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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6164-6167, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659095

RESUMO

"Shape" was the first criterion claimed to explain the specificity between organic structure-directing agents (OSDAs) and zeolite micropores. With the advent of computational chemistry methods applied to study the effectiveness of SDA-zeolite combinations, "energy" (mainly van der Waals) became the most commonly invoked concept to explain the zeolite phase selectivity. The lower the energy, the better the SDA. In this study, we rescue the concept of shape, and we combine it with the concept of energy within the frame of a SDA screening approach to identify new SDAs for the synthesis of cage-based ITE zeolite. Once we identify an appropriate shape fingerprint, filtering through the SDA database can be done quickly and accurately. With the shape selection, an automated Monte Carlo software allows us to assess the suitability using the force-field-calculated zeo-SDA energy. The computational approach can be promptly applied to other cage-based zeolites.

2.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(6): 2819-2829, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460488

RESUMO

The presence of organic structure directing agents (templates) in the synthesis of zeolites allows the synthesis to be directed, in many cases, toward structures in which there is a large stabilization between the template and the zeolite micropore due to dispersion interactions. Although other factors are also important (temperature, pH, Si/Al ratio, etc.), systems with strong zeolite-template interactions are good candidates for an application of new computational algorithms, for instance those based in molecular topology (MT), that can be used in combination with large databases of organic molecules. Computational design of new templates allows the synthesis of existing and new zeolites to be expanded and refined. Three zeolites with similar 3-D large pore systems, BEA, BEC, and ISV, were selected with the aim of finding new templates for their selective syntheses. Using a training set of active and inactive templates (obtained from the literature) for the synthesis of target zeolites, it was possible to select chemical descriptors related to activity, meaning a good candidate template. With a discriminant function defined upon MT, the screening through a database of organic molecules led to a small subset (preselection) of candidate templates for the synthesis of BEA, BEC, and ISV. As far as we know, this is the first time that topological/topochemical descriptors, which do not consider 3-D information on the molecules, have been used to predict the activity of zeolite structure directing agents (SDAs). Following the prediction of SDAs using MT, an automated approach of sequential template filling of micropores based on a combination of Monte Carlo and lattice energy minimization was applied for all the candidate templates in the three zeolites. Two results can be obtained from this: an evaluation of the quality of the molecular topology QSAR models leading to the preselection of templates, and a final selection of candidate templates for the selective synthesis of BEA, BEC, and ISV. Regarding the latter, a good template will be that which maximizes the zeolite-template dispersion interactions with one, and only one, of the three zeolites. The presented methodology can be used to find alternative (maybe cheaper or perhaps more selective) templates than those already known.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(13): 6007-6017, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157875

RESUMO

The methanol-to-olefins process over H-SAPO-34 is characterized by its high shape selectivity toward light olefins. The catalyst is a supramolecular system consisting of nanometer-sized inorganic cages, decorated by Brønsted acid sites, in which organic compounds, mostly methylated benzene species, are trapped. These hydrocarbon pool species are essential to catalyze the methanol conversion but may also clog the pores. As such, diffusion of ethene and propene plays an essential role in determining the ultimate product selectivity. Enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations based on either force fields or density functional theory are used to determine how molecular factors influence the diffusion of light olefins through the 8-ring windows of H-SAPO-34. Our simulations show that diffusion through the 8-ring in general is a hindered process, corresponding to a hopping event of the diffusing molecule between neighboring cages. The loading of different methanol, alkene, and aromatic species in the cages may substantially slow down or facilitate the diffusion process. The presence of Brønsted acid sites in the 8-ring enhances the diffusion process due to the formation of a favorable π-complex host-guest interaction. Aromatic hydrocarbon pool species severely hinder the diffusion and their spatial distribution in the zeolite crystal may have a significant effect on the product selectivity. Herein, we unveil how molecular factors influence the diffusion of light olefins in a complex environment with confined hydrocarbon pool species, high olefin loadings, and the presence of acid sites by means of enhanced molecular dynamics simulations under operating conditions.

4.
Chemistry ; 25(46): 10803-10807, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136016

RESUMO

The separation of deuterium from hydrogen still remains a challenging and industrially relevant task. Compared to traditional cryogenic methods for separation, based on different boiling points of H2 and D2 , the use of ultramicroporous materials offers a more efficient alternative method. Due to their rigid structures, permanently high porosity, tunable pore sizes and adjustable internal surface properties, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of porous materials built through the coordination between organic linkers and metal ions/clusters, are more suitable for this approach than zeolites or carbon-based materials. Herein, dynamic gas flow studies on H2 /D2 quantum sieving in MFU-4, a metal-organic framework with ultra-narrow pores of 2.5 Å, are presented. A specially designed sensor with a very fast response based on surface acoustic waves is used. On-chip measurements of diffusion rates in the temperature range 27-207 K reveal a quantum sieving effect, with D2 diffusing faster than H2 below 64 K and the opposite selectivity above this temperature. The experimental results obtained are confirmed by molecular dynamic simulation regarding quantum sieving of H2 and D2 on MOFs for which a flexible framework approach was used for the first time.

5.
Chemistry ; 25(28): 7004-7011, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920069

RESUMO

Benzophenone (BP) and drugs containing the BP chromophore, such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen, have been widely reported as DNA photosensitizers through triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET). In the present work, a direct spectroscopic fingerprint for the formation of the thymine triplet (3 Thy*) by through-bond (TB) TTET from 3 BP* has been uncovered. This has been achieved in two new systems that have been designed and synthesized with one BP and one thymine (Thy) covalently linked to the two ends of the rigid skeleton of the natural bile acids cholic and lithocholic acid. The results shown here prove that it is possible to achieve triplet energy transfer to a Thy unit even when the photosensitizer is at a long (nonbonding) distance.

9.
Faraday Discuss ; 211(0): 103-115, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039150

RESUMO

The recently presented software zeoGAsolver is discussed, which is based on genetic algorithms, with domain-dependent crossover and selection operators that maintain the size of the population in successive iterations while improving the average fitness. Using the density, cell parameters, and symmetry (or candidate symmetries) of a zeolite sample whose resolution can not be achieved by analysis of the XRD (X-ray diffraction) data, the software attempts to locate the coordinates of the T-atoms of the zeolite unit cell employing a function of 'fitness' (F), which is defined through the different contributions to the 'penalties' (P) as F = 1/(1 + P). While testing the software to find known zeolites such as LTA (zeolite A), AEI (SSZ-39), ITW (ITQ-12) and others, the algorithm has found not only most of the target zeolites but also seven new hypothetical zeolites whose feasibility is confirmed by energetic and structural criteria.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(32): 10191-10197, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024754

RESUMO

One of the main problems of gas storage in porous materials is that many molecules of interest adsorb too weakly to be retained effectively. To enhance gas storage in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we propose the use of kinetic trapping, i.e., a process where the guest gas is captured in the voids at loading conditions and not released immediately at normal conditions. In this approach, the diffusion-limiting pore size and the framework flexibility have to be matched to the gas, requiring flexible pore apertures to be smaller than the van der Waals diameter of the trapped guest. We selected the Metal-Organic Framework Ulm University-4 (MFU-4) with a pore aperture of 2.52 Å as a model coordination framework and used it for storage of xenon (with van der Waals diameter of 4.4 Å). Although xenon atoms are substantially larger than the MOF pore aperture, MFU-4 could be loaded with xenon by applying moderately high gas pressures. This is demonstrated to be due to the pore flexibility as confirmed by computational studies. The xenon loading could be tuned (from 0 wt % to more than 44.5 wt %) by changing the loading parameters such as pressure, temperature, and time, and the xenon atoms remained inside the pores upon exposing the material to air atmosphere at room temperature. To understand the material behavior, TGA, XRPD, and 129Xe NMR spectroscopy and computational studies were carried out.

11.
Nanoscale ; 10(14): 6349-6360, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560985

RESUMO

The development of contrast agents (CAs) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with T1-T2 dual-mode relaxivity requires the accurate assembly of T1 and T2 magnetic centers in a single structure. In this context, we have synthesized a novel hybrid material by monitoring the formation of Prussian Blue analogue Gd(H2O)4[Fe(CN)6] nanoparticles with tailored shape (from nanocrosses to nanorods) and size, and further protection with a thin and homogeneous silica coating through hydrolysis and polymerization of silicate at neutral pH. The resulting Gd(H2O)4[Fe(CN)6]@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles are very stable in biological fluids. Interestingly, this combination of Gd and Fe magnetic centers closely packed in the crystalline network promotes a magnetic synergistic effect, which results in significant improvement of longitudinal relaxivity with regards to soluble Gd3+ chelates, whilst keeping the high transversal relaxivity inherent to the iron component. As a consequence, this material shows excellent activity as MRI CA, improving positive and negative contrasts in T1- and T2-weighted MR images, both in in vitro (e.g., phantom) and in vivo (e.g., Sprague-Dawley rats) models. In addition, this hybrid shows a high biosafety profile and has strong ability to incorporate organic molecules on the surface with variable functionality, displaying great potential for further clinical application.

12.
Chem Sci ; 8(4): 3109-3120, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28507686

RESUMO

Discrimination between different gases is an essential aspect for industrial and environmental applications involving sensing and separation. Several classes of porous materials have been used in this context, including zeolites and more recently MOFs. However, to reach high selectivities for the separation of gas mixtures is a challenging task that often requires the understanding of the specific interactions established between the porous framework and the gases. Here we propose an approach to obtain an enhanced selectivity based on the use of compartmentalized coordination polymers, named CCP-1 and CCP-2, which are crystalline materials comprising isolated discrete cavities. These compartmentalized materials are excellent candidates for the selective separation of CO2 from methane and nitrogen. A complete understanding of the sorption process is accomplished with the use of complementary experimental techniques including X-ray diffraction, adsorption studies, inelastic- and quasi-elastic neutron scattering, magnetic measurements and molecular dynamics calculations.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(22): 14702-14707, 2017 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28540371

RESUMO

The database of prospective zeolites () has been screened in search of feasible zeolites with the condition of having at least one strong Brønsted site. Several criteria of zeolite feasibility have been tested using energetic and structural concepts, allowing a fast elimination of unsuitable candidates. Based on improved definitions to count and enumerate rings in zeolites, Brønsted acidity has been assessed in a fast albeit inaccurate way, by calculating a structural descriptor related to ammonia desorption energy. In each zeolite, the value of this descriptor was calculated for all the possible centres where a Brønsted acid site can be located. Ranking each zeolite through the value of the strongest candidate acid site allowed obtaining a selection of potentially strong acid zeolites. With further selection criteria, a final short list of 12 structures was obtained, where accurate calculations using periodic DFT indicate that 6 of them must contain a Brønsted site of very strong acidity.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(26): 17244-52, 2016 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27063287

RESUMO

Two different organic cations (structure directing agents, SDAs) have been selected because of their ability to drive the synthesis of zeolites towards the same microporous material, RUB-13 (RTH), both being organophosphorous compounds. These P containing structure directing agents are characterized by a high concentration of positive charge on the phosphorus atom. Then, in the presence of fluoride anions used in these syntheses, a strong P(+)F(-) electrostatic contribution competes with the van der Waals short range SDAzeolite interaction that drives the zeolite formation. The rotation of the methyl groups present in the SDA is expected to be nearly free if van der Waals interactions dominate, but they will be hindered if the Coulombic P(+)F(-) term forces a closer approach to the SDA towards the zeolite framework. SDAs can be designed a priori to tune which interactions dominate. The rotational mobility of the SDAs, as well as certain related bending modes, has been well tackled by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in order to test this hypothesis. The INS results provide valuable information for the design of specific SDAs for the synthesis of zeolites.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(4): 713-6, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561577

RESUMO

Through-bond triplet exciplex formation in donor-acceptor systems linked through a rigid bile acid scaffold has been demonstrated on the basis of kinetic evidence upon population of the triplet acceptors (naphthalene, or biphenyl) by through-bond triplet-triplet energy transfer from benzophenone.

16.
Chemistry ; 21(37): 12940-6, 2015 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26215923

RESUMO

Novel diastereomeric triads containing two naphthalene chromophores have been designed in which an electron-donating amine moiety is covalently integrated into the connecting bridge. Photophysical studies (steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence) in solvents of different polarity have been performed. A remarkable stereodifferentiation in the intramolecular fluorescence quenching was found in acetonitrile. Laser flash photolysis gave rise to naphthalene-derived radical cations, which were also quenched by the amine with an even higher degree of stereodifferentiation. The results are in agreement with thermodynamic estimations and indicate that photoinduced electron transfer (PET) is the main quenching pathway. Furthermore, theoretical calculations have allowed us to explain the experimentally observed stereodifferentiation in PET quenching.

17.
Chem Sci ; 6(7): 4035-4041, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218169

RESUMO

The influence of non-covalent σ-π orbital interactions on triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET) through tuning of the donor excitation energy remains basically unexplored. In the present work, we have investigated intermolecular TTET using donor moieties covalently linked to a rigid cholesterol (Ch) scaffold. For this purpose, diaryl ketones of π,π* electronic configuration tethered to α- or ß-Ch were prepared from tiaprofenic acid (TPA) and suprofen (SUP). The obtained systems TPA-α-Ch, TPA-ß-Ch, SUP-α-Ch and SUP-ß-Ch were submitted to photophysical studies (laser flash photolysis and phosphorescence), in order to delineate the influence of steric shielding and σ-π orbital interactions on the rate of TTET to a series of energy acceptors. As a matter of fact, fine tuning of the donor triplet energy significantly modifies the rate constants of TTET in the absence of diffusion control. The experimental results are rationalized by means of theoretical calculations using first principles methods based on DFT as well as molecular dynamics.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(35): 19001-10, 2014 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25093656

RESUMO

Computational screening throughout a database containing ∼138 000 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been performed to select candidate structures for hydrogen storage. A total of 231 structures (of which 79 contain paddle-wheel units) have been selected that meet the gravimetric and volumetric targets at 100 atm and 77 K. Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to calculate the isotherms and select structures which meet the targets at 50 atm, and also to check the adsorption in the low pressure regime (1 atm). From this a reduced set of 18 structures has been analysed in more detail, regarding not only gravimetric and volumetric uptake but also pore size distribution and pore volume. A few structures with 3% gravimetric uptake at 1 atm and 77 K perform at the best level found so far.

19.
Proc Math Phys Eng Sci ; 470(2166): 20140107, 2014 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24910528

RESUMO

The combination of different experimental techniques, such as solid 13C and 1H magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction, together with theoretical calculations allows the determination of the unique structure directing the role of the bulky aromatic proton sponge 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN) towards the extra-large-pore ITQ-51 zeolite through supra-molecular assemblies of those organic molecules.

20.
Dalton Trans ; 43(25): 9612-9, 2014 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24831780

RESUMO

The metal-organic framework MFU-4 shows preferential adsorption of CO2 over N2. This cannot be explained in terms of pore size only. Computational modelling suggests that the unique structure and flexibility of its small 8Cl-cube pore shows a unique gate-diffusion behaviour with different responses to CO2 and N2.

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