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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856780

RESUMO

Efficient thermoelectric generators require further progress in developing n-type semiconductors that combine low thermal conductivity with high electrical conductivity. By embedding colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in a metal halide matrix (QDMH), the metal halide matrix can enhance phonon scattering, thus suppressing thermal transport; however, simultaneously achieving high electrical conductivity in such systems has previously been limited by the deleterious impact of a large density of interfaces on charge transport. Therefore, new strategies are needed to improve charge carrier transport without sacrificing matrix-enabled low thermal transport. Here, we report the use of chemical doping in the solution state to improve electron transport while maintaining low thermal transport in QDMH films. By incorporating cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) salts as a dopant prior to matrix formation, we find that the dopant stabilizes the matrix in colloidal inks and enables efficient n-type doping in QDMH films. As a result, this strategy leads to an enhanced n-type thermoelectric behavior in solution-processed QDMH films near room temperature, with a thermal conductivity of 0.25 W m-1 K-1-significantly lower than in prior films based on organic-ligand-cross-linked CQD films (>0.6 W m-1 K-1) and spark-plasma-sintered CQD systems (>1 W m-1 K-1). This study provides a pathway to developing efficient n-type thermoelectric materials with low thermal conductivity using single-step deposition and low-temperature processing.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856188

RESUMO

Electro-optic (EO) modulation is of interest to impart information onto an optical carrier. Inorganic crystals-most notably LiNbO3 and BaTiO3-exhibit EO modulation and good stability, but are difficult to integrate with silicon photonic technology. Solution-processed organic EO materials are readily integrated but suffer from thermal degradation at the temperatures required in operating conditions for accelerated reliability studies. Hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have the potential to overcome these limitations; however, these have so far relied on heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. Here, we report linear EO modulation using metal-free perovskites, which maintain the crystalline features of the inorganic EO materials and incorporate the flexible functionality of organic EO chromophores. We find that, by introducing a deficiency of cations, we reduce the symmetry in the perovskite crystal and produce thereby an increased EO response. The best-engineered perovskites reported herein showcase an EO coefficient of 14 pm V-1 at a modulation frequency of 80 kHz, an order of magnitude higher than in the nondefective materials. We observe split peaks in the X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction patterns of the defective sample, indicating that the crystalline structure has been distorted and the symmetry reduced. Density functional theory (DFT) studies link this decreased symmetry to NH4+ deficiencies. This demonstration of EO from metal-free perovskites highlights their potential in next-generation optical information transmission.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891414

RESUMO

In hydrogen production, the anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) limits the energy conversion efficiency and also impacts stability in proton-exchange membrane water electrolyzers. Widely used Ir-based catalysts suffer from insufficient activity, while more active Ru-based catalysts tend to dissolve under OER conditions. This has been associated with the participation of lattice oxygen (lattice oxygen oxidation mechanism (LOM)), which may lead to the collapse of the crystal structure and accelerate the leaching of active Ru species, leading to low operating stability. Here we develop Sr-Ru-Ir ternary oxide electrocatalysts that achieve high OER activity and stability in acidic electrolyte. The catalysts achieve an overpotential of 190 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and the overpotential remains below 225 mV following 1,500 h of operation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and 18O isotope-labeled online mass spectroscopy studies reveal that the participation of lattice oxygen during OER was suppressed by interactions in the Ru-O-Ir local structure, offering a picture of how stability was improved. The electronic structure of active Ru sites was modulated by Sr and Ir, optimizing the binding energetics of OER oxo-intermediates.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2008690, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763933

RESUMO

Engineering halide perovskites through alloying allows synthesis of materials having tuned electronic and optical properties; however, synthesizing many of these alloys is hindered by the formation of demixed phases arising due to thermodynamically unstable crystal structures. Methods have been developed to make such alloys, such as solid-phase reactions, chemical vapor deposition, and mechanical grinding; but these are incompatible with low-temperature solution-processing and monolithic integration, precluding a number of important applications of these materials. Here, solvent-phase kinetic trapping (SPKT), an approach that enables the synthesis of novel thermodynamically unfavored perovskite alloys, is developed. SPKT is used to synthesize Cs1- x Rbx PbCl3 and report the first instance of ultraviolet emission in polycrystalline perovskite thin films. SPKT leads to materials exhibiting superior thermal and photostability compared to non-kinetically trapped materials of the same precursors. Transient absorption spectroscopy of the kinetically trapped material reveals improved optical properties: greater absorption, and longer ground-state bleach lifetimes. SPKT may be applied to other perovskites to realize improved material properties while benefiting from facile solution-processing.

5.
Nat Chem ; 13(5): 428-434, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686229

RESUMO

The development of reagentless sensors that can detect molecular analytes in biological fluids could enable a broad range of applications in personalized health monitoring. However, only a limited set of molecular inputs can currently be detected using reagentless sensors. Here, we report a sensing mechanism that is compatible with the analysis of proteins that are important physiological markers of stress, allergy, cardiovascular health, inflammation and cancer. The sensing method is based on the motion of an inverted molecular pendulum that exhibits field-induced transport modulated by the presence of a bound analyte. We measure the sensor's electric field-mediated transport using the electron-transfer kinetics of an attached reporter molecule. Using time-resolved electrochemical measurements that enable unidirectional motion of our sensor, the presence of an analyte bound to our sensor complex can be tracked continuously in real time. We show that this sensing approach is compatible with making measurements in blood, saliva, urine, tears and sweat and that the sensors can collect data in situ in living animals.

6.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2327-2335, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432815

RESUMO

Rare CD19+ leukemic B cells present in purified T cell populations can cause disease relapse and even the failure of CD19-targeting CAR-T therapy as these rare cells have the ability to self-mask their surface CD19 and escape from the recognition of T cells. It is therefore critical to efficiently detect and robustly deplete rare leukemic B cells in samples of therapeutic T cells. Here, we present a novel microfluidic approach to address the challenges specific to quality control of therapeutic T cells - CAR-QC. CAR-QC utilizes immunomagnetic labeling with a highly selective microfluidic device to rank and isolate rare leukemic B cells in T cell populations. CAR-QC offers ultrasensitive detection of leukemic B cells at single-cell resolution and robust depletion efficiency up to 99.985%. We demonstrate that CAR-QC outperforms flow cytometry and magnetic-activated cell sorting for detecting or purifying spiked samples. In addition, we prove that the improved performance of CAR-QC helps to avoid the occurrence and possibly relapse of rare leukemic B cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Separação Imunomagnética , Leucemia de Células B , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(4): 1722-1727, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481575

RESUMO

The development of new methods for direct viral detection using streamlined and ideally reagent-free assays is a timely and important, but challenging, problem. The challenge of combatting the COVID-19 pandemic has been exacerbated by the lack of rapid and effective methods to identify viral pathogens like SARS-CoV-2 on-demand. Existing gold standard nucleic acid-based approaches require enzymatic amplification to achieve clinically relevant levels of sensitivity and are not typically used outside of a laboratory setting. Here, we report reagent-free viral sensing that directly reads out the presence of viral particles in 5 minutes using only a sensor-modified electrode chip. The approach relies on a class of electrode-tethered sensors bearing an analyte-binding antibody displayed on a negatively charged DNA linker that also features a tethered redox probe. When a positive potential is applied, the sensor is transported to the electrode surface. Using chronoamperometry, the presence of viral particles and proteins can be detected as these species increase the hydrodynamic drag on the sensor. This report is the first virus-detecting assay that uses the kinetic response of a probe/virus complex to analyze the complexation state of the antibody. We demonstrate the performance of this sensing approach as a means to detect, within 5 min, the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its associated spike protein in test samples and in unprocessed patient saliva.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , /virologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Vírion/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Humanos , Testes Imediatos , Saliva/virologia
8.
Adv Mater ; 33(7): e2003855, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448061

RESUMO

The electrosynthesis of value-added multicarbon products from CO2 is a promising strategy to shift chemical production away from fossil fuels. Particularly important is the rational design of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) assemblies to react selectively, at scale, and at high rates. However, the understanding of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in these assemblies is limited for the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2 RR): particularly important, but incompletely understood, is how the GDL modulates product distributions of catalysts operating in high current density regimes > 300 mA cm-2 . Here, 3D-printable fluoropolymer GDLs with tunable microporosity and structure are reported and probe the effects of permeance, microstructural porosity, macrostructure, and surface morphology. Under a given choice of applied electrochemical potential and electrolyte, a 100× increase in the C2 H4 :CO ratio due to GDL surface morphology design over a homogeneously porous equivalent and a 1.8× increase in the C2 H4 partial current density due to a pyramidal macrostructure are observed. These findings offer routes to improve CO2 RR GDEs as a platform for 3D catalyst design.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6190, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273478

RESUMO

Electroreduction uses renewable energy to upgrade carbon dioxide to value-added chemicals and fuels. Renewable methane synthesized using such a route stands to be readily deployed using existing infrastructure for the distribution and utilization of natural gas. Here we design a suite of ligand-stabilized metal oxide clusters and find that these modulate carbon dioxide reduction pathways on a copper catalyst, enabling thereby a record activity for methane electroproduction. Density functional theory calculations show adsorbed hydrogen donation from clusters to copper active sites for the *CO hydrogenation pathway towards *CHO. We promote this effect via control over cluster size and composition and demonstrate the effect on metal oxides including cobalt(II), molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI), nickel(II) and palladium(II) oxides. We report a carbon dioxide-to-methane faradaic efficiency of 60% at a partial current density to methane of 135 milliampere per square centimetre. We showcase operation over 18 h that retains a faradaic efficiency exceeding 55%.

10.
Adv Mater ; : e2006697, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349998

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskites have emerged as promising candidates for solution-processed laser gain materials, with impressive performance in the green and red spectral regions. Despite exciting progress, deep-blue-an important wavelength for laser applications-remains underexplored; indeed, cavity integration and single-mode lasing from large-bandgap perovskites have yet to be achieved. Here, a vapor-assisted chlorination strategy that enables synthesis of low-dimensional CsPbCl3  thin films exhibiting deep-blue emission is reported. Using this approach,  high-quality perovskite thin films having a low surface roughness (RMS ≈ 1.3 nm) and efficient charge transfer properties are achieved. These enable us to document low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission. Levering the high quality of the gain medium,  vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a low lasing threshold of 6.5 µJ cm-2  are fabricated. This report of deep-blue perovskite single-mode lasing showcases the prospect of increasing the range of deep-blue laser sources.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319985

RESUMO

In the electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR), control over the binding of intermediates is key for tuning product selectivity and catalytic activity. Here we report the use of reticular chemistry to control the binding of CO2RR intermediates on metal catalysts encapsulated inside metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), thereby allowing us to improve CO2RR electrocatalysis. By varying systematically both the organic linker and the metal node in a face-centered cubic (fcu) MOF, we tune the adsorption of CO2, pore openness, and Lewis acidity of the MOFs. Using operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and in situ Raman spectroscopy, we reveal that the MOFs are stable under operating conditions and that this tuning plays the role of optimizing the *CO binding mode on the surface of Ag nanoparticles incorporated inside the MOFs with the increase of local CO2 concentration. As a result, we improve the CO selectivity from 74% for Ag/Zr-fcu-MOF-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) to 94% for Ag/Zr-fcu-MOF-1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (NDC). The work offers a further avenue to utilize MOFs in the pursuit of materials design for CO2RR.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e2006368, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325577

RESUMO

Electrical-to-optical signal conversion is widely employed in information technology and is implemented using on-chip optical modulators. State-of-the-art modulator technologies are incompatible with silicon manufacturing techniques: inorganic nonlinear crystals such as LiNbO3 are integrated with silicon photonic chips only using complex approaches, and hybrid silicon-LiNbO3 optical modulators show either low bandwidth or high operating voltage. Organic perovskites are solution-processed materials readily integrated with silicon photonics; and organic molecules embedded within the perovskite scaffold allow in principle for high polarizability. However, it is found that the large molecules required for high polarizability also require an increase of the size of the perovskite cavity: specifically, using the highly polarizable DR2+ (R = H, F, Cl) in the A site necessitates the exploration of new X-site options. Only by introducing BF4 - as the X-site molecule is it possible to synthesize (DCl)(NH4 )(BF4 )3 , a material exhibiting a linear EO coefficient of 20 pm V-1 , which is 10 times higher than that of metal halide perovskites and is a 1.5 fold enhancement compared to reported organic perovskites. The EO response of the organic perovskite approaches that of LiNbO3 (reff  ≈ 30 pm V-1 ) and highlights the promise of rationally designed organic perovskites for use in efficient EO modulators.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(23): 10144-10149, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191751

RESUMO

In further advancing display technologies, especially for improved blue emitters, to engineer the bandgap of promising semiconductors such as hybrid perovskites is important. Present-day methods for tuning the bandgaps of perovskites, such as the incorporation of mixed halide anions, suffer drawbacks such as phase separation and difficulty in synthesis. Here we report a new 2D lead iodide perovskite that emits in the blue spectral region. We exploit an increased angular distortion of PbI42- octahedra to widen the bandgap of 2D metal halide perovskites. We synthesized 2D lead iodide perovskites based on (4-Y-C6H4CH2NH3)2PbI4 (Y = H, F, Cl, Br, I) and substituted the halogen atoms with a -CF3 group to create (4-CF3-C6H4CH2NH3)2PbI4 compounds. We observed that the CF3-substituted material exhibited a ∼0.16 eV larger bandgap than did the halogen-substituted materials. We used X-ray diffraction and density functional theory simulations and found that the blue shift can be assigned to the angular distortion of the PbI42- lattice, a distortion traceable to repulsive intermolecular interactions between the trifluoromethyl groups on oppositely-arranged spacers. These results add a degree of freedom in tuning 2D perovskites to selected bandgaps for optoelectronic applications.

14.
ACS Nano ; 14(11): 15107-15118, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103419

RESUMO

Engineering the composition of perovskite active layers has been critical in increasing the efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to more than 25% in the latest reports. Partial substitutions of the monovalent cation and the halogen have been adopted in the highest-performing devices, but the precise role of bromine incorporation remains incompletely explained. Here we use quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) to study, as a function of the degree of bromine incorporation, the dynamics of organic cations in triple-cation lead mixed-halide perovskites. We find that the inclusion of bromine suppresses low-energy rotations of formamidinium (FA), and we find that inhibiting FA rotation correlates with a longer-lived carrier lifetime. When the fraction of bromine approaches 0.15 on the halogen site-a composition used extensively in the PSC literature-the fraction of actively rotating FA molecules is minimized: indeed, the fraction of rotating FA is suppressed by more than 25% compared to the bromine-free perovskite.

15.
Adv Mater ; 32(48): e2004985, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118229

RESUMO

The need for optoelectronic and chemical compatibility between the layers in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices remains a bottleneck in further increasing performance. Conjugated polymers are promising candidates as new hole-transport layer (HTL) materials in CQD solar cells (CQD-SCs) owing to the highly tunable optoelectronic properties and compatible chemistries. A diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer with benzothiadiazole derivatives (PD2FCT-29DPP) as an HTL in these devices is reported. The energy level, molecular orientation, and hole mobility of this HTL are manipulated through molecular engineering. By levering the polymer's optical absorption spectrum complementary to that of the CQD active layer, EQE across the visible and near-infrared regions is maximized. As a result, a PD2FCT-29DPP-based device exhibits a fill factor of 70% and approximately 35% efficiency enhancement compared to a PTB7-based device.

16.
Sci Adv ; 6(42)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055155

RESUMO

It remains a central challenge to the information display community to develop red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that meet demanding color coordinate requirements for wide color gamut displays. Here, we report high-efficiency, lead-free (PEA)2SnI4 perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) with color coordinates (0.708, 0.292) that fulfill the Rec. 2100 specification for red emitters. Using valeric acid (VA)-which we show to be strongly coordinated to Sn2+-we slow the crystallization rate of the perovskite, improving the film morphology. The incorporation of VA also protects tin from undesired oxidation during the film-forming process. The improved films and the reduced Sn4+ content enable PeLEDs with an external quantum efficiency of 5% and an operating half-life exceeding 15 hours at an initial brightness of 20 cd/m2 This work illustrates the potential of Cd- and Pb-free PeLEDs for display technology.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4814, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968078

RESUMO

Surface ligands enable control over the dispersibility of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) via steric and electrostatic stabilization. Today's device-grade CQD inks have consistently relied on highly polar solvents: this enables facile single-step deposition of multi-hundred-nanometer-thick CQD films; but it prevents the realization of CQD film stacks made up of CQDs having different compositions, since polar solvents redisperse underlying films. Here we introduce aromatic ligands to achieve process-orthogonal CQD inks, and enable thereby multifunctional multilayer CQD solids. We explore the effect of the anchoring group of the aromatic ligand on the solubility of CQD inks in weakly-polar solvents, and find that a judicious selection of the anchoring group induces a dipole that provides additional CQD-solvent interactions. This enables colloidal stability without relying on bulky insulating ligands. We showcase the benefit of this ink as the hole transport layer in CQD optoelectronics, achieving an external quantum efficiency of 84% at 1210 nm.

18.
Adv Mater ; 32(42): e2004657, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939875

RESUMO

Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells (TSCs) that combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic molecules are a promising device architecture, able to complement the absorption across the visible to the infrared. However, the performance of organic/CQD hybrid TSCs has not yet surpassed that of single-junction CQD solar cells. Here, a strategic optical structure is devised to overcome the prior performance limit of hybrid TSCs by employing a multibuffer layer and a dual near-infrared (NIR) absorber. In particular, a multibuffer layer is introduced to solve the problem of the CQD solvent penetrating the underlying organic layer. In addition, the matching current of monolithic TSCs is significantly improved to 15.2 mA cm-2 by using a dual NIR organic absorber that complements the absorption of CQD. The hybrid TSCs reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.7%, higher than that of the corresponding individual single-junction cells, representing the highest efficiency reported to date for CQD-based hybrid TSCs.

19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(15): 2000894, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775165

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are of interest for optoelectronic applications owing to their tunable properties and ease of processing. Large-diameter CQDs offer optical response in the infrared (IR), beyond the bandgap of c-Si and perovskites. The absorption coefficient of IR CQDs (≈104 cm-1) entails the need for micrometer-thick films to maximize the absorption of IR light. This exceeds the thickness compatible with the efficient extraction of photogenerated carriers, a fact that limits device performance. Here, CQD bulk heterojunction solids are demonstrated that, with extended carrier transport length, enable efficient IR light harvesting. An in-solution doping strategy for large-diameter CQDs is devised that addresses the complex interplay between (100) facets and doping agents, enabling to control CQD doping, energetic configuration, and size homogeneity. The hetero-offset between n-type CQDs and p-type CQDs is manipulated to drive the transfer of electrons and holes into distinct carrier extraction pathways. This enables to form active layers exceeding thicknesses of 700 nm without compromising open-circuit voltage and fill factor. As a result, >90% charge extraction efficiency across the ultraviolet to IR range (350-1400 nm) is documented.

20.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719513

RESUMO

Molecular-level features of tumours can be tracked using single-cell analyses of circulating tumour cells (CTCs). However, single-cell measurements of protein expression for rare CTCs are hampered by the presence of a large number of non-target cells. Here, we show that antibody-mediated labelling of intracellular proteins in the nucleus, mitochondria and cytoplasm of human cells with magnetic nanoparticles enables analysis of target proteins at the single-cell level by sorting the cells according to their nanoparticle content in a microfluidic device with cell-capture zones sandwiched between arrays of magnets. We used the magnetic labelling and cell-sorting approach to track the expression of therapeutic protein targets in CTCs isolated from blood samples of mice with orthotopic prostate xenografts and from patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We also show that mutated proteins that are drug targets or markers of therapeutic response can be directly identified in CTCs, analysed at the single-cell level and used to predict how mice with drug-susceptible and drug-resistant pancreatic tumour xenografts respond to therapy.

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