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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4614, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165650

RESUMO

Pinellia (Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit.), as important medicinal plant, has been used to treat various ailments for a long time. The sixteen ploid plant (2n = 16 * 13 = 208) Pinellia T2Plus line was obtained from an octoploid (2n = 8 * 13 = 104) T2 line by chromosome-doubling technique. Compared with T2 line, the content of various medicinal components (polysaccharide, guanosine, adenosine and ephedrine) was increased in T2Plus line. In this study, the transcriptome of T2 line and T2Plus line were characterized by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways enrichment analysis on differential expressed unigenes (DEGs) revealed that multiple metabolic pathway were enriched significantly, such as 'Starch and sucrose metabolism', 'Purine metabolism', 'Photosynthesis' and six transcription factors (MYB, WRKY, bHLH, lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD), homeodomain-zipper (HD-ZIP) and Ethylene-responsive factor (ERF)) play a key role in difference of transcriptome between T2 line and T2Plus line. These metabolic pathways and transcription factors may play an important role in the difference of medicinal components and epigenetic features between these two Pinellia cultivars. This conclusion provides a robust theoretical basis for the mechanism of the formation of medicinal ingredients in Pinellia cultivars.

2.
Bioengineered ; 11(1): 356-374, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149573

RESUMO

The study of metagenomics is an emerging field that identifies the total genetic materials in an organism along with the set of all genetic materials like deoxyribonucleic acid and ribose nucleic acid, which play a key role with the maintenance of cellular functions. The best part of this technology is that it gives more flexibility to environmental microbiologists to instantly pioneer the immense genetic variability of microbial communities. However, it is intensively complex to identify the suitable sequencing measures of any specific gene that can exclusively indicate the involvement of microbial metagenomes and be able to advance valuable results about these communities. This review provides an overview of the metagenomic advancement that has been advantageous for aggregation of more knowledge about specific genes, microbial communities and its metabolic pathways. More specific drawbacks of metagenomes technology mainly depend on sequence-based analysis. Therefore, this 'targeted based metagenomics' approach will give comprehensive knowledge about the ecological, evolutionary and functional sequence of significantly important genes that naturally exist in living beings either human, animal and microorganisms from distinctive ecosystems.

3.
Bioengineered ; 11(1): 386-396, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172675

RESUMO

Dendrobium cariniferum is a valuable ornamental and medicinal plant rich with polysaccharides, alkaloid, and other bioactive compounds, which are potential raw materials for pharmacological utilization. In this study, an efficient protocol for the rapid propagation of D. cariniferum was developed. By using the tissue culture protocol, the effects of pH, hormone combinations, temperatures, light intensity, culture time protocorm proliferation, seedlings rooting, and accumulation of biomass with bioactive compounds were investigated. The experiments showed that the medium [1/2 MS + activated carbon1.0 g/L+ agar strip 7.5 g/L + sucrose 25 g/L] effectively promoted the germination of D. cariniferum seeds. The optimal culture conditions were found at pH 5.7, temperature 23 ± 2°C, and light intensity of 1000 Lx in the protocorm proliferation stage. Adding 1.5 g/L peptone in the medium effectively promoted the seedling rooting. The optimal culture conditions for accumulation of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides and alkaloids) of seedlings were found at temperature of 25 ± 2°C, light intensity of 1500-2000 Lx after the 60-day (d). Our study constructed a rapid propagation system in vitro for D. cariniferum, as well as the methods for efficient accumulation of active substances in seedling culture, which will serve as guidance for industrial production of D. cariniferum seedlings for both medicinal raw materials and ornamental plants. In addition, our study provided a new idea that we can directly use the high bioactive compound seedlings to extract medicinal components in industry conditions without transferring to the field.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0220084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074105

RESUMO

Bletilla striata is an endangered traditional Chinese medicinal plant with multiple uses and a slow regeneration rate of its germplasm resources. To evaluate the callus growth kinetics and accumulation of secondary metabolites (SMs), a callus suspension culture was proven to be a valuable approach for acquiring high yields of medicinal compounds. An effective callus suspension culture for obtaining B. striata callus growth and its SMs was achieved with the in vitro induction of calluses from B. striata seeds. The callus growth kinetics and accumulation of SMs were analyzed using a mathematical model. The resulting callus growth kinetic model revealed that the growth curves of B. striata suspension-cultured calluses were sigmoidal, indicating changes in the growth of the suspension-cultured calluses. Improved Murashige and Skoog callus growth medium was the most favorable medium for B. striata callus formation, with the highest callus growth occurring during the stationary phase of the cultivation period. Callus growth acceleration started after 7 days and thereafter gradually decreased until day 24 of the cultivation period and reached its highest at day 36 period in both the dry weight and fresh weight analyses. The coelonin concentration peaked during the exponential growth stage and decreased afterward during the stationary stage of the callus suspension culture. The maximum content of coelonin (approximately 0.3323 mg/g callus dry weight) was observed on the 18th day of the cultivation cycle, while dactylorhin A and militarine reached the highest concentrations at day 24, and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol at day 39. This investigation also laid a foundation for a multimathematical model to better describe the accumulation variation of SMs. The production of SMs showed great specificity during callus growth and development. This research provided a well-organized way to increase the accumulation and production of SMs during the scaled-up biosynthesis of calluses in B. striata callus suspension cultures.

5.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122778, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983580

RESUMO

With the inevitable rise in human population, resource recovery from waste stream is becoming important for a sustainable economy, conservation of the ecosystem as well as for reducing the dependence on the finite natural resources. In this regard, a bio-based circular economy considers organic wastes and residues as potential resources that can be utilized to supply chemicals, nutrients, and fuels needed by mankind. This review explored the role of aerobic and anaerobic digestion technologies for the advancement of a bio-based circular society. The developed routes within the anaerobic digestion domain, such as the production of biogas and other high-value chemicals (volatile fatty acids) were discussed. The potential to recover important nutrients, such as nitrogen through composting, was also addressed. An emphasis was made on the innovative models for improved economics and process performance, which include co-digestion of various organic solid wastes, recovery of multiple bio-products, and integrated bioprocesses.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Resíduos Sólidos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Ecossistema
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906579

RESUMO

: Dendrobium are tropical orchid plants that host diverse endophytic fungi. The role of these fungi is not currently well understood in Dendrobium plants. We morphologically and molecularly identified these fungal endophytes, and created an efficient system for evaluating the pathogenicity and symptoms of endophytic fungi on Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium officinale though in vitro co-culturing. ReThe colony morphological traits of Dendrobium myco-endophytes (DMEs) were recorded for their identification. Molecular identification revealed the presence of Colletotrichum tropicicola, Fusarium keratoplasticum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The pathogenicity results revealed that T. longibrachiatum produced the least pathogenic effects against D. nobile protocorms. In seedlings, T. longibrachiatum showed the least pathogenic effects against D. officinale seedlings after seven days. C. tropicicola produced highly pathogenic effects against both Dendrobium seedlings. The results of histological examination of infected tissues revealed that F. keratoplasticum and T. longibrachiatum fulfill Koch's postulates for the existence of endophytes inside the living tissues. The DMEs are cross-transmitted inside the host plant cells, playing an important role in plant host development, resistance, and alkaloids stimulation.

7.
Bioresour Technol ; 299: 122555, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866141

RESUMO

Increasing food waste (FW) generation has put significant pressure on the environment and has increased the global financial costs of its appropriate management. Among the traditional organic waste recycling technologies (i.e., incineration, landfilling and anaerobic digestion), composting is an economically feasible and reliable technology for FW recycling regardless of its technical flaws and social issues. The global scenario of FW generation, technical advancement in FW composting and essential nutrient recovery from organic waste with waste recycling are discussed in this article. Recent research on various strategies to improve FW composting, including co-composting, the addition of organic/inorganic additives, the mitigation of gaseous emission, and microbiological variations are comprehensively explained. Subsequently, it is shown that the performing FW composting in an existing mechanical facility can improve organic waste degradation and produce value-added mature compost to save on costs and increase the technological feasibility and viability of FW composting to some extent.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Alimentos , Incineração , Reciclagem , Solo
8.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 659-667, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755373

RESUMO

As a kind of renewable resource and natural biomass, starch has been widely used to substitute plastics in the modern industry and is regarded as one of the most promising biodegradable materials. The newly developmental rattan, straw biomass rattan (SBR) as weaving material, has been exploited as per our previous work, which possessed advantages of both natural rattan and pure plastic rattan. The main objective of the work was to improve the properties of SBR by corn starch (CS). Based on the manufacturing of the above composites, the experiments of SBR that enhanced with CS on mechanical properties, melting performance, hydroscopicity, thermogravimetric analysis, and microstructures were tested in this study. The results revealed that when the content of CS increased gradually within the range of 0, 3, 6, 9 12, and 15 wt.%, the mechanical properties and melt index of the composite both increased first and then decreased, with 6 to 12 wt.% as the optimal dosage range. In contrast, the water absorption of SBR kept increased in this range, indicating an easier biodegradable. With CS added, the microstructure of SBR was examined by scanning electron microscope and found the microscopic surfaces and sections to become smoother, and that could improve the compatibility and tenacity between the materials. As a result, CS in moderation can be used as a supplement to enhance SBR, and improve their characteristics which will enhance the mechanical properties of the composites for future perspectives.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Teste de Materiais , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Resíduos , Molhabilidade
9.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 469-492, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656120

RESUMO

The bioengineering tools have significant advantages through less time-consuming and utilized as a promising stage for the production of pharmaceutical bioproducts under the single platform. This review highlighted the advantages and current improvement in the plant, animal and microbial bioengineering tools and outlines feasible approaches by biological and process's bioengineering levels for advancing the economic feasibility of pharmaceutical's production. The critical analysis results revealed that system biology and synthetic biology along with advanced bioengineering tools like transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and nano bioengineering tools have shown a promising impact on the development of pharmaceutical's bioproducts. Tools to overcome and resolve the accompanying encounters of pharmaceutical's production that include nano bioengineering tools are also discussed. As a summary and prospect, it also gives new insight into the challenges and possible breakthrough of the development of pharmaceutical's bioproducts through bioengineering tools.

10.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 409-424, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502497

RESUMO

There is increasing difficulty in identifying new plant leaf diseases as a result of environmental change. There is a need to identify the factors influencing the emergence and the increasing incidences of these diseases. Here, we present emerging fungal plant leaf diseases and describe their environmental speciation. We considered the factors controlling for local adaptation associated with environmental speciation. We determined that the advent of emergent fungal leaf diseases is closely connected to environmental speciation. Fungal pathogens targeting the leaves may adversely affect the entire plant body. To mitigate the injury caused by these pathogens, it is necessary to be able to detect and identify them early in the infection process. In this way, their distribution, virulence, incidence, and severity could be attenuated.


Assuntos
Fungos/classificação , Especiação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/classificação , Plantas/microbiologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Umidade , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Virulência
11.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 397-408, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526157

RESUMO

Nowadays, there is an increasing concern toward substituting the scarce wood fibers with alternative lignocellulosic fibers that originate from crop residue to reinforce biocomposites. In this paper, the potential application of coffee hull (CH) of the reinforced polyethylene (PE) matrix composites was studied for the first time. Experiments of composite that enhanced with CH on mechanical properties, hydroscopicity, thermogravimetric analysis, fiber treatment, and microstructures were tested in this study. The PE matrix was reinforced with varying volume fractions of CH and was studied. The results show that incorporation of coffee hull markedly improved the mechanical properties of the reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix composites. Micrographs show a strong interfacial adhesion between the CH fiber particles. This property may be the main reason for the stability between composites. At the same time this work investigated the effect of different treatments on the mechanical properties and water absorption behavior of composites. The fiber surface treatments were done using active chemicals such as calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), silane coupling agent (SCA), maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MA-g-PP), stearic acid (SA), ethylene bis stearamide (EBS) and the combination (MA-g-PP, SA, EBS). The results show that (Ca(OH)2)treatment is the best way to improve its properties. Probably because attributed to removal of surface active functional groups (-OH) from the CH fiber and induction of hydrophobicity that in turn improved the compatibility with the polymer matrix. As a result, the use of coffee hull in composites could have great significance for the industry.


Assuntos
Café/química , Manufaturas , Plásticos/síntese química , Polietileno/química , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Anidridos Maleicos/química , Teste de Materiais , Plásticos/química , Silanos/química , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Resistência à Tração , Resíduos , Molhabilidade
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121905, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387838

RESUMO

An extensive use of microbial dynamics for utilizing the lignocellulosic wastes has been attributed to their efficiency in bioenergy and bioproducts development as a cost effective high nutritional value. The integration of lignocellulosic waste into the circular economy can scaleup the sustainable bioproducts and bioenergy development. In this review paper, the aim is to describe the existing research efforts on organic lignocellulosic waste, cellulase producing microbes, their potential enzyme, modern circular economy with associated challenges and future perspectives. Presently, it has been reviewed that microbial cellulases have provided treasure bioproducts visions into industrial bioproducts marvels unveiled through lignocellulosic waste cutting-edge microbial explorations. Furthermore, the review focused on new insights of the growing circular economy of lignocellulosic waste used for many bioproducts and bioenergy dealings and explored the emergent lignocellulosic biorefinery approaches which could then be applied to review industrial-scale sustainable economic models for upgraded bioproducts and other production associated problems.


Assuntos
Celulase , Celulases , Lignina
13.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 353-364, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431119

RESUMO

Cinnabar is an attractive mineral with many different uses. It is reported that cinnabar is one of the traditional Chinese's medicines extensively use. The main objective of this critical review is to identify the current overview, concept and chemistry of cinnabar, which includes the process developments, challenges, and diverse options for pharmacology research. It is used as a medicine through probable toxicity, especially when taking overdoes. This review is the first to describe the toxicological effects of cinnabar and its associated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) dependent metabolomics could be useful for examination of the pharmaceutical consequence. The analysis indicated that the accurate preparation methods, appropriate doses, disease status, ages with drug combinations are significant factors for impacting the cinnabar toxicity. Toxicologically, synthetic mercury sulfide or cinnabar should be notable for mercuric chloride, mercury vapor and methyl mercury for future protection and need several prominent advancements in cinnabar research.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Mercúrio/uso terapêutico , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , História Antiga , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/isolamento & purificação , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/toxicidade , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Medicina Ayurvédica/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Compostos de Mercúrio/química , Compostos de Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Camundongos , Nootrópicos/química , Nootrópicos/isolamento & purificação , Nootrópicos/toxicidade , Agitação Psicomotora/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Testes de Toxicidade
14.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 316-334, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347943

RESUMO

In the development of medicinally important Orchidaceae, the extent of fungal endophytes specificity is not presently very clear. Limited study has been available on natural products formed and its role on plant growth, defence mechanism by endophytes, and to characterize the chief treasure of bioactive molecules. Therefore, this review article presents an evaluation of the endophytes associated with Orchidaceae for physiology, metabolism, and genomics which have prominently contributed to the resurgence of novel metabolite research increasing our considerate of multifaceted mechanisms regulatory appearance of biosynthetic gene groups encoding diverse metabolites. Additionally, we presented the comprehensive recent development of bio-strategies for the cultivation of endophytes from Orchidaceae and integration of bioengineered 'Genomics with metabolism' approaches with emphases collective omics as powerful approach to discover novel metabolite compounds. The Orchidaceae-fungal endophytes' biodynamics for sustainable development of bioproducts and its applications are supported in large-scale biosynthesis of industrially and pharmaceutical important biomolecules.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 237: 202-214, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807814

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scutellaria-coptis herb couple (SC) is one of the well-known herb couples in many traditional Chinese compound formulas used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM), which has been used to treat DM for thousands of years in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: Few studies have confirmed in detail the anti-diabetic activities of SC in vivo and in vitro. The present investigations aimed to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of SC in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice and in RAW264.7 macrophages to understand its possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) and LC-LTQ-Orbitrap Pro mass spectrometry were used to analyze the active ingredients of SC extracts and control the quality. A type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice model was established by high-fat diet. Body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, fasting blood insulin levels, glycosylated hemoglobin and glycosylated serum protein were measured. The effects of SC on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were examined. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured. Gut microbial communities were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods. The expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88 protein in the colons were measured by western blot. In RAW264.7 macrophages, IL-6, TNF-α, TLR4 and MyD88 protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits or western blot, and the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α and TLR4 was examined by the real time PCR. RESULTS: The present results showed that the SC significantly increased blood HDL and significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, fasting blood insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, glycosylated serum protein, TC, TG, LPS, IL-6 and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in type-2 diabetic KK-Ay mice. Furthermore, SC could regulate the structure of intestinal flora. Additionally, the expressions of TLR4 and MyD88 protein in the colons were significantly decreased in the model group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). However, SC had no significant effect on weight gain. In RAW264.7 macrophages, SC containing serum (SC-CS) (5%, 10% and 20%) significantly decreased IL-6, TNF-α, TLR4 and MyD88 protein levels and the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α and TLR4 (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The anti-diabetic effects of SC were attributed to its regulation of intestinal flora and anti-inflammation involving the TLR4 signaling pathway. These findings provide a new insight into the anti-diabetic application for SC in clinical settings and display the potential of SC in the treatment of DM.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Coptis , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Scutellaria , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/microbiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-6/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/fisiologia
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 251: 259-263, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287278

RESUMO

Methane (CH4) production and quality were enhanced by the co-digestion of cow dung and food waste (FW) mixed with organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) under optimized conditions in bench and semi continuous-scale mode for a period of 30 days. A bacterium capable of high yield of CH4 was enriched and isolated by employing activated sewage sludge as the inoculums. The thirteen bacterial isolates were identified through morphological and biochemical tests. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the chemical compositions of the generated biogas. CH4 yields were significantly higher during co-digestion of Run II (7.59 L) than Run I (3.7 L). Therefore, the co-digestion of FW with OFMSW and Run II was observed to be a competent method for biogas conversion from organic waste resources.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Metano , Anaerobiose , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos , Feminino , Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Esgotos , Resíduos Sólidos
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 251: 411-415, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268952

RESUMO

The study dealt with to identified and screened out potential cellulase producing fungal strains. All the indigenous fungal strains were developed on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) mandel media at 30 °C for 3-4 days to examine their congo red cellulase activity. It was found from the primary screening test result that only four isolates Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum were shown large zone formation that meant they have great potential cellulase activity. Among these, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger strains were showed highest enzymatic activity during the secondary screening, while Trichoderma viride generated the highest protein (89.51 µg/ml). Furthermore, these potential fungal strains will be useful for the organic municipal solid waste degradation.


Assuntos
Celulase , Fungos , Resíduos Sólidos , Aspergillus niger , Celulose , Fusarium , Trichoderma
18.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci ; 9(2): 99-105, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717332

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of Indian tropical disease such as kala-azar is likely to be troublesome to the clinicians as AmpB- and miltefosine-resistant Leishmania donovani has been reported. The rationale behind designed a novel inhibitors of model of L. donovani enolase and performing a binding study with its inhibitors to gain details of the interaction between protein residues and ligand molecules. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The L. donovani enolase model consists of two typical domains. The N-terminal one contains three-stranded antiparallel ß-sheets, followed by six α-helices. The C-terminal domain composes of eleven-stranded mixed α/ß-barrel with connectivity. The first α-helix within the C-terminal domain, H7, and the second ß-strand, S7, of the barrel domain was arranged in an antiparallel fashion compared to all other α-helices and ß-strands. The root-mean-square deviation between predicted model and template is 0.4 Å. The overall conformation of L. donovani enolase model is similar to those of Trypanosoma cruzi enolase and Streptococcus pneumoniae enolase crystal structures. RESULT: The key amino acid residues within the docking complex model involved in the interaction between model enolase structure and ligand molecule are Lys70, Asn165, Ala168, Asp17, and Asn213. CONCLUSION: Our theoretical prediction may lead to the establishment of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for the treatment of kala-azar. This biomedical informatics analysis will help us to combat future kala-azar.

19.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 5(3): 288-293, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27847012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection associated with pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease has been increasing globally. Despite an increase in incidence rate of NTM infection, its prevalence, species diversity, and circulation pattern in India is largely unknown. This study sought to investigate the overall burden and diversity of NTM among both pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical isolates from a Northern Indian population. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, from January 2013 to December 2015. A total of 4620 clinical samples were collected from patients suspected to have pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Preliminary diagnosis was performed using Ziehl-Neelsen staining followed by liquid culture in BacT/ALERT three-dimensional system. A total of 906 positive cultures obtained were differentiated as either NTM or Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using a biochemical and MPT64 antigen test. Further identification of NTM species was confirmed with a line probe assay. RESULTS: Out of 906 cultures isolates, 263 (29.0%) were confirmed as NTM and 643 (71.0%) were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. A total of 79.4% of the NTM were recovered from pulmonary and 18.2% from extrapulmonary specimens. The diversity of NTM species was high (13 species) and predominated by Mycobacterium abscessus (31.3%) followed by Mycobacterium fortuitum (22%), Mycobacterium intracellulare (13.6%), Mycobacterium chelonae (9.1%), however, M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were the predominant species in both types of clinical isolates. Men (60.4%) and older patients aged greater than 55years were the predominated risk group for NTM infection. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence and species diversity of NTM suggests the need for immediate and accurate characterization of NTM for proper treatment and management of patients.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/epidemiologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/classificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
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