified quasi-steady-state). These tandems retain more than 86% of their initial PCE after 500 hrs operation.

7.
Lab Chip ; 22(24): 4822-4830, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382608

RESUMO

High-throughput phenotypic cell sorting is critical to the development of cell-based therapies and cell screening discovery platforms. However, current cytometry platforms are limited by throughput, number of fractionated populations that can be isolated, cell viability, and cost. We present an ultrathroughput microfluidic cell sorter capable of processing hundreds of millions of live cells per hour per device based on protein expression. This device, a next-generation microfluidic cell sorter (NG-MICS), combines multiple technologies, including 3D printing, reversible clamp sealing, and superhydrophobic treatments to create a reusable and user-friendly platform ready for deployment. The utility of such a platform is demonstrated through the rapid isolation of mature natural killer cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, for use in CAR-NK therapies at clinically-relevant scale.

8.
Chem Sci ; 13(41): 12144-12148, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349093

RESUMO

Considering nearly infinite design possibilities, organic second harmonic generation (SHG) molecules are believed to have long-term promise. However, because of the tendency to form dipole-antiparallel crystals that lead to zero macroscopic polarization, it is difficult to design a nonlinear optical (NLO) material based on organic molecules. In this manuscript, we report a new molecule motif that can form asymmetric organic solids by controlling the degree of hydrogen bonding through protonation. A conjugated polar organic molecule was prepared with a triple bond connecting an electron-withdrawing pyridine ring and an electron-donating thiophene ring. By controlling the degree of hydrogen bonding through protonation, two different crystal packing motifs are achieved. One crystallizes into the common dipole-antiparallel nonpolar P1̄ space group. The second crystallizes into the uncommon dipole-parallel polar P1 space group, in which the molecular dipoles are aligned along a single axis and thus exhibit a high macroscopic polarization in its solid-state form. Due to the P1 polar packing, the sample can generate second harmonic light efficiently, about three times the intensity of the benchmark potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Our findings show that crystal engineering by hydrogen bonding in a single molecular backbone can be used for controlling the macroscopic NLO properties.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(45): 20923-20930, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327099

RESUMO

InP-based quantum dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) provide a heavy-metal-free route to size-tuned LEDs having high efficiency. The stability of QLEDs may be enhanced by replacing organic hole-injection layers (HILs) with inorganic layers. However, inorganic HILs reported to date suffer from inefficient hole injection, the result of their shallow work functions. Here, we investigate the tuning of the work function of nickel oxide (NiOx) HILs using self-assembled molecules (SAMs). Density functional theory simulations and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure put a particular focus onto the molecular orientation of the SAMs in tuning the work function of the NiOx HIL. We find that orientation plays an even stronger role than does the underlying molecular dipole itself: SAMs having the strongest electron-withdrawing nitro group (NO2), despite having a high intrinsic dipole, show limited work function tuning, something we assign to their orientation parallel to the NiOx surface. We further find that the NO2 group─which delocalizes electrons over the molecule by resonance─induces a deep lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level that accepts electrons from QDs, producing luminescence quenching. In contrast, SAMs containing a trifluoromethyl group exhibit an angled orientation relative to the NiOx surface, better activating hole injection into the active layer without inducing luminescence quenching. We report an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 18.8%─the highest EQE among inorganic HIL-based QLEDs (including Cd-based QDs)─in InP QLEDs employing inorganic HILs.

10.
Adv Mater ; : e2207088, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245317

RESUMO

High-rate conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to ethylene (C2 H4 ) in the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2 RR) requires fine control over the phase boundary of the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) to overcome the limit of CO2 solubility in aqueous electrolytes. Here, a metal-organic framework (MOF)-functionalized GDE design is presented, based on a catalysts:MOFs:hydrophobic substrate materials layered architecture, that leads to high-rate and selective C2 H4 production in flow cells and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) electrolyzers. It is found that using electroanalysis and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), MOF-induced organic layers in GDEs augment the local CO2 concentration near the active sites of the Cu catalysts. MOFs with different CO2 adsorption abilities are used, and the stacking ordering of MOFs in the GDE is varied. While sputtering Cu on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) (Cu/PTFE) exhibits 43% C2 H4 Faradaic efficiency (FE) at a current density of 200 mA cm- 2 in a flow cell, 49% C2 H4 FE at 1 A cm- 2 is achieved on MOF-augmented GDEs in CO2 RR. MOF-augmented GDEs are further evaluated in an MEA electrolyzer, achieving a C2 H4 partial current density of 220 mA cm-2 for CO2 RR and 121 mA cm-2 for the carbon monoxide reduction reaction (CORR), representing 2.7-fold and 15-fold improvement in C2 H4 production rate, compared to those obtained on bare Cu/PTFE.

11.
Nat Rev Mater ; : 1-14, 2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36277083

RESUMO

Transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is a critical global challenge; it demands advances - at the materials, devices and systems levels - for the efficient harvesting, storage, conversion and management of renewable energy. Energy researchers have begun to incorporate machine learning (ML) techniques to accelerate these advances. In this Perspective, we highlight recent advances in ML-driven energy research, outline current and future challenges, and describe what is required to make the best use of ML techniques. We introduce a set of key performance indicators with which to compare the benefits of different ML-accelerated workflows for energy research. We discuss and evaluate the latest advances in applying ML to the development of energy harvesting (photovoltaics), storage (batteries), conversion (electrocatalysis) and management (smart grids). Finally, we offer an overview of potential research areas in the energy field that stand to benefit further from the application of ML.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e2208178, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305594

RESUMO

Solar cells capable of light-harvesting during daytime and light-emitting at night are multifunctional semiconductor devices with many potential applications. Here we report that halide perovskite heterojunction interfaces can be refined to yield stable and efficient solar cells. The cell can also operate effectively as an ultralow-voltage light-emitting diode with a peak external quantum efficiency of 3.3%. Spectroscopic and microscopic studies reveal that double-heterojunction refinement with wide-bandgap salts is key to densifying the packing of perovskite grains and enlarging the bandgaps of the perovskite surfaces that are in contact with charge transport semiconductors. The refined perovskite enables a simple device with dual actions of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. This type of all-in-one device has the potential for multifunctional harvesting-storage-utilization systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Metab Eng ; 74: 98-107, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244545

RESUMO

Rising concerns about climate change and sustainable energy have attracted efforts towards developing environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels. Biosynthesis of n-butane, a highly desirable petro-chemical, fuel additive and diluent in the oil industry, remains a challenge. In this work, we first engineered enzymes Tes, Car and AD in the termination module to improve the selectivity of n-butane biosynthesis, and ancestral reconstruction and a synthetic RBS significantly improved the AD abundance. Next, we did ribosome binding site (RBS) calculation to identify potential metabolic bottlenecks, and then mitigated the bottleneck with RBS engineering and precursor propionyl-CoA addition. Furthermore, we employed a model-assisted strain design and a nonrepetitive extra-long sgRNA arrays (ELSAs) and quorum sensing assisted CRISPRi to facilitate a dynamic two-stage fermentation. Through systems engineering, n-butane production was increased by 168-fold from 0.04 to 6.74 mg/L. Finally, the maximum n-butane production from acetate was predicted using parsimonious flux balance analysis (pFBA), and we achieved n-butane production from acetate produced by electrocatalytic CO reduction. Our findings pave the way for selectively producing n-butane from renewable carbon source.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Engenharia Metabólica , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Butanos/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo
14.
Adv Mater ; 34(47): e2206884, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134538

RESUMO

Solution-processed photodetectors based on colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising candidates for short-wavelength infrared light sensing applications. Present-day CQD photodetectors employ a CQD active layer sandwiched between carrier-transport layers in which the electron-transport layer (ETL) is composed of metal oxides. Herein, a new class of ETLs is developed using n-type CQDs, finding that these benefit from quantum-size effect tuning of the band energies, as well as from surface ligand engineering. Photodetectors operating at 1450 nm are demonstrated using CQDs with tailored functionalities for each of the transport layers and the active layer. By optimizing the band alignment between the ETL and the active layer, CQD photodetectors that combine a low dark current of ≈1 × 10-3 mA cm-2 with a high external quantum efficiency of ≈66% at 1 V are reported, outperforming prior reports of CQD photodetectors operating at >1400 nm that rely on metal oxides as ETLs. It is shown that stable CQD photodetectors rely on well-passivated CQDs: for ETL CQDs, a strongly bound organic ligand trans-4-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamic acid (TFCA) provides improved passivation compared to the weakly bound inorganic ligand tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI). TFCA suppresses bias-induced ion migration inside the ETL and improves the operating stability of photodetectors by 50× compared to TBAI.

15.
Adv Mater ; 34(47): e2207261, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125397

RESUMO

Electro-optic (EO) modulators provide electrical-to-optical signal conversion relevant to optical communications. Barium titanate (BaTiO3 ) is a promising material system for EO modulation in light of its optical ultrafast nonlinearity, low optical loss, and high refractive index. To enhance further its spontaneous polarization, BaTiO3 can be doped at the Ba and Ti sites; however, doping is often accompanied by ion migration, which diminishes EO performance. Here, donor-acceptor doping and its effect on EO efficiency are investigated, finding that La-doped BaTiO3 achieves an EO coefficient of 42 pm V-1 at 1 kHz, fully twice that of the pristine specimen; however, it is also observed that, with this single-element doping, the EO response falls off rapidly with frequency. From impedance spectroscopy, it is found that frequency-dependent EO is correlated with ion migration. Density functional theory calculations predict that the ion-migration barrier decreases with La3+ doping but can be recovered with further Mn2+ doping, a finding that prompts to prevent ion migration by incorporating Mn2+ into the Ti-site to compensate for the charge imbalance.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(40): 18338-18349, 2022 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173381

RESUMO

The development of robust biosensing strategies that can be easily implemented in everyday life remains a challenge for the future of modern biosensor research. While several reagentless approaches have attempted to address this challenge, they often achieve user-friendliness through sacrificing sensitivity or universality. While acceptable for certain applications, these trade-offs hinder the widespread adoption of reagentless biosensing technologies. Here, we report a novel approach to reagentless biosensing that achieves high sensitivity, rapid detection, and universality using the SARS-CoV-2 virus as a model target. Universality is achieved by using nanoscale molecular pendulums, which enables reagentless electrochemical biosensing through a variable antibody recognition element. Enhanced sensitivity and rapid detection are accomplished by incorporating the coffee-ring phenomenon into the sensing scheme, allowing for target preconcentration on a ring-shaped electrode. Using this approach, we obtained limits of detection of 1 fg/mL and 20 copies/mL for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoproteins and viral particles, respectively. In addition, clinical sample analysis showed excellent agreement with Ct values from PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 patients.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Eletrodos , Humanos , Nucleoproteínas , SARS-CoV-2/genética
17.
Nano Lett ; 22(16): 6802-6807, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969869

RESUMO

Infrared photodetection enables depth imaging techniques such as structured light and time-of-flight. Traditional photodetectors rely on silicon (Si); however, the bandgap of Si limits photodetection to wavelengths shorter than 1100 nm. Photodetector operation centered at 1370 nm benefits from lower sunlight interference due to atmospheric absorption. Here, we report 1370 nm-operating colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photodetectors and evaluate their outdoor performance. We develop a surface-ligand engineering strategy to tune the electronic properties of each CQD layer and fabricate photodetectors in an inverted (PIN) architecture. The strategy enables photodetectors with an external quantum efficiency of 75% and a low dark current (1 µA/cm2). Outdoor testing demonstrates that CQD-based photodetectors combined with a 10 nm-line width bandpass filter centered at 1370 nm achieve over 2 orders of magnitude (140× at incident intensity 1 µW/cm2) higher signal-to-background ratio than do Si-based photodetectors that use an analogous bandpass filter centered at 905 nm.

18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4438, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915117

RESUMO

Colour-tuned phosphors are promising for advanced security applications such as multi-modal anti-counterfeiting and data encryption. The practical adoption of colour-tuned phosphors requires these materials to be responsive to multiple stimuli (e.g., excitation wavelength, excitation waveform, and temperature) and exhibit excellent materials stability simultaneously. Here we report germanium silicon oxide (GSO) - a heavy-metal-free inorganic phosphor - that exhibits colour-tuned ultra-long phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence across a broad temperature range (300 - 500 K) in air. We developed a sol-gel processing strategy to prepare amorphous oxides containing homogeneously dispersed Si and Ge atoms. The co-existence of Ge and Si luminescent centres (LC) leads to an excitation-dependent luminescence change across the UV-to-visible region. GSO exhibits Si LC-related ultra-long phosphorescence at room-temperature and thermally activated delayed fluorescence at temperatures as high as 573 K. This long-lived PL is sensitized via the energy transfer from Ge defects to Si LCs, which provides PL lifetime tunability for GSO phosphors. The oxide scaffold of GSO offers 500-day materials stability in air; and 1-week stability in strong acidic and basic solutions. Using GSO/polymer hybrids, we demonstrated colour-tuned security tags whose emission wavelength and lifetime can be controlled via the excitation wavelength, and temperature, indicating promise in security applications.

19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(24): e2201807, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794429

RESUMO

Solution-processed quasi-2D perovskites contain multiple quantum wells with a broad width distribution. Inhomogeneity results in the charge funneling into the smallest bandgap components, which hinders deep-blue emission and accelerates Auger recombination. Here, a synthetic strategy applied to a range of quasi-2D perovskite systems is reported, that significantly narrows the quantum well dispersity. It is shown that the phase distribution in the perovskite film is significantly narrowed with controlled, simultaneous evaporation of solvent and antisolvent. Modulation of film formation kinetics of quasi-2D perovskite enables stable deep-blue electroluminescence with a peak emission wavelength of 466 nm and a narrow linewidth of 14 nm. Light emitting diodes using the perovskite film show a maximum luminance of 280 cd m-2 at an external quantum efficiency of 0.1%. This synthetic approach will serve in producing new materials widening the color gamut of next-generation displays.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(29): 13254-13265, 2022 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796714

RESUMO

Electrochemical CO2 reduction (ECR) with industrially relevant current densities, high product selectivity, and long-term stability has been a long-sought goal. Unfortunately, copper (Cu) catalysts for producing valuable multicarbon (C2+) products undergo structural and morphological changes under ECR conditions, especially at high current densities, resulting in a rapid decrease in product selectivity. Herein, we report a catalyst regeneration strategy, one that employs an electrolysis method comprising alternating "on" and "off" operating regimes, to increase the operating stability of a Cu catalyst. We find that it increases operating lifetime many times, maintaining ethylene selectivity ≥40% for at least 200 h of electrolysis in neutral pH media at a current density of 150 mA cm-2 using a flow cell. We also demonstrate ECR to ethylene at a current density of 1 A cm-2 with ethylene selectivity ≥40% using a three-dimensional Cu gas diffusion electrode, finding that this system under these conditions is rendered stable for greater than 36 h. This work illustrates that Cu-based catalysts, once they have entered into the state conventionally considered to possess degraded catalytic activity, may be recovered to deliver high C2+ selectivity. We present evidence that the combination of short periods of electrolysis, which minimizes the morphological changes during "on" segments, with the progressive chemical oxidation of Cu atoms on the catalyst surface during "off" segments, united with the added effects of washing the accumulated salt and decreasing the catholyte temperature prolong together the catalyst's operating lifetime.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Etilenos , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Catálise , Oxirredução , Regeneração
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