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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(13): 18440-18451, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037150

RESUMO

The negative health effects of cement plant exposure are well-known in industrial settings, but they are less well-known among the general public who live near plants. The broad objective of the review was to provide a detailed systematic analysis of the global situation of the cement industry, including generation, pollution, impact on the natural ecosystem, technological and process improvements, sustainable models, the latest laws, challenges, needs, and ways forward. As an initial evaluation, a list of critical keywords was compiled, and a search of all accessible databases was conducted (i.e., Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar). The manuscripts published in the journal between 2011 and 2021 were included. According to the findings, India is the second largest cement producer after China, with an installed capacity of 537 million tonnes and around 7.1 percent of the world's production, up from 337.32 million tonnes in 2019. NOx, SOx, CO, CO2, H2S, VOCs, dioxins, furans, and particulate matter are all common air pollutants from cement manufacturing. Other sources of dust particles include quarrying, blasting, drilling, trucking, cement plants, fuel production, packaging, path cleaning, and slabs. Other methods of reduction play an important part in decreasing industrial emissions, resulting in lower carbon and more sustainable products. The decision-making trial, in conjunction with the DEMATEL evaluation laboratory and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique, will aid in determining the priority of climate alteration and mitigation options. Furthermore, employing sustainable techniques and technology, switching to alternative fuels will save 12% of total CO2 emissions by 2050.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Indústrias , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149823, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454140

RESUMO

Rising level of micro-nano plastics (MNPs) in the natural ecosystem adversely impact the health of the environment and living organisms globally. MNPs enter in to the agro-ecosystem, flora and fauna, and human body via trophic transfer, ingestion and inhalation, resulting impediment in blood vessel, infertility, and abnormal behaviors. Therefore, it becomes indispensable to apply a novel approach to remediate MNPs from natural environment. Amongst the several prevailing technologies of MNPs remediation, microbial remediation is considered as greener technology. Microbial degradation of plastics is typically influenced by several biotic as well as abiotic factors, such as enzymatic mechanisms, substrates and co-substrates concentration, temperature, pH, oxidative stress, etc. Therefore, it is pivotal to recognize the key pathways adopted by microbes to utilize plastic fragments as a sole carbon source for the growth and development. In this context, this review critically discussed the role of various microbes and their enzymatic mechanisms involved in biodegradation of MNPs in wastewater (WW) stream, municipal sludge, municipal solid waste (MSW), and composting starting with biological and toxicological impacts of MNPs. Moreover, this review comprehensively discussed the deployment of various MNPs remediation technologies, such as enzymatic, advanced molecular, and bio-membrane technologies in fostering the bioremediation of MNPs from various environmental compartments along with their pros and cons and prospects for future research.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
3.
Chemosphere ; 290: 133310, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919909

RESUMO

Poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and compostable polyesters. This review is aimed to provide a unique approach that can help think tanks to frame strategies aiming for clean technology by utilizing cutting edge biotechnological advances to convert fruit and vegetable waste to biopolymer. A PHA manufacturing method based on watermelon waste residue that does not require extensive pretreatment provides a more environmentally friendly and sustainable approach that utilizes an agricultural waste stream. Incorporating fruit processing industry by-products and water, and other resource conservation methods would not only make the manufacturing of microbial bio-plastics like PHA more eco-friendly, but will also help our sector transition to a bioeconomy with circular product streams. The final and most critical element of this review is an in-depth examination of the several hazards inherent in PHA manufacturing.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Biopolímeros , Biotecnologia , Poliésteres
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt A): 126193, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710613

RESUMO

In this review article, discuss the many ways utilized by the dairy sector to treat pollutants, emphasizing their influence on the quality and efficiency with which contamination is removed. It focuses on biotechnology possibilities for valorizing dairy waste in particular. The findings revealed that dairy waste may be treated using physicochemical, biological, and biotechnological techniques. Notably, this article highlighted the possibility of dairy waste being used as a feedstock not only for the generation of biogas, bioethanol, biohydrogen, microbial fuel cells, lactic acid, and fumaric acid via microbial technology but also for the production of biooil and biochar by pyrolysis. In addition, this article critically evaluates the many treatment techniques available for recovering energy and materials from dairy waste, their combinations, and implementation prospects. Valorization of dairy waste streams presents an opportunity to extend the dairy industry's presence in the fermented functional beverage sector.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Biocombustíveis , Biotecnologia
5.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 10269-10301, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709979

RESUMO

Biochar's ability to mediate and facilitate microbial contamination degradation, as well as its carbon-sequestration potential, has sparked interest in recent years. The scope, possible advantages (economic and environmental), and future views are all evaluated in this review. We go over the many designed processes that are taking place and show why it is critical to look into biochar production for resource recovery and the role of bioengineered biochar in waste recycling. We concentrate on current breakthroughs in the fields of engineered biochar application techniques to systematically and sustainable technology. As a result, this paper describes the use of biomass for biochar production using various methods, as well as its use as an effective inclusion material to increase performance. The impact of biochar amendments on microbial colonisation, direct interspecies electron transfer, organic load minimization, and buffering maintenance is explored in detail. The majority of organic and inorganic (heavy metals) contaminants in the environment today are caused by human activities, such as mining and the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, which can be treated sustainably by using engineered biochar to promote the establishment of a sustainable engineered process by inducing the circular bioeconomy.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia/economia , Carvão Vegetal/economia , Bactérias/enzimologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reciclagem , Resíduos/análise
6.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131427, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323796

RESUMO

Apple pomace, the residue which is left out after processing of apple serves as a potential carbon source for the production of biopolymer, PHA (poly-hydroxyalkanoates). It is rich in carbohydrates, fibers and polyphenols. Utilization of these waste resources has dual societal benefit-waste management and conversion of waste to an eco-friendly biopolymer. This will lower the overall economics of the process. A major limitation for the commercialization of biopolymer in comparison with petroleum derived polymer is the high cost. This article gives an overview of valorization of apple pomace for the production of biopolymer, various strategies adopted, limitations as well as future perspectives.


Assuntos
Malus , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Biopolímeros , Carbono , Resíduos Industriais
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 337: 125451, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186328

RESUMO

This review focuses on a holistic view of biochar, production from feedstock's, engineering production strategies, its applications and future prospects. This article reveals a systematic emphasis on the continuation and development of biochar and its production methods such as Physical engineering, chemical and bio-engineering techniques. In addition, biochar alternatives such as nutrient formations and surface area made it a promising cheap source of carbon-based products such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and pyrolysis, commercially available wastewater treatment, carbons, energy storage, microbial fuel cell electrodes, and super-capacitors repair have been reviewed. This paper also covers the knowledge blanks of strategies and ideas for the future in the field of engineering biochar production techniques and application as well as expand the technology used in the circular bio-economy.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Solo , Biomassa , Pirólise
8.
Environ Technol ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184619

RESUMO

A new type of imitation rattan was developed via a two-step method that used modified wheat straw as the raw materials and low-density polyethylene to make up wood plastic composite. Post-modification, a graft condensation reaction was carried out between silane as a coupling agent and wheat straw powder, which improved the thermal stability of the composite. A high level of contact and interaction at the fibre-matrix interface was observed. The optimum formula for the first step was 80% wheat straw powder, 4% silane coupling agent, and 16% calcium carbonate, with a modification temperature of 120 °C sustained for 10 min. For the second step, the mechanical properties had been greatly improved with the addition of modified wheat straw fibre and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MA-g-PP). The use of 10% modified straw fibre and 5% MA-g-PP exhibited the highest tensile strength (8.75 MPa) and highest melt index (2.86 g/10 min). In particular, the MA-g-PP had an extremely advantage to the elastic modulus of wheat straw imitation rattan. The elastic modulus reached the maximum value of 2761.70 MPa at the amount of MA-g-PP added reached 5%. Our present study indicated the innovation of a new type of imitation rattan, which provides a new choice for utilizing wheat straw as industrial raw material, and other agricultural by-products containing liginocellulose could be used in a similar way.

9.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 1173-1188, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830860

RESUMO

Transcriptome is used to determine the induction response of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit T2 plus line (abbreviated as PT2P line) infected with Pectobacterium carotovorum. The main objective of the study was to deal with the transcriptome database of PT2P line resistance to soft rot pathogens to provide a new perspective for identifying the resistance-related genes and understanding the molecular mechanism. Results indicated that water soaking and tissue collapse started at 20 h after PT2P line was infected by P. carotovorum. A total of 1360 and 5768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at 0 h and 20 h, respectively. After 20 h of infection, growth and development-related pathways were inhibited. Meanwhile, DEGs were promoted the colonization of P. carotovorum pathogens in specific cell wall modification processes at the early infected stage. A shift to a defensive response was triggered at 0 h. A large number of DEGs were mainly up-controlled at 20 h and were substantially used in the pathogen recognition and the introduction of signal transformation cascades, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, pathogenic proteins activation, transcription aspects and numerous transporters. Furthermore, our data provided novel insights into the transcript reprogramming of PT2P line in response to P. carotovorum infestation.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Pectobacterium carotovorum/fisiologia , Pinellia/genética , Pinellia/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
10.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(3): 416-425, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875076

RESUMO

Emergency of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems has improved the target, bioavailability, and curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the application of nano-preparation has been limited owing to the low content of active ingredients in part TCM. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate plant growth, development, and response to environmental stresses at post-transcriptional regulation level by cleavage or translational inhibition. The molecular functions of miRNAs playing a role in synthesizing active comportments at medicinal plants have been widely researched. Dendrobium nobile is a perennial herb in the orchidaceae family. D. nobile protocorm can produce plant-specific metabolites at a short period. Therefore, it is a good substitute for producing metabolites. To understand the functions of miRNAs in D. nobile protocorm, Illumina sequencing of D. nobile protocorm (Dnp), D. officinale protocorm (Dcp), and D. nobile leaf (Dnl) were carried out. A total of 439, 412, and 432 miRNAs were identified from Dnp, Dcp, and Dnl, respectively. Some specific miRNAs were identified among them. Through combing GO and KEGG function annotation, miRNAs mainly involved metabolic pathways, plant hormone signal transduction, biological regulation, and protein binding. Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (AACT), mevalonate kinase (MK), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (HDS), synthesizing basic precursor isoprene pyrophosphate (IPP) in terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway, were predicted as potential targets of 6 different miRNAs. Twenty-six miRNAs participated in auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signal transduction pathway. This report provided valuable candidate genes in Dnp involved in terpenoid biosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction pathway. At the same time, it can help accelerate the use of dendrobine into nano preparation.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Dendrobium , MicroRNAs , Dendrobium/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , MicroRNAs/genética
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 409: 124967, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517026

RESUMO

Micro-and nano-plastics (MNPs) (size < 5 mm/<100 nm) epitomize one of the emergent environmental pollutants with its existence all around the globe. Their high persistence nature and release of chemicals/additives used in synthesis of plastics materials may pose cascading impacts on living organism across the globe. Natural connectivity of all the environmental compartments (terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric) leads to migration/dispersion of MNPs from one compartment to others. Nevertheless, the information on dispersion of MNPs across the environmental compartments and its possible impacts on living organisms are still missing. This review first acquaints with dispersion mechanisms of MNPs in the environment, its polymeric/oligomeric and chemical constituents and then emphasized its impacts on living organism. Based on the existing knowledge about the MNPs' constituent and its potential impacts on the viability, development, lifecycle, movements, and fertility of living organism via several potential mechanisms, such as irritation, oxidative damage, digestion impairment, tissue deposition, change in gut microbial communities' dynamics, impaired fatty acid metabolism, and molecular damage are emphasized. Finally, at the end, the review provided the challenges associated with remediation of plastics pollutions and desirable strategies, policies required along with substantial gaps in MNPs research were recommended for future studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 13-29, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283604

RESUMO

Many of the Orchidaceae species are threatened due to environmental changes and over exploitation for full fill global demands. The main objective of this article was critically analyzed the recent global distribution of Orchidaceae diversity, its disease patterns, microbial disease identification, detection, along with prevention and challenges. Critical analysis findings revealed that Orchidaceae growth and developments were affected indirectly or directly as a result of complex microbial ecological interactions. Studies have identified many species associated with orchids, some are pathogenic and cause symptoms such as soft rot, brown rot, brown spot, black rot, wilt, foliar, root rot, anthracnose, leaf spot. The review was provided the comprehensive data to evaluate the identification and detection of microbial disease, which is the most important challenge for sustainable cultivation of Orchidaceae diversity. Furthermore, this article is the foremost of disease triggering microbes, orchid relations, and assimilates various consequences that both promoted the considerate and facts of such disease multipart, and will permit the development of best operative disease management practices.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae , Doenças das Plantas , Agricultura , Biotecnologia , Incidência , Nanotecnologia , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/classificação , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 800125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975823

RESUMO

Trichoderma longibrachiatum MD33, a sesquiterpene alkaloid-producing endophyte isolated from Dendrobium nobile, shows potential medical and industrial applications. To understand the molecular mechanisms of sesquiterpene alkaloids production, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed on strain MD33 and its positive mutant UN32, which was created using Ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis and nitrogen ion (N+) implantation. The alkaloid production of UN32 was 2.62 times more than that of MD33. One thousand twenty-four differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 519 up-regulated and 505 down-regulated genes, were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed 139 GO terms and 87 biosynthesis pathways. Dendrobine, arguably the main sesquiterpene alkaloid the strain MD33 produced, might start synthesis through the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Several MVA pathway enzyme-coding genes (hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, mevalonate kinase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found to be differentially expressed, suggesting that physical mutagenesis can disrupt genome integrity and gene expression. Some backbone post-modification enzymes and transcript factors were either discovered, suggesting the sesquiterpene alkaloid metabolism in T. longibrachiatum is a complex genetic network. Our findings help to shed light on the underlying molecular regulatory mechanism of sesquiterpene alkaloids production in T. longibrachiatum.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226418

RESUMO

Dendrobium nobile is the only plant that could produce the natural bioactive dendrobine. No other source of dendrobine has been found to date except from D. nobile and via chemical synthesis. In this study, we aimed to examine the potential fungal endophyte isolated from D. nobile stem segments using the molecular method and to detect dendrobine compound through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and their metabolite for their antibacterial activity. The potential dendrobine producer strain was recognized as Trichoderma longibrachiatum based on molecular DNA sequencing and GenBank databases. The T. longibrachiatum MD33 produced dendrobine and other compounds in a potato dextrose medium (PDM), as confirmed by HPLC retention time peak analysis. The HPLC results revealed that T. longibrachiatum MD33 biomass showed a peak retention time of 5.28 ± 0.2 min, similar to wild D. nobile stem dendrobine (5.32 ± 0.2 min) and standard chemical reference dendrobine (5.30 ± 0.2 min), indicating the presence of dendrobine in the fungal biomass. Results of GC-MS and LC-MS analysis revealed that T. longibrachiatum MD33 produced the same molecular weight (263 in GC-MS and 264.195 in LC-MS) of dendrobine as compared with standard chemical reference dendrobine and D. nobile dendrobine. Antibacterial activity data revealed that T. longibrachiatum MD33 produced the strongest bactericidal activity against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mycoides, and Staphylococcus species, and the diameter of the bacterial growth inhibition zone was 12 ± 0.2, 9 ± 0.2, and 8 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate T. longibrachiatum as a dendrobine producer, and the results revealed that T. longibrachiatum was directly involved in the potential production of a similar bioactive compound to D. nobile (dendrobine). In addition, the T. longibrachiatum metabolite exhibited potent antibacterial activity and can be a potential strain for medical and industrial purposes.

15.
Bioengineered ; 11(1): 386-396, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172675

RESUMO

Dendrobium cariniferum is a valuable ornamental and medicinal plant rich with polysaccharides, alkaloid, and other bioactive compounds, which are potential raw materials for pharmacological utilization. In this study, an efficient protocol for the rapid propagation of D. cariniferum was developed. By using the tissue culture protocol, the effects of pH, hormone combinations, temperatures, light intensity, culture time protocorm proliferation, seedlings rooting, and accumulation of biomass with bioactive compounds were investigated. The experiments showed that the medium [1/2 MS + activated carbon1.0 g/L+ agar strip 7.5 g/L + sucrose 25 g/L] effectively promoted the germination of D. cariniferum seeds. The optimal culture conditions were found at pH 5.7, temperature 23 ± 2°C, and light intensity of 1000 Lx in the protocorm proliferation stage. Adding 1.5 g/L peptone in the medium effectively promoted the seedling rooting. The optimal culture conditions for accumulation of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides and alkaloids) of seedlings were found at temperature of 25 ± 2°C, light intensity of 1500-2000 Lx after the 60-day (d). Our study constructed a rapid propagation system in vitro for D. cariniferum, as well as the methods for efficient accumulation of active substances in seedling culture, which will serve as guidance for industrial production of D. cariniferum seedlings for both medicinal raw materials and ornamental plants. In addition, our study provided a new idea that we can directly use the high bioactive compound seedlings to extract medicinal components in industry conditions without transferring to the field.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/metabolismo , Dendrobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
16.
Bioengineered ; 11(1): 356-374, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149573

RESUMO

The study of metagenomics is an emerging field that identifies the total genetic materials in an organism along with the set of all genetic materials like deoxyribonucleic acid and ribose nucleic acid, which play a key role with the maintenance of cellular functions. The best part of this technology is that it gives more flexibility to environmental microbiologists to instantly pioneer the immense genetic variability of microbial communities. However, it is intensively complex to identify the suitable sequencing measures of any specific gene that can exclusively indicate the involvement of microbial metagenomes and be able to advance valuable results about these communities. This review provides an overview of the metagenomic advancement that has been advantageous for aggregation of more knowledge about specific genes, microbial communities and its metabolic pathways. More specific drawbacks of metagenomes technology mainly depend on sequence-based analysis. Therefore, this 'targeted based metagenomics' approach will give comprehensive knowledge about the ecological, evolutionary and functional sequence of significantly important genes that naturally exist in living beings either human, animal and microorganisms from distinctive ecosystems.


Assuntos
Metagenômica/métodos , DNA/química , Humanos , Ácidos Nucleicos/química
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4614, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165650

RESUMO

Pinellia (Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit.), as important medicinal plant, has been used to treat various ailments for a long time. The sixteen ploid plant (2n = 16 * 13 = 208) Pinellia T2Plus line was obtained from an octoploid (2n = 8 * 13 = 104) T2 line by chromosome-doubling technique. Compared with T2 line, the content of various medicinal components (polysaccharide, guanosine, adenosine and ephedrine) was increased in T2Plus line. In this study, the transcriptome of T2 line and T2Plus line were characterized by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways enrichment analysis on differential expressed unigenes (DEGs) revealed that multiple metabolic pathway were enriched significantly, such as 'Starch and sucrose metabolism', 'Purine metabolism', 'Photosynthesis' and six transcription factors (MYB, WRKY, bHLH, lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD), homeodomain-zipper (HD-ZIP) and Ethylene-responsive factor (ERF)) play a key role in difference of transcriptome between T2 line and T2Plus line. These metabolic pathways and transcription factors may play an important role in the difference of medicinal components and epigenetic features between these two Pinellia cultivars. This conclusion provides a robust theoretical basis for the mechanism of the formation of medicinal ingredients in Pinellia cultivars.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fenótipo , Pinellia/genética , Transcriptoma , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metabolismo Energético , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Fotossíntese , Pinellia/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0220084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074105

RESUMO

Bletilla striata is an endangered traditional Chinese medicinal plant with multiple uses and a slow regeneration rate of its germplasm resources. To evaluate the callus growth kinetics and accumulation of secondary metabolites (SMs), a callus suspension culture was proven to be a valuable approach for acquiring high yields of medicinal compounds. An effective callus suspension culture for obtaining B. striata callus growth and its SMs was achieved with the in vitro induction of calluses from B. striata seeds. The callus growth kinetics and accumulation of SMs were analyzed using a mathematical model. The resulting callus growth kinetic model revealed that the growth curves of B. striata suspension-cultured calluses were sigmoidal, indicating changes in the growth of the suspension-cultured calluses. Improved Murashige and Skoog callus growth medium was the most favorable medium for B. striata callus formation, with the highest callus growth occurring during the stationary phase of the cultivation period. Callus growth acceleration started after 7 days and thereafter gradually decreased until day 24 of the cultivation period and reached its highest at day 36 period in both the dry weight and fresh weight analyses. The coelonin concentration peaked during the exponential growth stage and decreased afterward during the stationary stage of the callus suspension culture. The maximum content of coelonin (approximately 0.3323 mg/g callus dry weight) was observed on the 18th day of the cultivation cycle, while dactylorhin A and militarine reached the highest concentrations at day 24, and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol at day 39. This investigation also laid a foundation for a multimathematical model to better describe the accumulation variation of SMs. The production of SMs showed great specificity during callus growth and development. This research provided a well-organized way to increase the accumulation and production of SMs during the scaled-up biosynthesis of calluses in B. striata callus suspension cultures.


Assuntos
Calo Ósseo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/análise , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos , Metabolismo Secundário , Sementes/química , Succinatos/análise
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122778, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983580

RESUMO

With the inevitable rise in human population, resource recovery from waste stream is becoming important for a sustainable economy, conservation of the ecosystem as well as for reducing the dependence on the finite natural resources. In this regard, a bio-based circular economy considers organic wastes and residues as potential resources that can be utilized to supply chemicals, nutrients, and fuels needed by mankind. This review explored the role of aerobic and anaerobic digestion technologies for the advancement of a bio-based circular society. The developed routes within the anaerobic digestion domain, such as the production of biogas and other high-value chemicals (volatile fatty acids) were discussed. The potential to recover important nutrients, such as nitrogen through composting, was also addressed. An emphasis was made on the innovative models for improved economics and process performance, which include co-digestion of various organic solid wastes, recovery of multiple bio-products, and integrated bioprocesses.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Resíduos Sólidos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Ecossistema
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906579

RESUMO

: Dendrobium are tropical orchid plants that host diverse endophytic fungi. The role of these fungi is not currently well understood in Dendrobium plants. We morphologically and molecularly identified these fungal endophytes, and created an efficient system for evaluating the pathogenicity and symptoms of endophytic fungi on Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium officinale though in vitro co-culturing. ReThe colony morphological traits of Dendrobium myco-endophytes (DMEs) were recorded for their identification. Molecular identification revealed the presence of Colletotrichum tropicicola, Fusarium keratoplasticum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The pathogenicity results revealed that T. longibrachiatum produced the least pathogenic effects against D. nobile protocorms. In seedlings, T. longibrachiatum showed the least pathogenic effects against D. officinale seedlings after seven days. C. tropicicola produced highly pathogenic effects against both Dendrobium seedlings. The results of histological examination of infected tissues revealed that F. keratoplasticum and T. longibrachiatum fulfill Koch's postulates for the existence of endophytes inside the living tissues. The DMEs are cross-transmitted inside the host plant cells, playing an important role in plant host development, resistance, and alkaloids stimulation.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/microbiologia , Endófitos/patogenicidade , Fungos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Colletotrichum/genética , Colletotrichum/isolamento & purificação , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , DNA Fúngico , Dendrobium/citologia , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/citologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Trichoderma/genética , Trichoderma/isolamento & purificação , Trichoderma/patogenicidade
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