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1.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of interfractional variation, such as anatomical changes and setup errors, on dose delivery during treatment for prostate cancer (PC) and head and neck cancer (HNC) by courses of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) aided by on-treatment electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images. METHODS: Seven patients with PC and 20 patients with HNC who had received VMAT participated in this study. After obtaining photon fluence at the position of the EPID for each treatment arc from on-treatment integrated EPID images, we calculated the differences between the fluence for the first fraction and each subsequent fraction for each arc. The passing rates were investigated based on a tolerance level of 3% of the maximum fluence during the treatment courses and the correlations between the passing rates and anatomical changes. RESULTS: In PC, the median and lowest passing rates were 99.8% and 95.2%, respectively. No correlations between passing rates and interfractional variation were found. In HNC, the median passing rate of all fractions was 93.0%, and the lowest passing rate was 79.6% during the 35th fraction. Spearman's correlation coefficients between the passing rates and changes in weight or neck volume were - 0.77 and - 0.74, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of the on-treatment EPID images facilitates estimates of the interfractional anatomical variation in HNC patients during VMAT and thus improves assessments of the need for re-planning or adaptive strategies and the timing thereof.

2.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 28(4): 389-395, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevalence of clarithromycin resistant bacteria is increasing, and the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) triple therapy is gradually decreasing in Japan. Vonoprazan, a potassiumcompetitive acid blocker, has been reported for its effectiveness in eradicating H. pylori. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tailored vonoprazan-based triple therapy in patients with H. pylori. This study is the first to compare the efficacy of vonoprazan-based tailored triple therapy to that of vonoprazan-based conventional therapy. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the treatment efficacy in 920 patients. Of these, 541 received conventional and 379 received tailored therapy. Successful eradication was confirmed by a negative 13C-urea breath test 6-8 weeks following completion of H. pylori eradication therapy, and the data were evaluated using the Chi-square test, or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. RESULTS: The eradication rate of tailored therapy was 90% and 96.3% by intent-to-treat analysis and per protocol analysis, respectively, which was significantly higher than the 85% and 90.2% found for conventional therapy (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Amoxicillin- or clarithromycin-resistant bacteria did not affect treatment outcomes. By univariate and multivariate analysis, both amoxicillin- and clarithromycin-resistant bacteria and conventional therapy were detected as risk factors for eradication failure (odds ratio = 6.267, 95% CI [1.056-119.924], p < 0.05, and odd ratio =3.113, 95% confidence interval [1.688-6.160], p < 0.001, by multivariate analysis). CONCLUSION: Vonoprazan-based triple therapy could be a more effective treatment for H. pylori infection than conventional therapy when combined with a therapy regimen tailored according to bacterial antibiotic susceptibility.

3.
Intern Med ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708550

RESUMO

We experienced marked efficacy with steroid treatment of three patients with jackhammer esophagus (JHE). An esophageal biopsy revealed eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in two patients. One of the patients without EoE had eosinophilia and an increased serum immunoglobulin E level, and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed thickening of the esophageal muscularis propria. Esophageal manometry was used to diagnose all cases of JHE. Treatment consisted of steroid administration, which improved the symptoms and resolved the esophageal muscularis propria thickening in all patients. The esophageal manometry findings also normalized following treatment. Allergic diseases, including EoE, were assumed to have caused JHE.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752356

RESUMO

Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a well-known complication in patients with hematological malignancies during or after cytotoxic chemotherapy. If the initiation of antiviral therapy is delayed in patients with HBV reactivation, these patients can develop severe hepatitis and may die of fulminant hepatitis. The preventive strategy for HBV reactivation in patients with malignant lymphoma has already been established based on some prospective studies. As there was an increased number of novel agents being approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), the number of reported cases of HBV reactivation among MM patients has gradually increased. We conducted a Japanese nationwide retrospective study and revealed that HBV reactivation in MM patients is not rare and that autologous stem cell transplantation is a significant risk factor. In this study, around 20% of all patients with HBV reactivation developed HBV reactivation after 2 years from the initiation of therapy, unlike malignant lymphoma. This might be due to the fact that almost all of the patients received chemotherapy for a long duration. Therefore, a new strategy for the prevention of HBV reactivation in MM patients is required.

5.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683849

RESUMO

To better understand the risk factors and optimal therapeutic strategies of cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH), we examined a large population of adults with and without various vascular risk factors (VRFs) or vascular risk conditions (VRCs), such as hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and dyslipidemia (DLP), including the comorbidities. We assessed two participant groups having no medical history of stroke or dementia that underwent brain checkup using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): 5541 participants (2760 men, 2781 women) without VRCs and 1969 participants (1169 men, 800 women) who had received drug treatments for VRCs and the combination of comorbidities. For data analysis, we constructed WMH-brain healthcare quotient (WMH-BHQ) based on the percentile rank of WMH volume. This metric has an inverse relation to WMH. Multiple linear regression analysis of 5541 participants without VRCs revealed that age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), Brinkman index (BI), and female sex were significant factors lowering WMH-BHQ, whereas body mass index (BMI), male sex, fasting blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were increasing factors. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn tests showed that WMH-BHQs significantly increased or decreased with BMI or SBP and with BI classification, respectively. Regarding the impact of impaired fasting glucose and abnormal lipid metabolism, there were almost no significant relationships. For 1969 participants who had HT, DM, and DLP, as well as their comorbidities, we found that DLP played a substantial role in increasing WMH-BHQ for some comorbidities, whereas the presence of HT and DM alone tended to decrease it. Cerebral WMH can be used as a healthcare quotient for quantitatively evaluating VRFs and VRCs and their comorbidities.

6.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e13749, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) are gastrointestinal disorders that often overlap. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, the effects of adding acotiamide to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) were investigated in FD patients with heartburn who failed PPI treatment, corresponding to PPI-resistant NERD. METHODS: The subjects included 16 FD patients with heartburn who failed PPI treatment, and they were administered acotiamide or a placebo for 28 days. After suspending medication for 28 days, the trial drug and placebo were crossed over and administered for 28 days. Before the study began and after each administration period, high-resolution impedance manometry (HRiM) was performed, and the modified frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG) questionnaire was administered. KEY RESULTS: Postprandial fullness in the FD assessment and all modified FSSG items were significantly lower in the acotiamide group than in the placebo group. Esophagogastric junction pressure was significantly higher in the acotiamide group. The distal contractile integral (DCI) pressure and the highest DCI pressure both increased significantly in the acotiamide group. Moreover, in the acotiamide group, the frequency of abnormal primary peristalsis decreased to normal levels; complete bolus transit (CBT), an indicator of esophageal clearance, increased; and CBT time decreased. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Acotiamide was considered to improve upper gastrointestinal functions not only in the stomach but also in the esophagus. Adding acotiamide to PPI therapy appears to improve upper abdominal symptoms in FD patients with heartburn who failed PPI treatment.

7.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 13(3): 418-422, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616236

RESUMO

Hemangiomas are common benign tumors that usually occur on the head and neck in children. However, colonic hemangiomas are rare in clinical practice. Approximately 80% of colonic hemangiomas are of the cavernous type, and morphologically, ≥80% of colonic hemangiomas are sessile and semi-pedunculated. Notably, pedunculated colonic hemangiomas are rare. A 69-year-old woman presented with hematochezia and underwent colonoscopy, which revealed a soft pedunculated submucosal tumor (SMT) measuring 1.5 cm in diameter, in the sigmoid colon. The surface of the SMT resembled the surrounding normal colonic mucosa with regard to color and appearance, with multiple red patches. Narrow-band imaging revealed a few telangiectasias on the surface of the SMT. The lesion could not be definitively diagnosed based on endoscopic findings. Therefore, for more accurate diagnosis, the SMT was removed by snare polypectomy with electrocautery after clipping the basal portion of the tumor stalk for prophylactic hemostasis. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed a cavernous hemangioma with a negative resection margin. We report a case of a pedunculated cavernous hemangioma of the sigmoid colon removed by snare polypectomy with electrocautery after clipping the basal portion of the tumor stalk for prophylactic hemostasis.

8.
JOR Spine ; 2(3): e1064, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572981

RESUMO

Reports on spinal-implant metallic artifacts in 7-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are lacking. Thus, we investigated the magnitude of metal artifacts derived from spinal implants in 7-T MRI and analyzed the differences obtained with spinal rods manufactured from pure titanium, titanium alloy, and cobalt-chrome (5.5-mm and 6.0-mm diameters and 50-mm length). Following the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines, we measured the artifact size and artifact volume ratio of each rod during image acquisition using 7-T MRI scanners with three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted and 3D T2* spoiled gradient echo (GRE), 3D T2-weighted fast spin echo, zero echo time (ZTE), and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences. Pure titanium and titanium alloy rods yielded significantly smaller artifacts than did cobalt-chrome rods, with no significant difference between pure titanium and titanium alloy rods. The artifact sizes of the 5.5-mm and 6.0-mm diameter rods were similar. The artifact magnitude increased in the following sequence order: ZTE, 3D T2 fast spin echo, 3D T1 spoiled GRE, 3D T2* spoiled GRE, and diffusion-weighted imaging. Artifacts obtained using the spin echo method were smaller than those obtained with the GRE method. Because the echo time in ZTE is extremely short, the occurrence of artifacts because of image distortion and signal loss caused by differences in magnetic susceptibility is minimal, resulting in the smallest artifacts. ZTE can be a clinically useful method for the postoperative evaluation of patients after instrumentation surgery, even with 7-T MRI.

9.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019874732, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although patients with improved cognition after carotid endarterectomy usually exhibit postoperative restoration of cerebral blood flow, less than half of patients with such cerebral blood flow change have postoperatively improved cognition. Cerebral small vessel disease on magnetic resonance imaging is associated with irreversible cognitive impairment. AIMS: The purpose of the present prospective study was to determine whether pre-existing cerebral small vessel disease affects cognitive improvement after carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: Brain MR imaging was performed preoperatively, and the number or grade of each cerebral small vessel disease was determined in 80 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy for ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥70%). The volume of white matter hyperintensities relative to the intracranial volume was also calculated. Brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography and neuropsychological testing were performed preoperatively and two months postoperatively. Based on these data, a postoperative increase in cerebral blood flow and postoperative improved cognition, respectively, were determined. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis using the sequential backward elimination approach revealed that a postoperative increase in cerebral blood flow (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.74-3730.00; P = 0.0004) and the relative volume of white matter hyperintensities (95% CI, 0.01-0.63; P = 0.0314) were significantly associated with postoperative improved cognition. Although eight of nine patients with postoperative improved cognition exhibited both a relative volume of white matter hyperintensities <0.65% and a postoperative increase in cerebral blood flow, none of patients with a relative volume of white matter hyperintensities ≥0.65% had postoperative improved cognition regardless of any postoperative change in cerebral blood flow. CONCLUSION: Pre-existing cerebral white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging adversely affect cognitive improvement after carotid endarterectomy.

10.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535284

RESUMO

Duodenal gangliocytic paragangliomas are extremely rare. A 79-year-old woman underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy for screening prior to resection of gallbladder carcinoma. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 5-mm submucosal tumor in the second portion of the duodenum. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed no tumor or metastasis. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed low echo pattern of the tumor. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen revealed proliferation of three types of cells (epithelioid cells, spindle cells, and ganglion cells). Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the tumor was positive for S-100 and synaptophysin. The preoperative diagnosis was gangliocytic paraganglioma. The tumor was completely resected by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). In conclusion, an early stage of gangliocytic paraganglioma of the duodenum could be resected using EMR.

11.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 20(10): 118-126, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of different beam starting phases on dosimetric variations in the clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs), and to identify the relationship between plan complexity and the dosimetric impact of interplay effects in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Single and double full-arc VMAT plans were generated for 11 patients. A dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions was prescribed to cover 50% of the planning target volume. Patient-specific Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine-Radiation Therapy plan files were divided into 10 files based on the respiratory phases in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulations. The phase-divided VMAT plans were calculated in consideration of the beam starting phase for each arc and were then combined in the mid-ventilation phase of 4DCT (4D plans). The dose-volumetric parameters were compared with the calculated dose distributions without consideration of the interplay effects (3D plans). Additionally, relationships among plan parameters such as modulation complexity scores, monitor units (MUs), and dose-volumetric parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Dosimetric differences in the median values associated with different beam starting phases were within ± 1.0% and ± 0.2% for the CTV and ± 0.5% and ± 0.9% for the OARs during single and double full-arc VMAT, respectively. Significant differences caused by variations in the beam starting phases were observed only for the dose-volumetric parameters of the CTV during single full-arc VMAT (P < 0.05), associated with moderate or strong correlations between the MUs and the dosimetric differences between the 4D and 3D plans. CONCLUSIONS: The beam starting phase affected CTV dosimetric variations of single full-arc VMAT. The use of double full-arc VMAT mitigated this problem. However, variation in the dose delivered to OARs was not dependent on the beam starting phase, even for single full-arc VMAT.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4422, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562322

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~170 genetic loci associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but most of them were identified in European populations. We here performed a GWAS and replication study using a large Japanese cohort (9,906 cases and 83,943 male controls) to identify novel susceptibility loci associated with PCa risk. We found 12 novel loci for PCa including rs1125927 (TMEM17, P = 3.95 × 10-16), rs73862213 (GATA2, P = 5.87 × 10-23), rs77911174 (ZMIZ1, P = 5.28 × 10-20), and rs138708 (SUN2, P = 1.13 × 10-15), seven of which had crucially low minor allele frequency in European population. Furthermore, we stratified the polygenic risk for Japanese PCa patients by using 82 SNPs, which were significantly associated with Japanese PCa risk in our study, and found that early onset cases and cases with family history of PCa were enriched in the genetically high-risk population. Our study provides important insight into genetic mechanisms of PCa and facilitates PCa risk stratification in Japanese population.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4393, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562340

RESUMO

Human height is a representative phenotype to elucidate genetic architecture. However, the majority of large studies have been performed in European population. To investigate the rare and low-frequency variants associated with height, we construct a reference panel (N = 3,541) for genotype imputation by integrating the whole-genome sequence data from 1,037 Japanese with that of the 1000 Genomes Project, and perform a genome-wide association study in 191,787 Japanese. We report 573 height-associated variants, including 22 rare and 42 low-frequency variants. These 64 variants explain 1.7% of the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, a gene-based analysis identifies two genes with multiple height-increasing rare and low-frequency nonsynonymous variants (SLC27A3 and CYP26B1; PSKAT-O < 2.5 × 10-6). Our analysis shows a general tendency of the effect sizes of rare variants towards increasing height, which is contrary to findings among Europeans, suggesting that height-associated rare variants are under different selection pressure in Japanese and European populations.

14.
Circ J ; 83(11): 2292-2302, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop quality indicators (QIs) related to primary and comprehensive stroke care and examine the feasibility of their measurement using the existing Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) database. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review of domestic and international studies using the modified Delphi method. Feasibility of measuring the QI adherence rates was examined using a DPC-based nationwide stroke database (396,350 patients admitted during 2013-2015 to 558 hospitals participating in the J-ASPECT study). Associations between adherence rates of these QIs and hospital characteristics were analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression analysis. We developed 17 and 12 measures as QIs for primary and comprehensive stroke care, respectively. We found that measurement of the adherence rates of the developed QIs using the existing DPC database was feasible for the 6 QIs (primary stroke care: early and discharge antithrombotic drugs, mean 54.6% and 58.7%; discharge anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, 64.4%; discharge antihypertensive agents, 51.7%; comprehensive stroke care: fasudil hydrochloride or ozagrel sodium for vasospasm prevention, 86.9%; death complications of diagnostic neuroangiography, 0.4%). We found wide inter-hospital variation in QI adherence rates based on hospital characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: We developed QIs for primary and comprehensive stroke care. The DPC database may allow efficient data collection at low cost and decreased burden to evaluate the developed QIs.

15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(11): 104339, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infarcts in the lateral striate artery (LSA) territory can be caused by several pathological changes, including lipohyalinosis and microatheroma. However, fluid dynamic effects on these changes remain unknown. Thus, we investigated whether the fluid dynamic metrics of the LSAs were altered in patients with acute ischemic stroke using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with acute ischemic stroke confined in the basal ganglia and/or corona radiata underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography (HR-MRA) at 7T. We performed CFD analyses to obtain indices including the wall shear stress (WSS), WSS gradient (WSSG), and flow velocity (FV) and compared these values between the ipsilesional and contralesional sides in the patients with infarcts in the LSA or non-LSA territories. RESULTS: In patients with LSA-territory infarcts, the WSS, WSSG, and FV values were significantly lower in the ipsilesional LSAs than in the contralesional LSAs (P = .01-.03), while these values in the proximal middle cerebral arteries showed no significant lateralities. In contrast, in patients with non-LSA-territory infarcts, there were no significant lateralities in the metrics between the ipsilesional and contralesional sides. CONCLUSIONS: The CFD analyses using HR-MRA revealed significantly low WSS and WSSG values of the ipsilesional LSAs compared with that of the contralesional side in patients with LSA-territory infarcts, suggesting that fluid dynamic factors of LSAs can be one of the risk factors for LSA-territory infarctions.

16.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456172

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for pulmonary vein isolation is a well-established therapeutic modality for AF. Transient gastroparesis rarely complicates RFCA. We report two cases of RFCA-induced transient gastroparesis, effectively treated with mosapride citrate administration. Case 1. Computed tomography (CT) performed 4 days after RFCA revealed marked gastric dilatation without any gastric or intestinal obstruction. The patient was fasting and was administered mosapride citrate (5 mg thrice a day). The patient's symptoms improved 6 days later, and CT revealed no gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric peristalsis without residual food in the stomach. Case 2. CT performed 8 days after RFCA revealed marked gastric dilatation without any gastric or intestinal obstruction. The patient was fasting and was administered pantothenic acid (500 mg/day intravenously for 7 days). However, symptoms persisted, and CT revealed residual food in the stomach. The patient was subsequently administered mosapride citrate (5 mg thrice a day). The patient's symptoms improved 4 days later, and contrast-enhanced gastric X-ray using amidotrizoate meglumine revealed gastric peristalsis, passage of amidotrizoate meglumine into the duodenum, and no gastric dilatation. Mosapride citrate is useful to treat RFCA-induced gastroparesis.

17.
J Gastroenterol ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, the prevalence of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and functional constipation (FC) diagnosed by the Rome III criteria is unclear, as are the demographic profile, quality of life (QOL), and habits of persons with IBS-C or FC. METHODS: We performed an internet survey of constipation. After extracting 3000 persons fitting the composition of the general Japanese population, we investigated demographic factors, lifestyle, defecation, and laxatives. IBS-C and FC were diagnosed by Rome III criteria. Respondents also completed the Japanese IBS severity index (IBS-SI-J), Japanese IBS QOL scale (IBS-QOL-J), SF-8, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Japanese Health Practice Index (JHPI). RESULTS: There were 262 respondents with FC (8.73%) [73 men and 189 women; mean age: 49.8 ± 13.1 years; mean body mass index (BMI): 21.0 ± 3.3 g/m2] and 149 respondents with IBS-C (4.97%) (76 men and 73 women; mean age; 41.6 ± 13.7 years; mean BMI: 20.8 ± 3.0 kg/m2). Total IBS-QOL-J score were significantly lower in the IBS-C group than the FC group. With regard to SF-8, score of mental component summary (MCS) was significantly lower in the IBS-C group. The total IBS-SI-J score and item scores, except for satisfactory defecation, were significantly higher in the IBS-C group than the FC group. HADS showed a significant increase of anxiety and depression in both the groups, and the JHPI revealed insufficient sleep. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, among the population of under 70 years old, the prevalence of IBS-C and FC (Rome III criteria) was 4.97% and 8.76%, respectively. IBS-C caused more severe symptoms than FC, resulting in impairment of QOL.

19.
Digestion ; : 1-11, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Constipation is a common symptom that impairs the quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between bowel movement and gut microbiota and dietary intake. METHODS: To investigate correlations among bowel movement, food intake, and gut environment, 60 healthy Japanese participants were recruited. Bowel movement was assessed using the Bristol stool form scale (BSFS) and constipation scoring system (CSS). Dietary habit was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire wherein the food intake frequency was classified into 8 categories for 72 food/food groups. Gut microbiota was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: The constipation rate was significantly higher in females than in males. The QOL was significantly impaired in the constipated group. The fecal count of Bacteroides was decreased and that of Clostridium cluster IV was increased in participants with constipation. The BSFS score was negatively associated with the fecal count of Clostridium cluster XI and positively associated with the fecal count of Clostridium cluster XVIII and consumption of green tea. The total CSS score was positively associated with the fecal Prevotella count and negatively associated with fecal acetate levels and consumption of vegetables. Discriminant analysis estimated that constipation could be predicted correctly in 83% (p < 0.001) of the participants based on fecal microbiota and fecal short-chain fatty acids. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Bowel movement was strongly affected by gut environment and food intake in Japanese participants. Improvement in dietary habits could promote bowel movement through the improvement of the environment in the gut, resulting in ameliorated QOL issues in healthy adults.

20.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385421

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of respiratory motion, including unwanted breath holding, on the target volume and centroid position on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) imaging. Cine 4DCT images were reconstructed based on a time-based sorting algorithm, and helical 4DCT images were reconstructed based on both the time-based sorting algorithm and an amplitude-based sorting algorithm. A spherical object 20 mm in diameter was moved according to several simulated respiratory motions, with a motion period of 4.0 s and maximum amplitude of 5 mm. The object was extracted automatically, and the target volume and centroid position in the craniocaudal direction were measured using a treatment planning system. When the respiratory motion included unwanted breath-holding times shorter than the breathing cycle, the root mean square errors (RSME) between the reference and imaged target volumes were 18.8%, 14.0%, and 5.5% in time-based images in cine mode, time-based images in helical mode, and amplitude-based images in helical mode, respectively. In helical mode, the RSME between the reference and imaged centroid position was reduced from 1.42 to 0.50 mm by changing the reconstruction method from time- to amplitude-based sorting. When the respiratory motion included unwanted breath-holding times equal to the breathing cycle, the RSME between the reference and imaged target volumes were 19.1%, 24.3%, and 15.6% in time-based images in cine mode, time-based images in helical mode, and amplitude-based images in helical mode, respectively. In helical mode, the RSME between the reference and imaged centroid position was reduced from 1.61 to 0.83 mm by changing the reconstruction method from time- to amplitude-based sorting. With respiratory motion including breath holding of shorter duration than the breathing cycle, the accuracies of the target volume and centroid position were improved by amplitude-based sorting, particularly in helical 4DCT.

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