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1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578884

RESUMO

This study investigated the association of hours of paid work with dietary intake and diet quality among Japanese married women. This cross-sectional study was a secondary analysis of a nationwide population survey in 2013. The analytic sample included 644 married women aged 20-59 years. The participants were categorized into five groups according to hours of paid work per week: 0 (housewives), 1-14, 15-34, 35-42, and ≥43 h. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3) was used to measure the dietary quality. The association of hours of paid work with dietary intake and NRF9.3 score was assessed using a multivariable general linear regression analysis with adjustments for confounders. Hours of paid work were associated with a higher intake of rice and lower intake of vegetables, potatoes, soy products, and seaweeds and nutrients including protein, dietary fiber, and most vitamins and minerals. Hours of paid work were negatively associated with the NRF9.3 score. This study showed that Japanese married women engaging in paid work, especially those who work long hours, have less healthy diets. Efforts to improve the dietary intake of married women with paid work might be needed.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445014

RESUMO

The maternal diet can potentially influence the life-course health of the child. A poor-quality maternal diet creates nutrient deficiencies and affects immune-metabolic regulation during pregnancy. The nutrient-based overall dietary quality can be assessed using the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), which measures adherence to the national reference daily values of nutrient intake. Pro- and anti-inflammatory nutrient intake can be assessed using the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII), a comprehensive index of diet-derived inflammatory capacity. Using these indices, we assessed the overall dietary quality and inflammatory potential of pregnant women during mid-gestation in an urban area of Japan (n = 108) and found that there was a strong inverse correlation between the NRF9.3 and E-DII scores. Comparison of the scores among the tertiles of NRF9.3 or E-DII indicated that dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin A, and magnesium mainly contributed to the variability of both indices. Intake of vegetables and fruits was positively associated with high NRF9.3 scores and negatively associated with high E-DII scores, after adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and educational level. Consistent with the previous studies that used dietary pattern analysis, this study also demonstrated that vegetables and fruits were the food groups chiefly associated with high dietary quality and low inflammatory potential among pregnant Japanese women.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Registros de Dieta , Dieta Saudável/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tóquio , Verduras
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371856

RESUMO

The identification of sodium and potassium intake in youths is an important step to preventing the increase of blood pressure in childhood. We examined food intake and estimated mineral intake using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) to test its validity as a comparison with urinary excretion in Japanese youths. The subjects were 5th and 8th graders (n = 2377), who completed the BDHQ and permitted the use of their overnight urine specimens. Sodium intake was poorly associated with sodium excretion (Rho = 0.048), and the coefficients of dietary potassium and a sodium-to-potassium molar ratio were 0.091-0.130. Higher soybean paste (miso) intake and pickles were significantly associated with higher sodium excretion (p ≤ 0.005). However, these foods were positively associated with potassium excretion (p = 0.002-0.012), and not associated with an excreted sodium-to-potassium ratio. Fruits and dairy products were positively associated (p ≤ 0.048), whereas beverages were negatively associated with potassium excretion (p ≤ 0.004). The association of the sodium-to-potassium ratio was opposite to that of potassium (p ≤ 0.001). The choice of foods, potassium, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio assessed using the BDHQ are available as part of health education for youths, but the assessment of sodium intake in population levels should be carefully conducted.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Potássio na Dieta/análise , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Potássio/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sódio/urina
4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Weight loss and reduced fat-free mass are independent risk factors for mortality among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These factors are important for determining diet therapy and examining the validity of assessment for energy intake (EI). We assessed the agreement of EI between a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method among male patients with stable/at risk for COPD. METHOD: In this cross-sectional observational study, data for 33 male patients were analysed. At the first visit, EI was estimated using a BDHQ (EIBDHQ). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured during 13-15 days by the DLW method, while corrected EI was calculated using the TEE and weight change during the DLW period (EIDLW). The difference between EIBDHQ and EIDLW was evaluated by the Bland-Altman method. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the proportion of variance in the difference between EIBDHQ and EIDLW, as determined by the patient's characteristics. RESULTS: EIBDHQ was 2100 (95% CI: 1905 to 2295) kcal/day in the total population. A fixed bias was observed between EIBDHQ and EIDLW as -186 (95% CI: -422 to 50) kcal/day, while a proportional bias was not detected by the Bland-Altman analysis. Age, weight, anxiety and interleukin 6 were responsible for 61.7% of the variance in the difference between both EIs in a multiple regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The BDHQ underestimated EI among male patients with stable/at risk for COPD, but this estimation error was within an acceptable range compared with previous studies. EIBDHQ precision might be improved by considering common COPD traits, including inflammatory condition and mental state.

5.
Astrobiology ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255549

RESUMO

The search for life beyond Earth has focused on Mars and the icy moons Europa and Enceladus, all of which are considered a safe haven for life due to evidence of current or past water. The surface of Venus, on the other hand, has extreme conditions that make it a nonhabitable environment to life as we know it. This is in contrast, however, to its cloud layer, which, while still an extreme environment, may prove to be a safe haven for some extreme forms of life similar to extremophiles on Earth. We consider the venusian clouds a habitable environment based on the presence of (1) a solvent for biochemical reactions, (2) appropriate physicochemical conditions, (3) available energy, and (4) biologically relevant elements. The diversity of extreme microbial ecosystems on Earth has allowed us to identify terrestrial chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that may be analogs to putative venusian organisms. Here, we hypothesize and describe biological processes that may be performed by such organisms in the venusian clouds. To detect putative venusian organisms, we describe potential biosignature detection methods, which include metal-microbial interactions and optical methods. Finally, we describe currently available technology that can potentially be used for modeling and simulation experiments.

6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 63, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of dietary supplements are commercially available. However, the efficacy and safety of dietary supplement use in children are not well established. Understanding dietary supplement use is important for developing public health policy regarding dietary supplements. This study aimed to investigate the types of dietary supplements used and characteristics of dietary supplement users among Japanese elementary school children. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire study. Dietary supplement use, socio-demographics, and health-related behaviors were assessed through mother-reported questionnaire. Types of dietary supplements were identified based on ingredient using product barcodes and brand names. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the socio-demographics and health-related behaviors associated with supplement use. RESULTS: Among 4933 children, 333 (6.8%) were identified as dietary supplement users. The most common supplement was amino acids or protein (1.4%), followed by n-3 fatty acids or fish oil (1.0%), probiotics (1.0%), multivitamins (0.9%), multivitamin-minerals (0.8%), and botanicals (0.8%). Overall, any dietary supplement use was significantly associated with the highest frequency of sports participation (odds ratio [OR], 2.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-4.02), highest household income (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.13-3.10), highest maternal educational level (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.31-2.52), and male sex (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.75). The highest frequency of sports participation was significantly associated with higher odds of use of amino acids or protein (OR, 6.06; 95% CI, 1.78-20.6) and multivitamins (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.11-11.5), compared to the lowest frequency of sports participation. CONCLUSION: This study showed that Japanese children primarily use non-vitamin, non-mineral supplements. Non-vitamin, non-mineral supplements should thus be included in future studies aimed at monitoring dietary supplement use. We also found that dietary supplement use in children was associated with sports participation. Guidelines for dietary supplement use for children, in particular sport participants, are needed.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Adulto , Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
7.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165424

RESUMO

We characterized 515 Mycoplasma pneumoniae specimens in Hokkaido. In 2013 and 2014, the p1 gene type 1 strain, mostly macrolide-resistant, was dominant and the prevalence of macrolide resistance was over 50 %. After 2017, the p1 gene type 2 lineage, mostly macrolide-sensitive, increased and the prevalence of macrolide resistance became 31.0 % in 2017, 5.3 % in 2018 and 16.3 % in 2019.


Assuntos
Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Mutação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/classificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética
8.
J Nutr Sci ; 10: e25, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996038

RESUMO

The relationship of chronotype differences with dietary habits and health-related outcomes among elderly people is not fully understood, although sex and generation differences are observed in human chronotype. Accordingly, we analysed the association of chronotype (as assessed by the midpoint of sleep) with dietary intake and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elderly Japanese women. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were 1618 women aged 65 years and older who were grandmothers or acquaintances of dietetics students. The subjects were classified into quintiles with respect to the midpoint of sleep, from the earliest to the latest quintile. HRQoL was assessed by the Japanese version of the short-form 36-item health survey score. Mental health was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Dietary intake was assessed by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. A later midpoint of sleep was associated with a lower intake of vitamin D and a higher intake of bread and caffeinated drinks. No correlations were observed between chronotype and other nutrient and food intake. The subjects with a late midpoint of sleep (eveningness) showed poor general health perception (GH) and high CES-D scores. Other HRQoL scores did not differ among groups with different midpoints of sleep. In conclusion, chronotype as assessed by the midpoint of sleep is associated with poor GH and depressive tendencies in elderly Japanese women. Additionally, a few associations were found between dietary intake and chronotype in elderly Japanese women.

9.
Astrobiology ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970019

RESUMO

We present a case for the exploration of Venus as an astrobiology target-(1) investigations focused on the likelihood that liquid water existed on the surface in the past, leading to the potential for the origin and evolution of life, (2) investigations into the potential for habitable zones within Venus' present-day clouds and Venus-like exo atmospheres, (3) theoretical investigations into how active aerobiology may impact the radiative energy balance of Venus' clouds and Venus-like atmospheres, and (4) application of these investigative approaches toward better understanding the atmospheric dynamics and habitability of exoplanets. The proximity of Venus to Earth, guidance for exoplanet habitability investigations, and access to the potential cloud habitable layer and surface for prolonged in situ extended measurements together make the planet a very attractive target for near term astrobiological exploration.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916892

RESUMO

In Mongolia, the recommendations are to restrict salt intake to less than 5 g/day to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to reveal factors associated with not knowing the recommended daily salt intake among medical professionals in Mongolia. Of the recruited 538 medical professionals working at public health facilities in Darkhan-Uul Province, the data from 338 (62.8%), obtained using self-administered questionnaires, were analyzed. Among these, 175 (51.8%) did not know the recommended daily salt intake. Compared with medical doctors, midwives and nurses had higher odds of not knowing the recommendations (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-12.59; AOR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.15-3.76, respectively). Compared to participants who consumed more than four cups/day of salted suutei tsai (Mongolian milk tea), those who consumed approximately two cups/week had lower odds of not knowing the recommendations (AOR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.07-0.63). With most participants lacking accurate knowledge on this topic, and considering that people who are aware of the recommendations are more likely to take action to reduce dietary salt intake, it is imperative to urgently address this knowledge deficit because medical professionals have a responsibility to educate the community by disseminating accurate health information.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Mongólia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792472

RESUMO

It is uncertain whether the effects of prenatal exposure to isoflavones on childhood behaviour are beneficial or detrimental. This prebirth cohort study investigated the associations between maternal consumption of soy products and isoflavones during pregnancy and behavioural problems in Japanese children aged 5 years. Subjects were 1199 mother-child pairs. Emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, peer problems and low prosocial behaviour were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Maternal total soy product consumption during pregnancy was independently inversely associated with childhood hyperactivity and peer problems. Maternal fermented soybean consumption during pregnancy was independently inversely associated with childhood hyperactivity problems. Maternal isoflavone consumption during pregnancy was independently inversely related to childhood hyperactivity problems. Maternal consumption of total soy products, fermented soybean and isoflavones during pregnancy may be protective against hyperactivity problems in Japanese children. Also, maternal total soy product consumption during pregnancy may be preventive against childhood peer problems.

12.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-13, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although there is growing evidence suggesting that eating patterns are important determinants of health status, comprehensive information on patterning of eating behaviours is almost lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe eating patterns in Japan. DESIGN: Information on actual eating behaviours was collected using 2-d dietary record in each season over a year (total 8 d). Eating occasions were defined as any discrete intake occasion (with a discrete start clock time and name) except for eating occasions consisting of water only, which were excluded. SETTING: Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A nationwide sample of 4032 Japanese aged 1-79 years. RESULTS: The mean value of eating frequency of meals (i.e. breakfast, lunch and dinner), snacks and total eating occasions was 2·94, 1·74 and 4·68 times/d, respectively. The mean clock time for the start of breakfast, lunch and dinner was 07.24, 12.29 and 19.15 h, respectively. The mean time spent consuming breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks was 19, 25, 34 and 27 min/d, respectively. On average, variability (i.e. average of absolute difference from mean) of meal frequency was small compared with that of snack frequency and total eating frequency. Both mean variability of clock time for the start of eating (<1 h) and mean variability of time spent on meals (<10 min/d) were also small. Conversely, mean variability of time spent on snacks was large (>18 min/d). CONCLUSION: The present findings serve as both a reference and an indication for future research on patterning of eating behaviours.

13.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(4): 599-612, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D receptor activators and calcimimetics (calcium-sensing receptor agonists) are two major options for medical treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. A higher serum calcification propensity (a shorter T50 value) is a novel surrogate marker of calcification stress and mortality in patients with CKD. We tested a hypothesis that a calcimimetic agent etelcalcetide is more effective in increasing T50 value than a vitamin D receptor activator maxacalcitol. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A randomized, multicenter, open-label, blinded end point trial with active control was conducted in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing hemodialysis in Japan. Patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous etelcalcetide 5 mg thrice weekly (etelcalcetide group) or intravenous maxacalcitol 5 or 10 µg thrice weekly (maxacalcitol group). The primary, secondary, and tertiary outcomes were changes in T50 value, handgrip strength, and score of the Dementia Assessment Sheet for Community-Based Integrated Care System from baseline to 12 months, respectively. RESULTS: In total, 425 patients from 23 dialysis centers were screened for eligibility, 326 patients were randomized (etelcalcetide, n=167; control, n=159), and 321 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (median age, 66 years; 113 women [35%]). The median (interquartile range) of T50 value was changed from 116 minutes (interquartile range, 90-151) to 131 minutes (interquartile range, 102-176) in the maxacalcitol group, whereas it was changed from 123 minutes (interquartile range, 98-174) to 166 minutes (interquartile range, 127-218) in the etelcalcetide group. The increase in T50 value was significantly greater in the etelcalcetide group (difference in change, 20 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 7 to 34 minutes; P=0.004). No significant between-group difference was found in the change in handgrip strength or in the Dementia Assessment Sheet for Community-Based Integrated Care System score. CONCLUSIONS: Etelcalcetide was more effective in increasing T50 value than maxacalcitol among patients on hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism. There was no difference in handgrip strength or cognition between the two drugs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: VICTORY; UMIN000030636 and jRCTs051180156.

14.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525622

RESUMO

In the overall composition of dietary fatty acids (FAs), the quantity of each FA is interrelated with that of others. We examined the associations between dietary FA composition and cardiometabolic risk in Japanese youths. Risk factors (anthropometric characteristics, serum lipid and liver enzyme levels, and blood pressure) were measured in 5485 junior-high-school students. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The mean saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), omega-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), and omega-3 PUFAs intake were 9.6%E, 10.3%E, 6.3%E, and 1.1%E, respectively. In compositional regression analysis controlled for confounders, a high intake of omega-6 PUFAs relative to others was associated with low low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDL-C; p = 0.003), and relative SFA intake was associated with high levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (p = 0.019). Relative omega-3 PUFAs intake was associated with low blood pressure (p = 0.005-0.034) but had unfavorable effects on adiposity and alanine transaminase. Substitutional models showed similar results for omega-6 PUFAs on LDL-C, but MUFA had inconsistent effects on risk factors. The results from the compositional data analysis were consistent with previous studies and clinical practice/knowledge. Focusing on increasing omega-6 PUFAs in Japanese youths could have favorable consequences in the long term.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lower maternal metal intake during pregnancy might affect childhood development. The current prebirth cohort study investigated the relationship between maternal intake of zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, and manganese during pregnancy and behavioral problems in Japanese children aged five years. METHODS: Subjects were 1199 mother-child pairs. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a diet history questionnaire. Emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, and peer problems and low prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Maternal age, gestation at baseline, region of residence, number of children, maternal and paternal education, household income, maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, child's birth weight, child's sex, breastfeeding duration, smoking in the household during the first year of life, and some dietary confounders that were associated with outcomes under study in this population were adjusted for. RESULTS: Compared with maternal magnesium intake during pregnancy in the first quartile, magnesium intake in the second, third, and fourth quartiles was independently inversely related to childhood hyperactivity problems, but not to emotional, conduct, or peer problems or low prosocial behavior: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.99, P for trend = 0.04). No evident associations were observed between maternal intake of zinc, iron, copper, or manganese during pregnancy and childhood emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, or peer problems or low prosocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that higher maternal magnesium intake during pregnancy is inversely associated with hyperactivity problems in Japanese children.

16.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(6): 903-907, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464698

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the development of food allergy in young Japanese children up to 3 years of age. METHODS: The study involved 1522 mother-child pairs. Data on maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy were assessed with a validated diet history questionnaire. Food allergy was defined by a self-reported claim of having a physicians' diagnosis of food allergy or of having an acute reaction to a food. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest tertile of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, the second tertile, but not the highest tertile, was significantly associated with an increased risk of food allergy. Further adjustment on suspicion or diagnosis of atopic eczema at around 4 months postpartum in a follow-up survey did not substantially change the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the risk of food allergy in children: further adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the second (T2), the highest tertiles (T3) and the second and the highest tertiles combined (T2 + T3) were 1.46 (1.10-1.96), 1.16 (0.85-1.56) and 1.31 (1.01-1.70), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy may be positively associated with the risk of food allergy in children.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-12, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494843

RESUMO

Intakes of excess Na and insufficient K are two major contributors of heart diseases and stroke development. However, no precise study has previously been carried out on Na and K intakes among Indonesian adults. The present study aimed to estimate the Na and K intakes using two consecutive 24-h urine collections. Participants were community-dwelling adults aged between 20 and 96 years, randomly selected from a pool of resident registration numbers. Of the 506 participants, 479 (240 men and 239 women) completed urine collections. The mean Na excretion was 102·8 and 100·6 mmol/d, while the mean K excretion was 25·0 and 23·4 mmol/d for men and women, respectively. Na and K excretions were higher in participants with a higher BMI. A higher K excretion was associated only with younger age. More than 80 % of the participants consumed more than 5 g/d of salt (the upper limit recommended by the Indonesian government), whereas none of them consumed more than 3510 mg/d of K (the lower limit). The high Na and low K intakes, especially high Na among participants with high BMI, should be considered when future intervention programmes are planned in this country.

18.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(6): 2118-2128, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in some patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), even after achieving sustained virological response (SVR). AIMS: We examined factors associated with liver disease progression in a prospective cohort study of SVR patients. METHODS: Participants were patients who had visited a hospital for clinical follow-up of chronic HCV infection in 2005 and had reached SVR as a result of subsequent antiviral treatment. Baseline information including lifestyle and dietary habits before SVR was collected in 2005 using self-administered questionnaires, and clinical information before SVR was collected from medical records in 2005. Study outcome was liver disease progression such as liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and/or liver disease-related death after SVR. Proportional hazard models were employed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for each variable. RESULTS: Of 180 SVR patients, 27 patients (15%) showed liver disease progression after SVR: 26 (14%) were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, two (1%) with hepatocellular carcinoma, and/or one (0.6%) with liver-disease-related death. Besides older age at SVR (HR = 11.9, P < 0.01) and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index score ≥ 1.0 before SVR (HR = 2.63, P = 0.03), alcohol drinkers before SVR (HR = 2.82, P = 0.06) were suggested to be associated with liver disease progression after SVR, whereas higher consumption of vitamin B12 before SVR showed a decreased HR for liver disease progression (HR = 0.41, P = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol drinking might be associated with liver disease progression, whereas vitamin B12 intake might have protective effects against liver disease progression after eradication of HCV. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(5): 617-628, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary fatty acids can affect chronic intestinal inflammation and have been reported to be associated with the development of ulcerative colitis (UC), mainly in Europe and the United States. The association of dietary intake of fatty acids and the risk for UC was investigated in Japan, where dietary habits lead to lower meat and higher fish consumption than in Western countries. METHODS: A multicenter case-control study of 83 newly diagnosed patients with UC and 128 age- and sex-matched control patients in the hospital was conducted from 2008 to 2014. Dietary fatty acid intake in the preceding 1 month and 1 year were examined using a self-administered diet history questionnaire that was developed for Japanese people. RESULTS: About 92% of patients had experienced the first symptoms of UC within the preceding 11 months. Regarding dietary habits in the preceding year, the risk for UC was significantly decreased in patients who consumed n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids at a ratio of ≥5.2 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-0.68). Conversely, an increased risk for UC was observed in the highest tertiles of consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (OR = 7.22; 95% CI, 2.09-24.95), eicosapentaenoic acid (OR = 6.91; 95% CI, 1.88-25.44), and docosapentaenoic acid (OR = 4.83; 95% CI, 1.56-14.95). CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake was associated with a decreased risk for UC development. However, high intakes of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid may increase the risk for UC development.

20.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(5): 1042-1051, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study evaluated the dietary characteristics of snacks, the contribution of snacks to daily nutrient intake and the association of energy intake (EI) from snacks with the prevalence of nutritional inadequacy in Japanese nursery school children. DESIGN: Foods and nutrients consumed in each eating occasion were assessed by 3-d dietary records. The prevalence of inadequate intake of twenty nutrients assessed by the age- and sex-specific reference values in the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes was compared according to tertile categories of EI from snacks. SETTING: A multi-regional dietary survey based on nursery schools in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 187 boys and 191 girls aged 3-6 years. RESULTS: EI from snacks accounted for 19·5 % (sd 6·9) of total daily EI. Confectionaries accounted for the largest part of EI from snacks (35·3 %), followed by milk (19·5 %). Relative to their energy contribution, snacks accounted for a small proportion for all nutrients examined, except for free sugar, calcium, SFA and riboflavin. Although a higher EI from snacks was associated with favourable profiles for intakes of calcium, iron, thiamine and riboflavin, excessive intakes of free sugar and Na were more prevalent among children with a higher EI from snacks. CONCLUSIONS: Although snacks are effective in meeting the requirement of some nutrients among Japanese nursery school children, snacks are generally not nutrient-dense and have an impact on excessive intake of some nutrients. There is hence room for improvement in food choices at snack time.

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