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2.
Faraday Discuss ; 189: 547-66, 2016 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108651

RESUMO

Air quality models are used to simulate and forecast pollutant concentrations, from continental scales to regional and urban scales. These models usually assume that particles are internally mixed, i.e. particles of the same size have the same chemical composition, which may vary in space and time. Although this assumption may be realistic for continental-scale simulations, where particles originating from different sources have undergone sufficient mixing to achieve a common chemical composition for a given model grid cell and time, it may not be valid for urban-scale simulations, where particles from different sources interact on shorter time scales. To investigate the role of the mixing state assumption on the formation of particles, a size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM) was developed and coupled to the Polyphemus air quality platform. Two simulations, one with the internal mixing hypothesis and another with the external mixing hypothesis, have been carried out for the period 15 January to 11 February 2010, when the MEGAPOLI winter field measurement campaign took place in Paris. The simulated bulk concentrations of chemical species and the concentrations of individual particle classes are compared with the observations of Healy et al. (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2013, 13, 9479-9496) for the same period. The single particle diversity and the mixing-state index are computed based on the approach developed by Riemer et al. (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2013, 13, 11423-11439), and they are compared to the measurement-based analyses of Healy et al. (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2014, 14, 6289-6299). The average value of the single particle diversity, which represents the average number of species within each particle, is consistent between simulation and measurement (2.91 and 2.79 respectively). Furthermore, the average value of the mixing-state index is also well represented in the simulation (69% against 59% from the measurements). The spatial distribution of the mixing-state index shows that the particles are not mixed in urban areas, while they are well mixed in rural areas. This indicates that the assumption of internal mixing traditionally used in transport chemistry models is well suited to rural areas, but this assumption is less realistic for urban areas close to emission sources.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(2): 914-22, 2013 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23190252

RESUMO

A molecular surrogate representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is used to investigate the effect of aqueous-phase (in clouds and particles) chemical processing and wet deposition on SOA atmospheric concentrations. To that end, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic (H(2)O) model was augmented to account for several gas/aqueous-phase equilibria and aqueous-phase processes, including the formation of oxalic, glyoxilic and pyruvic acids, the oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR), the formation of tetrols and organosulfates from epoxydiols (IEPOX), and further oxidation of water-soluble SOA (aging). Among those processes, SOA chemical aging and IEPOX reactions led to the most significant increases (up to 1 µg m(-3) in some areas) in SOA concentrations in a one-month summer simulation over Europe. However, large uncertainties remain in the gas/aqueous-phase partitioning of oxalic acid, MVK, and MACR. Below-cloud scavenging of SOA precursor gases and of gas-phase SVOC was found to affect SOA concentrations by up to 20%, which suggests that it should be taken into account in air quality models.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Glioxilatos/química , Modelos Químicos , Ácido Oxálico/química , Ácido Pirúvico/química , Água/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Simulação por Computador , Gases/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Oxirredução , Material Particulado/química
4.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 61(11): 1218-26, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22168105

RESUMO

The effects of two gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanisms, Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism version 2 (RACM2) and Carbon-Bond 05 (CB05), and two secondary organic aerosol (SOA) modules, the Secondary Organic Aerosoi Model (SORGAM) and AER/EPRI/Caltech model (AEC), on fine (aerodynamic diameter < or =2.5 microm) particulate matter (PM2.5) formation is studied. The major sources of uncertainty in the chemistry of SOA formation are investigated. The use of all major SOA precursors and the treatment of SOA oligomerization are found to be the most important factors for SOA formation, leading to 66% and 60% more SOA, respectively. The explicit representation of high-NO, and low-NOx gas-phase chemical regimes is also important with increases in SOA of 30-120% depending on the approach used to implement the distinct SOA yields within the gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanism; further work is needed to develop gas-phase mechanisms that are fully compatible with SOA formation algorithms. The treatment of isoprene SOA as hydrophobic or hydrophilic leads to a significant difference, with more SOA being formed in the latter case. The activity coefficients may also be a major source of uncertainty, as they may differ significantly between atmospheric particles, which contain a myriad of SOA, primary organic aerosol (POA), and inorganic aerosol species, and particles formed in a smog chamber from a single precursor under dry conditions. Significant interactions exist between the uncertainties of the gas-phase chemistry and those of the SOA module.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Gases , Tamanho da Partícula
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