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1.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(5): 77, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501304

RESUMO

In older/unfit newly diagnosed patients with FLT3 mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), lower intensity chemotherapy (LIC) in combination with either a FLT3 inhibitor or with venetoclax results in poor overall survival (median 8 to 12.5 months). We performed a retrospective analysis of 87 newly diagnosed FLT3 mutated AML patients treated on triplet (LIC + FLT3 inhibitor + Venetoclax, [N = 27]) and doublet (LIC + FLT3 inhibitor, [N = 60]) regimens at our institution. Data were collected from prospective clinical trials in 75% (N = 65) and 25% (N = 22) who received the same treatment regimens outside of a clinical trial. Triplet therapy was associated with significantly higher rates of complete remission (CR) (67% versus 32%, P = 0.002), CR/CRi (93% versus 70%, P = 0.02), FLT3-PCR negativity (96% versus 54%, P < 0.01), and flow-cytometry negativity (83% versus 38%, P < 0.01) than doublets. At the end of the first cycle, the median time to ANC > 0.5 (40 versus 21 days, P = 0.15) and platelet > 50 K (29 versus 25 days, P = 0.6) among responders was numerically longer with triplets, but 60-day mortality was similar (7% v 10%). With a median follow-up of 24 months (median 12 months for triplet arm, and 63 months for doublet arm), patients receiving a triplet regimen had a longer median overall survival (not reached versus 9.5 months, P < 0.01). LIC combined with FLT3 inhibitor and venetoclax (triplet) may be an effective frontline regimen for older/unfit FLT3 mutated AML that should be further validated prospectively.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
2.
Adv Ther ; 39(6): 2984-2998, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503499

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To explore the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept (IVT-AFL) proactive, individualized treat-and-extend (T&E) regimens in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the subgroup of patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) enrolled in the ALTAIR study. METHODS: This was a PCV subgroup analysis of ALTAIR, a 96-week, randomized, open-label, phase 4 study in treatment-naïve patients with exudative AMD in Japan. Following three initial monthly doses, patients received IVT-AFL at week 16 and were randomized 1:1 to T&E regimens with either 2-week (IVT-AFL-2W) or 4-week (IVT-AFL-4W) adjustments. The primary endpoint of ALTAIR was the mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to week 52. Endpoints were assessed at weeks 52 and 96. Safety analyses were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients with PCV were included within the full analysis set. From baseline to week 52, mean [standard deviation (SD)] change in BCVA was + 7.5 (14.7) letters and + 8.2 (11.6) letters in the IVT-AFL-2W and IVT-AFL-4W groups, respectively. From baseline to week 96, 91.3% and 90.9% of patients maintained vision in the IVT-AFL-2W and IVT-AFL-4W groups, respectively. From baseline to week 52, mean (SD) change in central retinal thickness was - 153 (177) µm and -112 (122) µm in the IVT-AFL-2W and IVT-AFL-4W groups, respectively. Overall, 51.1% of patients (IVT-AFL-2W, 43.5%; IVT-AFL-4W, 59.1%) achieved a treatment interval of 16 weeks between weeks 16 and 96. The safety profile of IVT-AFL was consistent with previous studies. CONCLUSION: In treatment-naïve patients with PCV, IVT-AFL administered using two different T&E regimens improved and maintained functional and anatomic outcomes over 96 weeks while minimizing treatment burden. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02305238.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Doenças Vasculares , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Vasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Acuidade Visual
3.
Am J Hematol ; 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567779

RESUMO

Long-term follow up of prospective studies has shown that continuous Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi) therapy leads to durable remissions in previously untreated patients with TP53-altered chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, it is unknown how variant allele frequency (VAF) of TP53 mutation (TP53-m) or percentage of cells with deletion of chromosome 17p [del(17p)] influences efficacy of firstline BTKi. We performed a retrospective analysis of 130 patients with CLL with baseline del(17p) and/or TP53-m treated with BTKi with or without the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax (VEN) and with or without CD20 antibody in the firstline setting. A total of 104/131 (79%) patients had del(17p). TP53-m was noted in 89/110 (81%) patients tested; there were 101 unique TP53-m with an available VAF. The 4-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 72.9% and 83.6%. No baseline characteristics including IGHV mutation status and number of TP53 alterations were associated with significant differences in PFS or OS, though a trend towards shorter PFS with increasing karyotypic complexity (hazard ratio 1.08, p=0.066) was observed. Del(17p) was identified in <25% of cells in 26/104 (25%) of patients, and 28/101 (28%) of TP53-m were low-burden with a VAF of <10%; outcomes of these patients were similar to those with high-burden lesions. This study suggests that low-burden TP53 alterations should not be ignored when assessing genomic risk in CLL in the era of targeted therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504958

RESUMO

EZH2 coding mutation (EZH2MUT), resulting in loss-of-function, is an independent predictor of overall survival in MDS. EZH2 function can be altered by other mechanisms including copy number changes, and mutations in other genes and non-coding regions of EZH2. Assessment of EZH2 protein can identify alterations of EZH2 function missed by mutation assessment alone. Precise evaluation of EZH2 function and gene-protein correlation in clinical MDS cohorts is important in the context of upcoming targeted therapies aimed to restore EZH2 function. In this study, we evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics of newly diagnosed MDS patients with EZH2MUT and correlated the findings with protein expression using immunohistochemistry. There were 40 (~6%) EZH2MUT MDS [33 men, seven women; median age 74 years (range, 55-90)]. EZH2 mutations spanned the entire coding region. Majority had dominant EZH2 clone [median VAF, 30% (1-92)], frequently co-occurring with co-dominant TET2 (38%) and sub-clonal ASXL1 (55%) and RUNX1 (43%) mutations. EZH2MUT MDS showed frequent loss-of-expression compared to EZH2WT (69% vs. 27%, p = 0.001). Interestingly, NINE (23%) EZH2WT MDS also showed loss-of-expression. EZH2MUT and loss-of-expression significantly associated with male predominance and chr(7) loss. Further, only EZH2 loss-of-expression patients showed significantly lower platelet counts, a trend for higher BM blast% and R-IPSS scores. Over a 14-month median follow-up, both EZH2MUT (p = 0.027) and loss-of-expression (p = 0.0063) correlated with poor survival, independent of R-IPSS, age and gender. When analyzed together, loss-of-expression showed a stronger correlation than mutation (p = 0.061 vs. p = 0.43). In conclusion, immunohistochemical assessment of EZH2 protein, alongside mutation, is important for prognostic workup of MDS.

5.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(5): e350-e360, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax combined with intensive chemotherapy has been shown to be safe with promising activity in fit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy with intensive chemotherapy alone. METHODS: This was a post-hoc propensity score matched analysis of prospective clinical trials (NCT03214562, NCT02115295, and NCT01289457) in patients at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas, USA between March 29, 2010, and June 15, 2021. Eligible patients were aged 18 years and older, and had newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and were treated within trials incorporating purine analogues with an anthracycline and cytarabine either with venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy or with intensive chemotherapy alone. Patients in the venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy cohort were matched with patients in the intensive chemotherapy cohort. Morphological response and measurable residual disease (MRD) was assessed using bone marrow aspiration and biopsy and eight-colour multiparameter flow cytometry. The primary objectives were rate of MRD negative composite complete response and cumulative incidence of transition to allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). All patients who had response within two treatment cycles (induction and re-induction) were included in the analyses. Secondary objectives included assessment of event-free and overall survival. FINDINGS: The propensity matched cohort included 279 patients (median age 49 years [IQR 39-57]; 131 [47%] were men and 148 [53%] were women); 85 in the venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy cohort and 194 in the intensive chemotherapy cohort. After a median follow up of 30 months (95% CI 26-36), 64 (86%) of 74 patients in the venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy cohort had an MRD-negative composite complete response rate compared with 86 [61%] of 140 patients in the intensive chemotherapy cohort (odd ratio 3·2 [95% CI 1·5-6·7]; p=0·0028). The overall cumulative incidence of allogeneic HSCT in responding patients was higher with venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy than intensive chemotherapy (79% [95% CI 67-88] vs 57% [49-65]; hazard ratio [HR] 1·52 [95% CI 1·11-2·08]; p=0·012). Venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy improved event-free survival (median not reached [NR; 95% CI NR-NR] vs 14·3 months [10·7-33·5]; HR 0·57 [95% CI 0·34-0·95]; p=0·030), but overall survival did not significantly differ between the two cohorts (median NR [95% CI 24-NR] vs 32 months [19-NR]; HR 0·63 [95% CI 0·35-1·1], p=0·13). INTERPRETATIONS: Venetoclax combined with intensive induction chemotherapy induced deep MRD-negative remissions, allowing transition to allogeneic HSCT in first remission, and improvement in event-free survival. These results highlight the incremental benefit of venetoclax added to intensive induction chemotherapy across European LeukemiaNet risk groups, and serve as a benchmark to inform enrolment on future confirmatory prospective clinical trials. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Sulfonamidas
8.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442137

RESUMO

We conducted a phase Ib/II multi-arm, parallel cohort study to simultaneously evaluate various immunotherapeutic agents and combinations in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Overall, 50 patients were enrolled into one of 6 arms: (A) single agent PF-04518600 (OX40 agonist monoclonal antibody), (B) azacitidine + venetoclax + gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), (C) azacitidine + avelumab (anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody) + GO, (D) azacitidine + venetoclax + avelumab, (E) azacitidine + avelumab + PF-04518600, and (F) glasdegib + GO. Among all regimens evaluated, azacitidine + venetoclax + GO appeared most promising. In this arm, the CR/CRi rates among venetoclax-naïve and prior venetoclax-exposed patients were 50% and 22%, respectively, and the 1-year OS rate was 31%. This study shows the feasibility of a conducting a multi-arm trial to efficiently and simultaneously evaluate novel therapies in AML, a needed strategy in light of the plethora of emerging therapies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03390296.

9.
Am J Hematol ; 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413152

RESUMO

Newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia is often deemed a medical emergency, requiring urgent treatment. This is in contradiction with the need for accurate cytogenetic and molecular data, which is not immediately available, to select optimal therapy. We hypothesized that cytoreduction with hydroxyurea or cytarabine would enable urgent disease control and provide a bridge to clinical trial enrollment. We analyzed three prospective frontline clinical trials that allowed the use of cytoreduction before treatment initiation. Among 274 patients with a median age of 62 (range, 18-89), there was no significant difference in short- and long-term outcome and safety among patients who did (CytoRed) or did not receive (NoCytoRed) cytoreduction. The overall response rate in CytoRed group was 91%, compared with 86% in NoCytoRed group (p = .264). The 30- and 60-day mortality rates were 2% and 7% in CytoRed group, compared with 2% (p = .978) and 6% (p = .652) in NoCytoRed group, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) between in CytoRed group compared with NoCytoRed group (Hazard ratio 0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.37, p = .879). Results were unchanged after stratification by age (< or ≥65 years) or after multivariate analyses for OS. Our data suggests that urgent cytoreduction using hydroxyurea or cytarabine is a feasible and safe approach to facilitate acquisition of complete diagnostic information prior to treatment initiation on a clinical trial.

10.
Am J Hematol ; 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384048

RESUMO

Progress with intensive chemotherapy and supportive care measures has improved survival in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Predicting outcome helps in treatment decision making. We analyzed survival as the treatment endpoint in 3728 patients with newly diagnosed AML treated with intensive chemotherapy from 1980 to 2021. We divided the total study group (3:1 basis) into a training (n = 2790) and a validation group (n = 938). The associations between survival and 27 characteristics were investigated. In the training cohort, the multivariate analysis identified 12 consistent adverse prognostic variables independently associated with worse survival: older age, therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, worse performance status, cardiac comorbidity, leukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase, cytogenetic abnormalities, and the presence of infection at diagnosis except fever of unknown origin. We categorized patients into four prognostic groups, favorable (7%), intermediate (43%), poor (39%), and very poor (11%) with estimated 5-year survival rates of 69%, 36%, 13%, and 3% respectively (p < .001). The predictive model was validated in an independent cohort. In a subset of patients with molecular mutation profiles, adding the mutation profiles after accounting for the effects of previous factors identified NPM1 (favorable), PTPN11, and TP53 (both unfavorable) mutations as molecular prognostic factors. The new proposed predictive model for survival with intensive chemotherapy in patients with AML is robust and can be used to advise patients regarding their prognosis, to modify therapy in remission (e.g., proposing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in first remission), and to compare outcome and benefits on future investigational therapies.

13.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 129-133, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350259

RESUMO

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a risk of infection, such as by brain abscess associated with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. However, association between HHT and recurrent erysipelas is not well described. HHT can cause vessel malformations in organs, leading to various serious outcomes. Prophylactic treatment is effective, but many people with HHT are undiagnosed. HHT is not described as a risk factor for soft tissue infection, but may increase the risk of serious infections requiring hospitalization. Our 72-year-old female patient was admitted for recurrent erysipelas. Pulmonary nodules indicated pulmonary arteriovenous fistula on chest computed tomography. By recognizing this combination, although seemingly unrelated problems, we could diagnose HHT and the patient could receive adequate treatment to prevent life-threatening events. The recurrent erysipelas was likely associated with HHT. Recurrent erysipelas is an important presentation which may facilitate early diagnosis of HHT.

14.
Am J Hematol ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357036

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) discontinuation in patients with Philadelphia-chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph-positive CML) is increasingly considered. We aim to evaluate the outcome of patients with CML who discontinued TKIs, and determine the factors associated with differences in the success rates of treatment-free remission (TFR). Patients with Ph-positive CML treated between October 1999 and February 2017 who discontinued therapy were analyzed. A major molecular response (MMR) was defined as BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ratio on the International Scale ≤0.1%. TFR failure was defined as the loss of MMR on any single test. We analyzed TFR rates according to duration and depth of response, and conducted a multivariate analysis for factors associated with loss of MMR. Two-hundred and eighty-four patients were analyzed; 199 patients (70%) electively discontinued TKIs. At a median follow-up of 36 months (95% confidence interval, 32-40) after TKI discontinuation, 53 patients (19%) lost MMR. The estimated 5-year TFR rate was 79%. All but one patient regained MMR after resuming therapy. The estimated 5-year TFR rates were higher with MR4 and MR4.5 ≥5 years, compared with MR4 <5 years (87% vs. 92% vs. 64%; p < .0001). By multivariate analysis, only the duration of MR4 or MR4.5 ≥5 years before stopping treatment was associated with a lower risk of loss of MMR. In summary, TFR is safe and feasible in patients with Ph-positive CML on TKI therapy. Achieving MR4 or MR4.5 for at least 5 years is correlated with a better outcome.

15.
Leukemia ; 36(5): 1253-1260, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132195

RESUMO

Recurring genetic abnormalities have been identified in Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Among them, IKZF1 deletion was associated with poor prognosis in patients treated with imatinib-based or dasatinib-based regimens. However, the molecular determinants for clinical outcomes in ponatinib-treated patients remain unknown. We systematically analyzed genetic alterations in adults with Ph-positive ALL uniformly treated in clinical trials with dasatinib-based regimens or a ponatinib-based regimen and investigated the molecular determinants for treatment outcomes using pretreatment specimens collected from adults with Ph-positive ALL treated with Hyper-CVAD plus dasatinib or ponatinib. DNA sequencing and SNP microarray were performed and recurrent genetic abnormalities were found in 84% of the patients, among whom IKZF1 deletion was most frequently detected (60%). IKZF1 deletion frequently co-occurred with other copy-number abnormalities (IKZF1plus, 46%) and was significantly associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS) (false discovery rate < 0.1) and increased cumulative incidence of relapse (p = 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, dasatinib therapy, lack of achievement of 3-month complete molecular response, and the presence of IKZF1plus status were significantly associated with poor OS. The differential impact of IKZF1plus was largely restricted to patients given Hyper-CVAD plus ponatinib; dasatinib-based regimens had unfavorable outcomes regardless of the molecular abnormalities.


Assuntos
Cromossomo Filadélfia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona , Humanos , Imidazóis , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Piridazinas , Recidiva
16.
Cancer ; 128(8): 1658-1665, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of myelofibrosis (MF) has changed over the last several years and could have an impact on patient outcome. This study evaluates the survival of patients with MF at the authors' institution to determine whether it changed in the last decade. METHODS: This retrospective study consists of 844 patients (64% male; median age, 66 years; range, 20-90 years) who were examined between 2000 and 2020 with a new diagnosis of MF. Only patients with available marrow biopsy who had reticulin fibrosis of grade 2 or higher were included. Patients were compared by year of presentation: 2000-2010 (n = 373) and 2011-2020 (n = 471). RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement in median survival in the last decade was noted: from 48 months (95% CI, 42-54 months) to 63 months (95% CI, 55-71 months) (P < .001; HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.95]). Improved survival was observed also in patients 65 years old or older and those having intermediate 2 or high-risk Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) or DIPSS-Plus risk scores. Among 532 patients treated with MF-directed therapy, patients exposed to JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib had superior outcomes with median overall survival of 84 months (95% CI, 70-94 months). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that survival of patients with MF has improved in the last decade. This improvement is likely due to increased disease awareness, advances in supportive care, and the development of effective treatments.


Assuntos
Mielofibrose Primária , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas , Mielofibrose Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Hematol ; 97(3): 329-337, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981570

RESUMO

Mutations in fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene are common genomic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3-ITD) have consistently been shown to be adversely prognostic, particularly those with high allelic ratio (AR). Current AML treatment strategies, including high dose cytarabine, purine analogs, FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i), and with or without allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) have been shown to improve the outcomes in patients with FLT3 mutations. We analyzed a consecutive cohort of newly diagnosed patients with AML treated at a large academic medical center from January 2012 to January 2020. A total of 1576 patients with a new diagnosis of AML were reviewed. Among these, 1438 (91%) had molecular testing for FLT3 mutations and 21% (304/1438) had an FLT3 mutation, including 17% with an FLT3-ITD mutation. We show that FLT3-ITD high AR with NPM1 wild-type have significantly improved survival compared with other European LeukemiaNet (ELN) adverse risk disease. In multivariable cox proportional hazards model of patients receiving intensive or low-intensity induction regimens, FLT3 mutations did not have prognostic significance. The use of allogeneic SCT in CR1 for patients with FLT3 mutations appears to improve survival, particularly in those with ELN adverse risk disease. Overall, this data highlights the changing prognostic impact of FLT3 mutations in a contemporary era with appropriate use of induction therapy combined with targeted agents and allogenic SCT.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Medição de Risco , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/enzimologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Mutação , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(1): 5, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017466

RESUMO

Treatment with Menin inhibitor (MI) disrupts the interaction between Menin and MLL1 or MLL1-fusion protein (FP), inhibits HOXA9/MEIS1, induces differentiation and loss of survival of AML harboring MLL1 re-arrangement (r) and FP, or expressing mutant (mt)-NPM1. Following MI treatment, although clinical responses are common, the majority of patients with AML with MLL1-r or mt-NPM1 succumb to their disease. Pre-clinical studies presented here demonstrate that genetic knockout or degradation of Menin or treatment with the MI SNDX-50469 reduces MLL1/MLL1-FP targets, associated with MI-induced differentiation and loss of viability. MI treatment also attenuates BCL2 and CDK6 levels. Co-treatment with SNDX-50469 and BCL2 inhibitor (venetoclax), or CDK6 inhibitor (abemaciclib) induces synergistic lethality in cell lines and patient-derived AML cells harboring MLL1-r or mtNPM1. Combined therapy with SNDX-5613 and venetoclax exerts superior in vivo efficacy in a cell line or PD AML cell xenografts harboring MLL1-r or mt-NPM1. Synergy with the MI-based combinations is preserved against MLL1-r AML cells expressing FLT3 mutation, also CRISPR-edited to introduce mtTP53. These findings highlight the promise of clinically testing these MI-based combinations against AML harboring MLL1-r or mtNPM1.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rearranjo Gênico/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
19.
Blood Adv ; 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061885

RESUMO

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a clinically aggressive blood cancer, often involving skin, bone marrow, lymph nodes, as well as central nervous system (CNS) involvement in 20-30% of patients. Despite significant progress in CD123- and BCL-2-targeted therapy, most patients are not cured outside of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and CNS relapses are being observed quite frequently. Combination approaches with both targeted and chemotherapy agents plus incorporation of prophylactic CNS-directed therapy are urgently needed. In this setting, we sought to analyze outcomes of the cytotoxic chemotherapy backbone regimen hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, and dexamethasone (HCVAD) in BPDCN. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with BPDCN (n=100), evaluating complete remission (CR) and median overall survival (OS) among three groups: those who received frontline HCVAD-based (n=35) vs SL-401 (n=37) vs other regimens (n=28). HCVAD-based regimens yielded higher CR (80% vs 59% vs 43%, p=0.01). There was no significant difference in OS (28.3 vs 13.7 vs 22.8 months p=0.41), nor significant difference in remission duration probability among treatment groups (38.6 vs NR vs 10.2 months; p=0.24). HSCT was performed in 51% vs 49% vs 38% respectively (p=0.455). These results suggest a continued important role for HCVAD-based chemotherapy for BPDCN, even in the modern targeted-therapy era, with high CR rates in the frontline setting. Further studies must establish the clinical activity, feasibility, and safety, of doublet/triplet combinations of targeted therapies plus cytotoxic agents and addition of CNS prophylaxis, with ultimate goal of durable long-term remissions for patients with BPDCN.

20.
Am J Hematol ; 97(1): 68-78, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716921

RESUMO

The progress with intensive chemotherapy and supportive care measures has improved survival in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Given the recent development of effective low intensity therapies, an optimal decision on the therapy intensity may improve survival through the avoidance of early mortality. We reviewed the outcome of 3728 patients with newly diagnosed AML who received intensive chemotherapy between August 1980 and May 2020. Intensive chemotherapy was defined as a cumulative cytarabine dose ≥ 700 mg/m2 during induction therapy. We divided the whole cohort into a training and validation group at a 3:1 ratio. The population was divided into a training (2790 patients) and a validation cohort (938 patients). The median age was 55 years (range, 15-99). Among them, 442 patients (12%) had core-binding factor AML. Binary logistic regression identified older age, worse performance status, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, hyperuricemia, cytogenetic abnormalities other than CBF and -Y, and pneumonia as adverse prognostic factors for an early 4-week mortality. This risk classification for early mortality was verified in the validation cohort of patients. In the validation cohort of more recently treated patients from 2000 to 2017, the 4-week mortality rates with intensive chemotherapy were 2%, 14%, and 50% in the low-, high-, and very high-risk group, respectively. The mortality rates with low intensity therapies were 3%, 9%, and 20%, respectively. The risk classification guides treatment intensity by the assessment of age, frailty, organ dysfunction, cytogenetic abnormality, and infection to avoid early mortality.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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