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1.
Science ; 367(6482): 1135-1140, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139544

RESUMO

Stacking solar cells with decreasing band gaps to form tandems presents the possibility of overcoming the single-junction Shockley-Queisser limit in photovoltaics. The rapid development of solution-processed perovskites has brought perovskite single-junction efficiencies >20%. However, this process has yet to enable monolithic integration with industry-relevant textured crystalline silicon solar cells. We report tandems that combine solution-processed micrometer-thick perovskite top cells with fully textured silicon heterojunction bottom cells. To overcome the charge-collection challenges in micrometer-thick perovskites, we enhanced threefold the depletion width at the bases of silicon pyramids. Moreover, by anchoring a self-limiting passivant (1-butanethiol) on the perovskite surfaces, we enhanced the diffusion length and further suppressed phase segregation. These combined enhancements enabled an independently certified power conversion efficiency of 25.7% for perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells. These devices exhibited negligible performance loss after a 400-hour thermal stability test at 85°C and also after 400 hours under maximum power point tracking at 40°C.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150404

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskites show promise for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to their facile manufacture and excellent optoelectronic performance, including high color purity and spectral stability, especially in the green region. However, for blue perovskite LEDs, the emission spectrum line width is broadened to over 25 nm by the coexistence of multiple reduced-dimensional perovskite domains, and the spectral stability is poor, with an undesirable shift (over 7 nm) toward longer wavelengths under operating conditions, degradation that occurs due to phase separation when mixed halides are employed. Here we demonstrate chloride insertion-immobilization, a strategy that enables blue perovskite LEDs, the first to exhibit narrowband (line width of 18 nm) and spectrally stable (no wavelength shift) performance. We prepare bromide-based perovskites and then employ organic chlorides for dynamic treatment, inserting and in situ immobilizing chlorides to blue-shift and stabilize the emission. We achieve sky-blue LEDs with a record luminance over 5100 cd/m2 at 489 nm, and an operating half-life of 51 min at 1500 cd/m2. By device structure optimization, we further realize an improved EQE of 5.2% at 479 nm and an operating half-life of 90 min at 100 cd/m2.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e1906199, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196136

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are of interest in light of their solution-processing and bandgap tuning. Advances in the performance of CQD optoelectronic devices require fine control over the properties of each layer in the device materials stack. This is particularly challenging in the present best CQD solar cells, since these employ a p-type hole-transport layer (HTL) implemented using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) ligand exchange on top of the CQD active layer. It is established that the high reactivity of EDT causes a severe chemical modification to the active layer that deteriorates charge extraction. By combining elemental mapping with the spatial charge collection efficiency in CQD solar cells, the key materials interface dominating the subpar performance of prior CQD PV devices is demonstrated. This motivates to develop a chemically orthogonal HTL that consists of malonic-acid-crosslinked CQDs. The new crosslinking strategy preserves the surface chemistry of the active layer beneath, and at the same time provides the needed efficient charge extraction. The new HTL enables a 1.4× increase in charge carrier diffusion length in the active layer; and as a result leads to an improvement in power conversion efficiency to 13.0% compared to EDT standard cells (12.2%).

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(12): 5702-5708, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118414

RESUMO

Electrochemical conversion of nitrate (NO3-) into ammonia (NH3) recycles nitrogen and offers a route to the production of NH3, which is more valuable than dinitrogen gas. However, today's development of NO3- electroreduction remains hindered by the lack of a mechanistic picture of how catalyst structure may be tuned to enhance catalytic activity. Here we demonstrate enhanced NO3- reduction reaction (NO3-RR) performance on Cu50Ni50 alloy catalysts, including a 0.12 V upshift in the half-wave potential and a 6-fold increase in activity compared to those obtained with pure Cu at 0 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Ni alloying enables tuning of the Cu d-band center and modulates the adsorption energies of intermediates such as *NO3-, *NO2, and *NH2. Using density functional theory calculations, we identify a NO3-RR-to-NH3 pathway and offer an adsorption energy-activity relationship for the CuNi alloy system. This correlation between catalyst electronic structure and NO3-RR activity offers a design platform for further development of NO3-RR catalysts.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e1907058, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030824

RESUMO

The development of narrow-bandgap (Eg ≈ 1.2 eV) mixed tin-lead (Sn-Pb) halide perovskites enables all-perovskite tandem solar cells. Whereas pure-lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have advanced simultaneously in efficiency and stability, achieving this crucial combination remains a challenge in Sn-Pb PSCs. Here, Sn-Pb perovskite grains are anchored with ultrathin layered perovskites to overcome the efficiency-stability tradeoff. Defect passivation is achieved both on the perovskite film surface and at grain boundaries, an approach implemented by directly introducing phenethylammonium ligands in the antisolvent. This improves device operational stability and also avoids the excess formation of layered perovskites that would otherwise hinder charge transport. Sn-Pb PSCs with fill factors of 79% and a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.95% are reported-among the highest for Sn-Pb PSCs. Using this approach, a 200-fold enhancement in device operating lifetime is achieved relative to the nonpassivated Sn-Pb PSCs under full AM1.5G illumination, and a 200 h diurnal operating time without efficiency drop is achieved under filtered AM1.5G illumination.

6.
Science ; 367(6478): 661-666, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029623

RESUMO

Electrolysis offers an attractive route to upgrade greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) to valuable fuels and feedstocks; however, productivity is often limited by gas diffusion through a liquid electrolyte to the surface of the catalyst. Here, we present a catalyst:ionomer bulk heterojunction (CIBH) architecture that decouples gas, ion, and electron transport. The CIBH comprises a metal and a superfine ionomer layer with hydrophobic and hydrophilic functionalities that extend gas and ion transport from tens of nanometers to the micrometer scale. By applying this design strategy, we achieved CO2 electroreduction on copper in 7 M potassium hydroxide electrolyte (pH ≈ 15) with an ethylene partial current density of 1.3 amperes per square centimeter at 45% cathodic energy efficiency.

7.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042078

RESUMO

The composition of perovskite has been optimized combinatorially such that it often contains six components (AxByC1-x-yPbXzY3-z) in state-of-art perovskite solar cells. Questions remain regarding the precise role of each component, and the lack of a mechanistic explanation limits the practical exploration of the large and growing chemical space. Here, aided by transient photoluminescence microscopy, we find that, in perovskite single crystals, carrier diffusivity is in fact independent of composition. In polycrystalline thin films, the different compositions play a crucial role in carrier diffusion. We report that methylammonium (MA)-based films show a high carrier diffusivity of 0.047 cm2 s-1, while MA-free mixed caesium-formamidinium (CsFA) films exhibit an order of magnitude lower diffusivity. Elemental composition studies show that CsFA grains display a graded composition. This curtails electron diffusion in these films, as seen in both vertical carrier transport and surface potential studies. Incorporation of MA leads to a uniform grain core-to-edge composition, giving rise to a diffusivity of 0.034 cm2 s-1 in CsMAFA films. A model that invokes competing crystallization processes allows us to account for this finding, and suggests further strategies to achieve homogeneous crystallization for the benefit of perovskite optoelectronics.

8.
Nano Lett ; 20(2): 1468-1474, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004007

RESUMO

We report how the direction of quantum dot (QD) lasing can be engineered by exploiting high-symmetry points in plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) lattices. The nanolaser architecture consists of CdSe-CdS core-shell QD layers conformally coated on two-dimensional square arrays of Ag NPs. Using waveguide-surface lattice resonances (W-SLRs) near the Δ point in the Brillouin zone as optical feedback, we achieved lasing from the gain in CdS shells at off-normal emission angles. Changing the periodicity of the plasmonic lattices enables other high-symmetry points (Γ or M) of the lattice to overlap with the QD shell emission, which facilitates tuning of the lasing direction. We also increased the thickness of the QD layer to introduce higher-order W-SLR modes with additional avoided crossings in the band structure, which expands the selection of cavity modes for any desired lasing emission angle.

9.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049478

RESUMO

The tailored spatial polarization of coherent light beams is important for applications ranging from microscopy to biophysics to quantum optics. Miniaturized light sources are needed for integrated, on-chip photonic devices with desired vector beams; however, this issue is unresolved because most lasers rely on bulky optical elements to achieve such polarization control. Here, we report on quantum dot-plasmon lasers with engineered polarization patterns controllable by near-field coupling of colloidal quantum dots to metal nanoparticles. Conformal coating of CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dot films on Ag nanoparticle lattices enables the formation of hybrid waveguide-surface lattice resonance (W-SLR) modes. The sidebands of these hybrid modes at nonzero wavevectors facilitate directional lasing emission with either radial or azimuthal polarization depending on the thickness of the quantum dot film.

10.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959929

RESUMO

Chirality-the property of an object wherein it is distinguishable from its mirror image-is of widespread interest in chemistry and biology1-6. Regioselective magnetization of one-dimensional semiconductors enables anisotropic magnetism at room temperature, as well as the manipulation of spin polarization-the properties essential for spintronics and quantum computing technology7. To enable oriented magneto-optical functionalities, the growth of magnetic units has to be achieved at targeted locations on a parent nanorod. However, this challenge is yet to be addressed in the case of materials with a large lattice mismatch. Here, we report the regioselective magnetization of nanorods independent of lattice mismatch via buffer intermediate catalytic layers that modify interfacial energetics and promote regioselective growth of otherwise incompatible materials. Using this strategy, we combine materials with distinct lattices, chemical compositions and magnetic properties, that is, a magnetic component (Fe3O4) and a series of semiconducting nanorods absorbing across the ultraviolet and visible spectrum at specific locations. The resulting heteronanorods exhibit optical activity as induced by the location-specific magnetic field. The regioselective magnetization strategy presented here enables a path to designing optically active nanomaterials for chirality and spintronics.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(3): 716-723, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933373

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskite quantum wells (PQWs) are quantum and dielectrically confined materials exhibiting strongly bound excitons. The exciton transition dipole moment dictates absorption strength and influences interwell coupling in dipole-mediated energy transfer, a process that influences the performance of PQW optoelectronic devices. Here we use transient reflectance spectroscopy with circularly polarized laser pulses to investigate the optical Stark effect in dimensionally pure single crystals of n = 1, 2, and 3 Ruddlesden-Popper PQWs. From these measurements, we extract in-plane transition dipole moments of 11.1 (±0.4), 9.6 (±0.6) and 13.0 (±0.8) D for n = 1, 2 and 3, respectively. We corroborate our experimental results with density functional and many-body perturbation theory calculations, finding that the nature of band edge orbitals and exciton wave function delocalization depends on the PQW "odd-even" symmetry. This accounts for the nonmonotonic relationship between transition dipole moment and PQW dimensionality in the n = 1-3 range.

12.
Adv Mater ; 32(7): e1906497, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930771

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for photovoltaic (PV) applications owing to their size-tunable bandgap and solution processing. However, reports on CQD PV stability have been limited so far to storage in the dark; or operation illuminated, but under an inert atmosphere. CQD PV devices that are stable under continuous operation in air have yet to be demonstrated-a limitation that is shown here to arise due to rapid oxidation of both CQDs and surface passivation. Here, a stable CQD PV device under continuous operation in air is demonstrated by introducing additional potassium iodide (KI) on the CQD surface that acts as a shielding layer and thus stands in the way of oxidation of the CQD surface. The devices (unencapsulated) retain >80% of their initial efficiency following 300 h of continuous operation in air, whereas CQD PV devices without KI lose the amount of performance within just 21 h. KI shielding also provides improved surface passivation and, as a result, a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.6% compared with 11.4% for control devices.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 103, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900394

RESUMO

Control over carrier type and doping levels in semiconductor materials is key for optoelectronic applications. In colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), these properties can be tuned by surface chemistry modification, but this has so far been accomplished at the expense of reduced surface passivation and compromised colloidal solubility; this has precluded the realization of advanced architectures such as CQD bulk homojunction solids. Here we introduce a cascade surface modification scheme that overcomes these limitations. This strategy provides control over doping and solubility and enables n-type and p-type CQD inks that are fully miscible in the same solvent with complete surface passivation. This enables the realization of homogeneous CQD bulk homojunction films that exhibit a 1.5 times increase in carrier diffusion length compared with the previous best CQD films. As a result, we demonstrate the highest power conversion efficiency (13.3%) reported among CQD solar cells.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990189

RESUMO

The electroreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2RR) to valuable chemicals is a promising avenue to store intermittent renewable electricity. Renewable methane - obtained via CO2RR using renewable electricity as energy input - has the potential to serve as a carbon-neutral fuel or chemical feedstock, and it is of particular interest in view of the well-established infrastructure for its storage, distribution, and utilization. However, CO2RR to methane still suffers from low selectivity at commercially-relevant current densities (>100 mA cm-2). Density functional theory calculations herein reveal that lowering *CO2 coverage on the Cu surface decreases the coverage of the *CO intermediate, and then this favors the protonation of *CO to *CHO, a key intermediate for methane generation, compared to the competing step, C-C coupling. We therefore pursue an experimental strategy wherein we control local CO2 availability on a Cu catalyst by tuning the concentration of CO2 in the gas stream, and wherein we regulate the reaction rate through the current density. We achieve as a result a methane Faradaic efficiency (FE) of (48 ± 2) % with a partial current density of (108 ± 5) mA cm-2 and a methane cathodic energy efficiency of 20% using a dilute CO2 gas stream. We report stable methane electrosynthesis for 22 hours. These findings offer routes to produce methane with high FE and high conversion rate in CO2RR, and also to make direct use of dilute CO2 feedstocks.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 170, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924790

RESUMO

Reduced-dimensional perovskites are attractive light-emitting materials due to their efficient luminescence, color purity, tunable bandgap, and structural diversity. A major limitation in perovskite light-emitting diodes is their limited operational stability. Here we demonstrate that rapid photodegradation arises from edge-initiated photooxidation, wherein oxidative attack is powered by photogenerated and electrically-injected carriers that diffuse to the nanoplatelet edges and produce superoxide. We report an edge-stabilization strategy wherein phosphine oxides passivate unsaturated lead sites during perovskite crystallization. With this approach, we synthesize reduced-dimensional perovskites that exhibit 97 ± 3% photoluminescence quantum yields and stabilities that exceed 300 h upon continuous illumination in an air ambient. We achieve green-emitting devices with a peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 14% at 1000 cd m-2; their maximum luminance is 4.5 × 104 cd m-2 (corresponding to an EQE of 5%); and, at 4000 cd m-2, they achieve an operational half-lifetime of 3.5 h.

16.
Adv Mater ; 32(8): e1906806, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950562

RESUMO

Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts that function efficiently in pH-neutral electrolyte are of interest for biohybrid fuel and chemical production. The low concentration of reactant in neutral electrolyte mandates that OER catalysts provide both the water adsorption and dissociation steps. Here it is shown, using density functional theory simulations, that the addition of hydrated metal cations into a Ni-Fe framework contributes water adsorption functionality proximate to the active sites. Hydration-effect-promoting (HEP) metal cations such as Mg2+ and hydration-effect-limiting Ba2+ into Ni-Fe frameworks using a room-temperature sol-gel process are incorporated. The Ni-Fe-Mg catalysts exhibit an overpotential of 310 mV at 10 mA cm-2 in pH-neutral electrolytes and thus outperform iridium oxide (IrO2 ) electrocatalyst by a margin of 40 mV. The catalysts are stable over 900 h of continuous operation. Experimental studies and computational simulations reveal that HEP catalysts favor the molecular adsorption of water and its dissociation in pH-neutral electrolyte, indicating a strategy to enhance OER catalytic activity.

17.
Nature ; 577(7791): 509-513, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747679

RESUMO

The electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide, powered by renewable electricity, to produce valuable fuels and feedstocks provides a sustainable and carbon-neutral approach to the storage of energy produced by intermittent renewable sources1. However, the highly selective generation of economically desirable products such as ethylene from the carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) remains a challenge2. Tuning the stabilities of intermediates to favour a desired reaction pathway can improve selectivity3-5, and this has recently been explored for the reaction on copper by controlling morphology6, grain boundaries7, facets8, oxidation state9 and dopants10. Unfortunately, the Faradaic efficiency for ethylene is still low in neutral media (60 per cent at a partial current density of 7 milliamperes per square centimetre in the best catalyst reported so far9), resulting in a low energy efficiency. Here we present a molecular tuning strategy-the functionalization of the surface of electrocatalysts with organic molecules-that stabilizes intermediates for more selective CO2RR to ethylene. Using electrochemical, operando/in situ spectroscopic and computational studies, we investigate the influence of a library of molecules, derived by electro-dimerization of arylpyridiniums11, adsorbed on copper. We find that the adhered molecules improve the stabilization of an 'atop-bound' CO intermediate (that is, an intermediate bound to a single copper atom), thereby favouring further reduction to ethylene. As a result of this strategy, we report the CO2RR to ethylene with a Faradaic efficiency of 72 per cent at a partial current density of 230 milliamperes per square centimetre in a liquid-electrolyte flow cell in a neutral medium. We report stable ethylene electrosynthesis for 190 hours in a system based on a membrane-electrode assembly that provides a full-cell energy efficiency of 20 per cent. We anticipate that this may be generalized to enable molecular strategies to complement heterogeneous catalysts by stabilizing intermediates through local molecular tuning.

18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5814, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862886

RESUMO

Producing liquid fuels such as ethanol from CO2, H2O, and renewable electricity offers a route to store sustainable energy. The search for efficient electrocatalysts for the CO2 reduction reaction relies on tuning the adsorption strength of carbonaceous intermediates. Here, we report a complementary approach in which we utilize hydroxide and oxide doping of a catalyst surface to tune the adsorbed hydrogen on Cu. Density functional theory studies indicate that this doping accelerates water dissociation and changes the hydrogen adsorption energy on Cu. We synthesize and investigate a suite of metal-hydroxide-interface-doped-Cu catalysts, and find that the most efficient, Ce(OH)x-doped-Cu, exhibits an ethanol Faradaic efficiency of 43% and a partial current density of 128 mA cm-2. Mechanistic studies, wherein we combine investigation of hydrogen evolution performance with the results of operando Raman spectroscopy, show that adsorbed hydrogen hydrogenates surface *HCCOH, a key intermediate whose fate determines branching to ethanol versus ethylene.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5186, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780655

RESUMO

The electroreduction of C1 feedgas to high-energy-density fuels provides an attractive avenue to the storage of renewable electricity. Much progress has been made to improve selectivity to C1 and C2 products, however, the selectivity to desirable high-energy-density C3 products remains relatively low. We reason that C3 electrosynthesis relies on a higher-order reaction pathway that requires the formation of multiple carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds, and thus pursue a strategy explicitly designed to couple C2 with C1 intermediates. We develop an approach wherein neighboring copper atoms having distinct electronic structures interact with two adsorbates to catalyze an asymmetric reaction. We achieve a record n-propanol Faradaic efficiency (FE) of (33 ± 1)% with a conversion rate of (4.5 ± 0.1) mA cm-2, and a record n-propanol cathodic energy conversion efficiency (EEcathodic half-cell) of 21%. The FE and EEcathodic half-cell represent a 1.3× improvement relative to previously-published CO-to-n-propanol electroreduction reports.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4782, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636260

RESUMO

While plasmonic designs have dominated recent trends in structural color, schemes using localized surface plasmon resonances and surface plasmon polaritons that simultaneously achieve high color vibrancy at ultrahigh resolution have been elusive because of tradeoffs between size and performance. Herein we demonstrate vibrant and size-invariant transmissive type multicolor pixels composed of hybrid TiOx-Ag core-shell nanowires based on reduced scattering at their electric dipolar Mie resonances. This principle permits the hybrid nanoresonator to achieve the widest color gamut (~74% sRGB area coverage), linear color mixing, and the highest reported single color dots-per-inch (58,000~141,000) in transmission mode. Exploiting such features, we further show that an assembly of distinct nanoresonators can constitute a multicolor pixel for use in multispectral imaging, with a size that is ~10-folds below the Nyquist limit using a typical high NA objective lens.

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