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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 706-718, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564435

RESUMO

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used to diagnose diabetes and assess glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. However, nonglycemic determinants, including genetic variation, may influence how accurately HbA1c reflects underlying glycemia. Analyzing the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) sequence data in 10,338 individuals from five studies and four ancestries (6,158 Europeans, 3,123 African-Americans, 650 Hispanics, and 407 East Asians), we confirmed five regions associated with HbA1c (GCK in Europeans and African-Americans, HK1 in Europeans and Hispanics, FN3K and/or FN3KRP in Europeans, and G6PD in African-Americans and Hispanics) and we identified an African-ancestry-specific low-frequency variant (rs1039215 in HBG2 and HBE1, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.03). The most associated G6PD variant (rs1050828-T, p.Val98Met, MAF = 12% in African-Americans, MAF = 2% in Hispanics) lowered HbA1c (-0.88% in hemizygous males, -0.34% in heterozygous females) and explained 23% of HbA1c variance in African-Americans and 4% in Hispanics. Additionally, we identified a rare distinct G6PD coding variant (rs76723693, p.Leu353Pro, MAF = 0.5%; -0.98% in hemizygous males, -0.46% in heterozygous females) and detected significant association with HbA1c when aggregating rare missense variants in G6PD. We observed similar magnitude and direction of effects for rs1039215 (HBG2) and rs76723693 (G6PD) in the two largest TOPMed African American cohorts, and we replicated the rs76723693 association in the UK Biobank African-ancestry participants. These variants in G6PD and HBG2 were monomorphic in the European and Asian samples. African or Hispanic ancestry individuals carrying G6PD variants may be underdiagnosed for diabetes when screened with HbA1c. Thus, assessment of these variants should be considered for incorporation into precision medicine approaches for diabetes diagnosis.

2.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(10): 1342-1351, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma, a heterogeneous disease with variable age of onset, results from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Early-life tobacco smoke (ELTS) exposure is a major asthma risk factor. Only a few genetic loci have been reported to interact with ELTS exposure in asthma. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify new loci interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset (TAO) in childhood. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide interaction analyses of ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood in five European-ancestry studies (totalling 8273 subjects) using Cox proportional-hazard model. The results of all five genome-wide analyses were meta-analysed. RESULTS: The 13q21 locus showed genome-wide significant interaction with ELTS exposure (P = 4.3 × 10-8 for rs7334050 within KLHL1 with consistent results across the five studies). Suggestive interactions (P < 5 × 10-6 ) were found at three other loci: 20p12 (rs13037508 within MACROD2; P = 4.9 × 10-7 ), 14q22 (rs7493885 near NIN; P = 2.9 × 10-6 ) and 2p22 (rs232542 near CYP1B1; P = 4.1 × 10-6 ). Functional annotations and the literature showed that the lead SNPs at these four loci influence DNA methylation in the blood and are located nearby CpG sites reported to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke components, which strongly support our findings. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We identified novel candidate genes interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood. These genes have plausible biological relevance related to tobacco smoke exposure. Further epigenetic and functional studies are needed to confirm these findings and to shed light on the underlying mechanisms.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

4.
BMJ ; 366: l4292, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators. REVIEW METHODS: Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet was recorded by using validated cohort-specific dietary assessment tools. Outcome measures were summary adjusted hazard ratios of incident type 2 diabetes for polygenic risk score, isocaloric replacement of carbohydrate (refined starch and sugars) with types of fat, and the interaction of types of fat with polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Of 102 305 participants from 15 prospective cohort studies, 20 015 type 2 diabetes cases were documented after a median follow-up of 12 years (interquartile range 9.4-14.2). The hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes per increment of 10 risk alleles in the polygenic risk score was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.75, I2=7.1%, τ2=0.003). The increase of polyunsaturated fat and total omega 6 polyunsaturated fat intake in place of carbohydrate was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98, I2=18.0%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00, I2=58.8%, τ2=0.001; per increment of 1 g/d), respectively. Increasing monounsaturated fat in place of carbohydrate was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.19, I2=25.9%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy). Evidence of small study effects was detected for the overall association of polyunsaturated fat with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but not for the omega 6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat associations. Significant interactions between dietary fat and polygenic risk score on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P>0.05 for interaction) were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that genetic burden and the quality of dietary fat are each associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The findings do not support tailoring recommendations on the quality of dietary fat to individual type 2 diabetes genetic risk profiles for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, and suggest that dietary fat is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Thorax ; 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A positional cloning study of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) at the 17p11 locus in the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) families showed significant interaction between early-life environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and genetic variants located in DNAH9. This gene encodes the heavy chain subunit of axonemal dynein, which is involved with ATP in the motile cilia function.Our goal was to identify genetic variants at other genes interacting with ETS in BHR by investigating all genes belonging to the 'ATP-binding' and 'ATPase activity' pathways which include DNAH9, are targets of cigarette smoke and play a crucial role in the airway inflammation. METHODS: Family-based interaction tests between ETS-exposed and unexposed BHR siblings were conducted in 388 EGEA families. Twenty single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) showing interaction signals (p≤5.10-3) were tested in the 253 Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) families. RESULTS: One of these SNPs was significantly replicated for interaction with ETS in SLSJ families (p=0.003). Another SNP reached the significance threshold after correction for multiple testing in the combined analysis of the two samples (p=10-5). Results were confirmed using both a robust log-linear test and a gene-based interaction test. CONCLUSION: The SNPs showing interaction with ETS belong to the ATP8A1 and ABCA1 genes, which play a role in the maintenance of asymmetry and homeostasis of lung membrane lipids.

6.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969

RESUMO

We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

7.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 70, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In studies with multi-omics data available, there is an opportunity to investigate interdependent mechanisms of biological causality. The GAW20 data set includes both DNA genotype and methylation measures before and after fenofibrate treatment. Using change in triglyceride (TG) levels pre- to posttreatment as outcome, we present a mediation analysis that incorporates methylation. This approach allows us to simultaneously consider a mediation hypothesis that genotype affects change in TG level by means of its effect on methylation, and an interaction hypothesis that the effect of change in methylation on change in TG levels differs by genotype. We select 322 single-nucleotide polymorphism-cytosine-phosphate-guanine (SNP-CpG) site pairs for mediation analysis on the basis of proximity and marginal genome-wide association study (GWAS) and epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) significance, and present results from the real-data sample of 407 individuals with complete genotype, methylation, TG levels, and covariate data. RESULTS: We identified 3 SNP-CpG site pairs with significant interaction effects at a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of 1.55E-4. None of the analyzed sites showed significant evidence of mediation. Power analysis by simulation showed that a sample size of at least 19,500 is needed to detect nominally significant indirect effects with true effect sizes equal to the point estimates at the locus with strongest evidence of mediation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there is stronger evidence for interaction between genotype and methylation on change in triglycerides than for methylation mediating the effect of genotype.

8.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 83, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies performed on triglycerides (TGs) have not accounted for epigenetic mechanisms that may partially explain trait heritability. RESULTS: Parent-of-origin (POO) effect association analyses using an agnostic approach or a candidate approach were performed for pretreatment TG levels, posttreatment TG levels, and pre- and posttreatment TG-level differences in the real GAW20 family data set. We detected 22 genetic variants with suggestive POO effects with at least 1 phenotype (P ≤ 10- 5). We evaluated the association of these 22 significant genetic variants showing POO effects with close DNA methylation probes associated with TGs. A total of 18 DNA methylation probes located in the vicinity of the 22 SNPs were associated with at least 1 phenotype and 6 SNP-probe pairs were associated with DNA methylation probes at the nominal level of P < 0.05, among which 1 pair presented evidence of POO effect. Our analyses identified a paternal effect of SNP rs301621 on the difference between pre- and posttreatment TG levels (P = 1.2 × 10- 5). This same SNP showed evidence for a maternal effect on methylation levels of a nearby probe (cg10206250; P = 0.01). Using a causal inference test we established that the observed POO effect of rs301621 was not mediated by DNA methylation at cg10206250. CONCLUSIONS: We performed POO effect association analyses of SNPs with TGs, as well as association analyses of SNPs with DNA methylation probes. These analyses, which were followed by a causal inference test, established that the paternal effect at the SNP rs301621 is induced by treatment and is not mediated by methylation level at cg10206250.

9.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 84, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-probe analyses in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have identified associations between DNA methylation and many phenotypes, but do not take into account information from neighboring probes. Methods to detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs) (clusters of neighboring probes associated with a phenotype) may provide more power to detect associations between DNA methylation and diseases or phenotypes of interest. RESULTS: We proposed a novel approach, GlobalP, and perform comparisons with 3 methods-DMRcate, Bumphunter, and comb-p-to identify DMRs associated with log triglycerides (TGs) in real GAW20 data before and after fenofibrate treatment. We applied these methods to the summary statistics from an EWAS performed on the methylation data. Comb-p, DMRcate, and GlobalP detected very similar DMRs near the gene CPT1A on chromosome 11 in both the pre- and posttreatment data. In addition, GlobalP detected 2 DMRs before fenofibrate treatment in the genes ETV6 and ABCG1. Bumphunter identified several DMRs on chromosomes 1 and 20, which did not overlap with DMRs detected by other methods. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel method detected the same DMR identified by two existing methods and detected two additional DMRs not identified by any of the existing methods we compared.

10.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 72, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise in popularity and accessibility of DNA methylation data to evaluate epigenetic associations with disease has led to numerous methodological questions. As part of GAW20, our working group of 8 research groups focused on gene searching methods. RESULTS: Although the methods were varied, we identified 3 main themes within our group. First, many groups tackled the question of how best to use pedigree information in downstream analyses, finding that (a) the use of kinship matrices is common practice, (b) ascertainment corrections may be necessary, and (c) pedigree information may be useful for identifying parent-of-origin effects. Second, many groups also considered multimarker versus single-marker tests. Multimarker tests had modestly improved power versus single-marker methods on simulated data, and on real data identified additional associations that were not identified with single-marker methods, including identification of a gene with a strong biological interpretation. Finally, some of the groups explored methods to combine single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and DNA methylation into a single association analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A causal inference method showed promise at discovering new mechanisms of SNP activity; gene-based methods of summarizing SNP and DNA methylation data also showed promise. Even though numerous questions still remain in the analysis of DNA methylation data, our discussions at GAW20 suggest some emerging best practices.

11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.

12.
Curr Diab Rep ; 18(8): 52, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931457

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glycated hemoglobin (A1c) is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and monitor glycemic control. Specific genetic variants interfere with A1c and effects/frequencies of some variants vary by ancestry. In this review, we summarize findings from large trans-ethnic meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of A1c and describe some variants influencing erythrocyte biology and interfering with A1c. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent GWAS meta-analyses have revealed 60 loci associated with A1c in multi-ethnic populations. The main A1c genetic driver in African Americans is rs1050828 (G6PD). Some identified loci are located in/near genes known as monogenic causes of erythrocytic disorders (ANK1, SPTA1) or iron disorders (TMPRSS6, HFE). Uncommon genetic variants (not revealed by GWAS) that are known to cause hemoglobinopathies may also influence A1C levels, partly by interfering with laboratory assays. Specific genetic variants that have a large impact on A1c levels may influence clinical practice, especially in individuals of African descent. Efforts to reveal novel A1c loci should focus on increasing representation of GWAS in non-European ancestries, and on using better genome-wide coverage of uncommon variants that are specific to each population.

13.
Neurology ; 90(3): e188-e196, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify rare variants influencing brain imaging phenotypes in the Framingham Heart Study by performing whole genome sequence association analyses within the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program. METHODS: We performed association analyses of cerebral and hippocampal volumes and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in up to 2,180 individuals by testing the association of rank-normalized residuals from mixed-effect linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, and total intracranial volume with individual variants while accounting for familial relatedness. We conducted gene-based tests for rare variants using (1) a sliding-window approach, (2) a selection of functional exonic variants, or (3) all variants. RESULTS: We detected new loci in 1p21 for cerebral volume (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.005, p = 10-8) and in 16q23 for hippocampal volume (MAF 0.05, p = 2.7 × 10-8). Previously identified associations in 12q24 for hippocampal volume (rs7294919, p = 4.4 × 10-4) and in 17q25 for WMH (rs7214628, p = 2.0 × 10-3) were confirmed. Gene-based tests detected associations (p ≤ 2.3 × 10-6) in new loci for cerebral (5q13, 8p12, 9q31, 13q12-q13, 15q24, 17q12, 19q13) and hippocampal volumes (2p12) and WMH (3q13, 4p15) including Alzheimer disease- (UNC5D) and Parkinson disease-associated genes (GBA). Pathway analyses evidenced enrichment of associated genes in immunity, inflammation, and Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Whole genome sequence-wide search reveals intriguing new loci associated with brain measures. Replication of novel loci is needed to confirm these findings.

14.
Menopause ; 25(4): 451-457, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better understand the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and age-at-natural menopause using genetic data. METHODS: Early menopause is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. We constructed a genetic risk score comprising 56 age-at-natural menopause decreasing alleles in men and women from the Framingham Heart Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and the Rotterdam Study. If the genetic predisposition to earlier age-at-natural menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, it is reasonable to ask whether the risk is shared by men carrying the alleles, despite not experiencing menopause. We estimated the hazard ratio for the score for time to first cardiovascular event. To investigate the possible genetic pleiotropy between age-at-natural menopause and cardiovascular disease, we performed cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regressions between age-at-natural menopause and cardiovascular disease and risk factors using genome-wide association studies. RESULTS: Twenty-two thousand five hundred and sixty-eight cardiovascular disease-free participants at baseline were analyzed (9,808 men, 12,760 women). Each additional unit of the genetic propensity to earlier age-at-natural menopause increased the hazard of both cardiovascular disease and cardiac death in women (cardiovascular disease: hazard ratio 1.10 [1.04-1.16], P = 9.7 × 10; cardiac death: 1.12 [1.02-1.24], P = 0.03), whereas no effect was observed for either outcome in men (hazard ratio 0.99 [0.95-1.04], P = 0.71; 1.05 [0.94-1.16], P = 0.34). We found significant negative genetic correlations in women, but not men, between age-at-natural menopause and cardiovascular disease and risk factors. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants associated with earlier age-at-natural menopause are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in women, but not men, suggesting sex-specific genetic effects on cardiovascular disease risk.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(5): 1659-1667.e11, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopy, an endotype underlying allergic diseases, has a substantial genetic component. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify novel genes associated with atopy in asthma-ascertained families. METHODS: We implemented a 3-step analysis strategy in 3 data sets: the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) data set (1660 subjects), the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean study data set (1138 subjects), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) data set (446 subjects). This strategy included a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association study (GWAS), the selection of related gene pairs based on statistical filtering of GWAS results, and text-mining filtering using Gene Relationships Across Implicated Loci and SNP-SNP interaction analysis of selected gene pairs. RESULTS: We identified the 5q14 locus, harboring the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor V1 (ADGRV1) gene, which showed genome-wide significant association with atopy (rs4916831, meta-analysis P value = 6.8 × 10-9). Statistical filtering of GWAS results followed by text-mining filtering revealed relationships between ADGRV1 and 3 genes showing suggestive association with atopy (P ≤ 10-4). SNP-SNP interaction analysis between ADGRV1 and these 3 genes showed significant interaction between ADGRV1 rs17554723 and 2 correlated SNPs (rs2134256 and rs1354187) within the dynein axonemal heavy chain 5 (DNAH5) gene (Pmeta-int = 3.6 × 10-5 and 6.1 × 10-5, which met the multiple-testing corrected threshold of 7.3 × 10-5). Further conditional analysis indicated that rs2134256 alone accounted for the interaction signal with rs17554723. CONCLUSION: Because both DNAH5 and ADGRV1 contribute to ciliary function, this study suggests that ciliary dysfunction might represent a novel mechanism underlying atopy. Combining GWAS and epistasis analysis driven by statistical and knowledge-based evidence represents a promising approach for identifying new genes involved in complex traits.

16.
Bioinformatics ; 33(10): 1536-1544, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069594

RESUMO

Motivation: Apart from single marker-based tests classically used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), network-assisted analysis has become a promising approach to identify a set of genes associated with disease. To date, most network-assisted methods aim at finding genes connected in a background network, whatever the density or strength of their connections. This can hamper the findings as sparse connections are non-robust against noise from either the GWAS results or the network resource. Results: We present SigMod, a novel and efficient method integrating GWAS results and gene network to identify a strongly interconnected gene module enriched in high association signals. Our method is formulated as a binary quadratic optimization problem, which can be solved exactly through graph min-cut algorithms. Compared to existing methods, SigMod has several desirable properties: (i) edge weights quantifying confidence of connections between genes are taken into account, (ii) the selection path can be computed rapidly, (iii) the identified gene module is strongly interconnected, hence includes genes of high functional relevance, and (iv) the method is robust against noise from either the GWAS results or the network resource. We applied SigMod to both simulated and real data. It was found to outperform state-of-the-art network-assisted methods in identifying disease-associated genes. When SigMod was applied to childhood-onset asthma GWAS results, it successfully identified a gene module enriched in consistently high association signals and made of functionally related genes that are biologically relevant for asthma. Availability and implementation: An R package SigMod is available at: https://github.com/YuanlongLiu/SigMod. Contact: yuanlong.liu@inserm.fr. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Algoritmos , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
17.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 8(5): 466-70, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334786

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in inflammation and immunity and its decoy receptor, IL-1R2, has been implicated in transcriptomic and genetic studies of asthma. METHODS: Two large asthma family collections, the French-Canadian Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ) study and the French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), were used to investigate the association of SNPs in 10 genes that modulate IL-1R2 activities with asthma, allergic asthma, and atopy. Gene-gene interactions were also tested. RESULTS: One SNP in BACE2 was associated with allergic asthma in the SLSJ study and replicated in the EGEA study before statistical correction for multiple testing. Additionally, two SNPs in the MMP2 gene were replicated in both studies prior to statistical correction and reached significance in the combined analysis. Moreover, three gene-gene interactions also survived statistical correction in the combined analyses (BACE1-IL1RAP in asthma and allergic asthma and IL1R1-IL1RAP in atopy). CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the relevance of genes involved in the IL-1R2 activity in the context of asthma and asthma-related traits.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(4): 1071-1080, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27130862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which age of onset plays an important role. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the genetic variants associated with time to asthma onset (TAO). METHODS: We conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies of TAO (total of 5462 asthmatic patients with a broad range of age of asthma onset and 8424 control subjects of European ancestry) performed by using survival analysis techniques. RESULTS: We detected 5 regions associated with TAO at the genome-wide significant level (P < 5 × 10-8). We evidenced a new locus in the 16q12 region (near cylindromatosis turban tumor syndrome gene [CYLD]) and confirmed 4 asthma risk regions: 2q12 (IL-1 receptor-like 1 [IL1RL1]), 6p21 (HLA-DQA1), 9p24 (IL33), and 17q12-q21 (zona pellucida binding protein 2 [ZPBP2]-gasdermin A [GSDMA]). Conditional analyses identified 2 distinct signals at 9p24 (both upstream of IL33) and 17q12-q21 (near ZPBP2 and within GSDMA). Together, these 7 distinct loci explained 6.0% of the variance in TAO. In addition, we showed that genetic variants at 9p24 and 17q12-q21 were strongly associated with an earlier onset of childhood asthma (P ≤ .002), whereas the 16q12 single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with later asthma onset (P = .04). A high burden of disease risk alleles at these loci was associated with earlier age of asthma onset (4 vs 9-12 years, P = 10-4). CONCLUSION: The new susceptibility region for TAO at 16q12 harbors variants that correlate with the expression of CYLD and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), 2 strong candidates for asthma. This study demonstrates that incorporating the variability of age of asthma onset in asthma modeling is a helpful approach in the search for disease susceptibility genes.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Variação Genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Enzima Desubiquitinante CYLD , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(3): 748-753, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27038909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) are common allergic comorbidities with a strong genetic component in which epigenetic mechanisms might be involved. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify novel risk loci for asthma and AR while accounting for parent-of-origin effect. METHODS: We performed a series of genetic analyses, taking into account the parent-of-origin effect in families ascertained through asthma: (1) genome-wide linkage scan of asthma and AR in 615 European families, (2) association analysis with 1233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the significant linkage region in 162 French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma families with replication in 154 Canadian Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean asthma study families, and (3) association analysis of disease and significant SNPs with DNA methylation (DNAm) at CpG sites in 40 Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean asthma study families. RESULTS: We detected a significant paternal linkage of the 4q35 region to asthma and allergic rhinitis comorbidity (AAR; P = 7.2 × 10(-5)). Association analysis in this region showed strong evidence for the effect of the paternally inherited G allele of rs10009104 on AAR (P = 1.1 × 10(-5), reaching the multiple-testing corrected threshold). This paternally inherited allele was also significantly associated with DNAm levels at the cg02303933 site (P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). Differential DNAm at this site was found to mediate the identified SNP-AAR association. CONCLUSION: By integrating genetic and epigenetic data, we identified that a differentially methylated CpG site within the melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene mediates the effect of a paternally transmitted genetic variant on the comorbidity of asthma and AR. This study provides a novel insight into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in patients with allergic respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Herança Paterna , Receptor MT1 de Melatonina/genética , Rinite Alérgica/genética , Alelos , Asma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Metilação de DNA , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia
20.
Eur Respir J ; 47(4): 1072-81, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26797031

RESUMO

A previous genome-wide linkage scan of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) families, performed in the presence of a gene×early-life environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure interaction, showed the strongest interaction in the 17p11 region where linkage was detected only among unexposed siblings. Our goal was to conduct fine-scale mapping of 17p11 to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interacting with ETS that influence BHR.Analyses were performed in 388 French EGEA asthmatic families, using a two-step strategy: 1) selection of SNPs displaying family-based association test (FBAT) association signals (p≤0.01) with BHR in unexposed siblings, and 2) a FBAT homogeneity test between exposed and unexposed siblings plus a robust log-linear interaction test.A single SNP reached the threshold (p≤3×10(-3)) for significant interaction with ETS using both interaction tests, after accounting for multiple testing. Results were replicated in 253 French-Canadian families, but not in 341 UK families, probably due in part to differences in phenotypic features between datasets.The SNP showing significant interaction with ETS belongs toDNAH9(dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 9), a promising candidate gene involved in respiratory cilia mobility and associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia, a disease associated with abnormalities of pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Dineínas do Axonema/genética , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/genética , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/etiologia , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Quebeque , Irmãos , Fumar , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
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