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1.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607774

RESUMO

Hon-mirin (HM) is a traditional Japanese brewed seasoning used to confer sweetness and koku. Mirin-like-seasoning (MLS) is a less-expensive alternative to HM because it is not subjected to liquor tax in Japan. In this study, components and taste qualities of HM and MLS were compared by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics and a sensory evaluation. GC/MS analyses of foods with high sugar content are limited by contamination of the ion source and difficulty in detecting other compounds. To resolve this issue, solid-phase analytical derivatization (SPAD), in which the extraction and derivatization of analytes can be conducted in a single step, was applied as a novel sample preparation method in this study. The effect of sugar was removed by the specific absorption, derivatization, and elution of ionic compounds, such as amino acids and organic acids, with ion-exchange solid-phases. The SPAD method application enabled the detection of 15 amino acids and 14 organic acids using ion-exchange solid-phases by performing GC/MS analysis twice. These ionic compounds were not detected in mirin using conventional sample preparation. HM samples had a higher amino acid content and a lower sugar content than those of MLS samples. Furthermore, differences in sweetness and koku between HM and MLS were observed in a sensory evaluation. This is the first GC/MS-based metabolomics analysis of mirin using the SPAD method; our results provide insight into the differences between HM and MLS.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythritol, a sugar alcohol, is widely used as a substitute for sugar in diets for patients with diabetes or obesity. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of erythritol on metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, while focusing on changes in innate immunity. RESULTS: Mice that were fed a high-fat diet and administered water containing 5% erythritol (Ery group) had markedly lower body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and markedly higher energy expenditure than the control mice (Ctrl group) (n = 6). Furthermore, compared with the Ctrl group, the Ery group had lesser fat deposition in the liver, smaller adipocytes, and significantly better inflammatory findings in the small intestine. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid, in the serum, feces, and white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. In flow cytometry experiments, group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) counts in the lamina propria of the small intestine and ILC2 counts in the white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the Il-22 expression in the small intestine of the Ery group was markedly higher than that in the Ctrl group. CONCLUSIONS: Erythritol markedly decreased metabolic disorders such as diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and fat accumulation in the mouse liver by increasing SCFAs and modulating innate immunity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Eritritol/farmacologia , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritritol/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1583: 108-116, 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470454

RESUMO

A sensitive method for determination of fluoridated phosphonates produced by fluoride-mediated regeneration of nerve agent adduct in human serum was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) with large-volume injection. The GC injection was administered using stomach-type spiral injector (LVI, AiSTI SCIENCE) enabling introduction of only target compounds from 50 µL ethyl acetate extract after purging the solvent. For GCMS analysis of sarin (GB), 670 times higher sensitivity, based on limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3, on extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) at m/z 99), was achieved using this injection (50 µL) compared to that achieved using 1 µL split injection (ratio 20:1). Ethyl (EtGB), isopropyl (GB), n-propyl (nPrGB), isobutyl (iBuGB), pinacolyl (GD), cyclohexyl (GF) methylphosphonofluoridates, and O-ethyl N, N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate (GAF) were detected with low LOD (15-75 pg/mL) and sharp peak shapes (high practical plate number (defined as 5.54 x (tR/Wh)2, where tR is the retention time and Wh is the bandwidth at half-height): 1100000-2400000) in GCMS using a polar separation column, electron ionization, and quadruple mass analyzer. During the analysis of fluoridated phosphonate-spiked ethyl acetate extract of solid phase extraction (SPE, Bond Elut NEXUS) from fluoride-mediated regeneration of blank human plasma, LOD (on EIC at m/z 99 except for GAF (m/z 126)) were 25-140 pg/mL with sharp peak shapes. The reaction recoveries in fluoride-mediated regeneration of plasma, which was inhibited by GB, GD, GA, GF, VX, and Russian VX (10 ng/mL), were 49-114% except for GD (10%). The concentration levels of 0.3-1 ng/mL of nerve agents in plasma could be determined.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Agentes Neurotóxicos/química , Organofosfonatos/sangue , Acetatos/química , Humanos , Compostos Organotiofosforados/química , Sarina/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Soluções
4.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 124(6): 700-706, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800906

RESUMO

A novel derivatization method for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics was developed, based on solid-phase analytical derivatization (SPAD) with methoximation followed by trimethylsilylation. This SPAD method realized derivatization on solid phases combining strong anion exchange with strong cation exchange. To omit a sample condensation process, GC/MS injection was performed using a large-volume injection mode. This mode uses a stomach-shaped insert, and enables a large quantity of sample to be vaporized and introduced into the GC/MS system. In the present study, several parameters were investigated for each SPAD step. The optimal derivatization conditions were determined to be 3-min-methoximation with 5 µL of >5% methoxyamine solution, and 10-min-trimethylsilylation with 25 µL of N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA). Derivatized analytes were effectively eluted with 25 µL of n-hexane. The influences of coexisting substances were also investigated. Coexisting saccharides did not significantly affect the derivatization of analytes. Moreover, saccharides were efficiently washed out using 80% (v/v) acetonitrile in water. The influences of coexisting sodium chloride were negated by dilution of the sample solution with water. The developed method enables the derivatization of both anionic and cationic metabolites, and high-throughput sample preparation. The coverage of detectable metabolites for the developed method was similar to that of the conventional method. This is the first report of a SPAD-based human plasma metabolome analysis protocol.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Acetamidas , Fluoracetatos , Hexanos , Humanos , Compostos de Trimetilsilil
5.
Anal Sci ; 23(6): 661-6, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17575348

RESUMO

A newly developed large-volume injection (LVI) technique that employs a unique stomach-shaped inlet liner (SSIL) inside of a programmable temperature vaporizer was used for the determination of trace amounts of dioxins in human milk and plasma. The initial temperature and the initial dwelling time of the inlet and the kind of solvent used were found to be critical in determining the analytical sensitivity of dioxins due to the loss of these relatively volatile compounds during solvent vaporization. Human milk and plasma were purified and fractionated by pre-packed multi-layered silica-gel chromatography and activated carbon silica-gel column chromatography. A 20-microL aliquot of the fraction collected from the chromatography with toluene was directly applied to the LVI system in high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Excellent correlation (r > 0.97) between the values obtained by the LVI method using the SSIL device and those by the conventional regular-volume splitless injection method was obtained for PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in human milk and plasma samples.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Benzofuranos/análise , Benzofuranos/sangue , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cromatografia Gasosa/instrumentação , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sílica Gel , Dióxido de Silício/química
6.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 44(1): 7-12, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12749190

RESUMO

We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.


Assuntos
Culinária , Manipulação de Alimentos , Oryza/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Tiadiazinas/análise , Anilidas/análise , Carbamatos/análise , Compostos de Organossilício/análise
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