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1.
Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi ; 77(11): 1298-1308, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803110

RESUMO

Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides essential information on the respiratory kinetics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), such as impaired diaphragm and chest wall motions. The purpose of this study was to develop the semi-automated segmentation program of lungs using cine MRI. We enrolled five control participants and five patients with COPD who underwent cine MRI. The coronal balanced FFE images from each subject were used. The procedures were as follows: First, the maximum inspiratory image was selected from the time-sequential series, and the lung area was manually segmented, which was used for a mask image. Second, both mask image and cine image were accumulated to create a weighted cine image. Lung areas were segmented using the k-means method. Finally, lungs were detected as contiguous image regions with similar signal values using the flood-fill technique. We evaluated the correlation coefficients between the lung area segmented by the semi-automated method and those segmented by a pulmonologist. The correlation coefficients between the semi-automated method and the manual segmentations were excellent (r=0.99, p<0.001). The Dice index was also perfect (0.97). The best number of clusters in the k-means method was 8. These results suggested that the new segmentation method can appropriately extract lungs and help analyze respiratory dynamics in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Movimento (Física) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769889

RESUMO

To discuss appropriate physical activity (PA) levels during pregnancy, this prospective cohort study examined the relationships between PA levels before and during pregnancy and physical and mental health status. Fixed data for 104,102 pregnant women were used from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, of which data for 82,919 women were analyzed after excluding women with multiple birth and pregnancy complications. PA levels were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. The 8-Item Short Form Health Survey was used to measure outcomes. Logistic regression with multiple imputations showed that moderate PA for over 720 min/wk and vigorous PA before pregnancy were associated with poorer mental health in the first trimester (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.087-1.376. Walking in the second and third trimesters was associated with better physical and mental health (AOR: 0.855-0.932). Moderate PA over 1080 min/wk and vigorous PA in the second and third trimesters were associated with poorer mental health (AOR: 1.223-1.873). Increases over 4135.4 MET-min/wk and decreases in PA levels were associated with poorer mental and physical health (AOR: 1.070-1.333). Namely, pregnant women receiving health benefits prefer continuous walking in addition to avoiding vigorous PA and excessive changes in PA levels during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Gestantes , Criança , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Pathogens ; 10(10)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684230

RESUMO

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis. Polymorphism in bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3 alleles is related to susceptibility to BLV proviral load (PVL), which is a useful index for estimating disease progression and transmission risk. However, whether differential BoLA-DRB3 affects BLV infectivity remains unknown. In a three-year follow-up investigation using a luminescence syncytium induction assay for evaluating BLV infectivity, we visualized and evaluated the kinetics of BLV infectivity in cattle with susceptible, resistant and neutral BoLA-DRB3 alleles which were selected from 179 cattle. Susceptible cattle showed stronger BLV infectivity than both resistant and neutral cattle. The order of intensity of BLV infectivity was as follows: susceptible cattle > neutral cattle > resistant cattle. BLV infectivity showed strong positive correlation with PVL at each testing point. BLV-infected susceptible cattle were found to be at higher risk of horizontal transmission, as they had strong infectivity and high PVL, whereas BLV-infected resistant cattle were low risk of BLV transmission owing to weak BLV infection and low PVL. Thus, this is the first study to demonstrate that the BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism is associated with BLV infection.

4.
Ind Health ; 59(6): 383-392, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588381

RESUMO

2-Ethyl-1-hexanol (2EH) is a volatile organic compound known to cause sick building syndrome. However, 2EH-induced hepatotoxicity has been mainly evaluated in experiments orally administering 2EH as a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. To evaluate the hepatotoxicity risk of 2EH as an indoor air pollutant, we exposed 10-wk-old male ICR mice to 2EH by inhalation for 8 h/d, 5 d/wk for 3 months (0, 20, 60, or 150 ppm) or 6 months (0, 0.5, 10, or 100 ppm). In both experiments, relative liver weights significantly increased in the highest exposure groups. The 3-month exposure increased histopathological lipid droplets in the liver in a dose-dependent manner, hepatic triglyceride at all exposure levels, hepatic phospholipid at 150 ppm, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein at 60 and 150 ppm; however, these changes were not observed following the 6-month of exposure. Following the 3-month exposure, alanine transaminase and peroxisomal bifunctional proteins, known markers of liver injury and peroxisome proliferation, respectively, remained unaltered. Therefore, in the present study, the inhalation concentration range of 2EH induced a toxic hypertrophic change, revealing a limited role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The liver weights may have presumably increased via a mechanism independent of PPARα activation.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação , PPAR alfa , Animais , Hepatomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Hexanóis , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20). CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.

6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 522, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression is one of the most commonly experienced psychological disorders for women after childbirth, usually occurring within one year. This study aimed to clarify whether women with delivery with anesthesia, including epidural analgesia, spinal-epidural analgesia, and paracervical block, had a decreased risk of postpartum depression after giving birth in Japan. METHODS: The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) was a prospective cohort study that enrolled registered fetal records (n = 104,065) in 15 regions nationwide in Japan. Binomial logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the adjusted odd ratios (aORs) for the association between mode of delivery with or without anesthesia and postpartum depression at one-, six- and twelve-months after childbirth. RESULTS: At six months after childbirth, vaginal delivery with anesthesia was associated with a higher risk of postpartum depression (aOR: 1.233, 95% confidence interval: 1.079-1.409), compared with vaginal delivery without analgesia. Nevertheless, the risk dropped off one year after delivery. Among the pregnant women who requested delivery with anesthesia, 5.1% had a positive Kessler-6 scale (K6) score for depression before the first trimester (p < 0.001), which was significantly higher than the proportions in the vaginal delivery without analgesia (3.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that the risk of postpartum depression at six months after childbirth tended to be increased after vaginal delivery with anesthesia, compared with vaginal delivery without analgesia. Requests for delivery with anesthesia continue to be relatively uncommon in Japan, and women who make such requests might be more likely to experience postpartum depressive symptoms because of underlying maternal environmental statuses.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Analgesia Epidural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Acad Radiol ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144888

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in the geometry of the chest wall due to lung hyperinflation occur in COPD. However, the quantitative assessment of impaired lung motions and its association with the clinical characteristics of COPD patients are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the respiratory kinetics of COPD patients by dynamic MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study enrolled 22 COPD patients and 10 normal participants who underwent dynamic MRI and pulmonary function testing (PFT). Changes in the areas of the lung and mediastinum during respiration were compared between the COPD patients and the normal controls. Relationships between MRI, CT parameters, and clinical measures that included PFT results also were evaluated. RESULTS: Asynchronous movements and decreased diaphragmatic motion were found in COPD patients. COPD patients had a larger ratio of MRI-measured lung areas at expiration to inspiration, a smaller magnitude of the peak area change ratio, and a smaller mediastinal-thoracic area ratio than the normal participants. The lung area ratio was associated with FEV1/FVC, predicted RV%, and CT lung volume/predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). The lung area ratio of the right lower and left lower lungs was significantly correlated with emphysema of each lower lobe. The expiratory mediastinal-thoracic area ratio was associated with FEV1% predicted and RV/TLC. CONCLUSION: Changes in the lung areas of COPD patients as shown on MRI reflected the severity of airflow limitation, hyperinflation, and the extent of emphysema. Dynamic MRI provides essential information about respiratory kinetics in COPD.

8.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2021(6): rjab232, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188795

RESUMO

Isolated spontaneous common carotid artery (CCA) dissection is extremely rare. Moreover, only a few case reports for isolated spontaneous CCA dissection treated with carotid artery stenting (CAS) can be found so far. Here, the authors report a case where intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) provided valuable information about lesion evaluation, stent selection and stent placement during CAS for isolated CCA dissection. A 69-year-old male was diagnosed with an isolated spontaneous left CCA dissection. CAS assisted with IVUS was performed to prevent further dissection and cerebral infarction recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an isolated spontaneous CCA dissection treated with CAS assisted by IVUS. CAS assisted by IVUS may be an effective treatment option to prevent intraoperative complications and further stroke recurrence for isolated spontaneous CCA dissection.

9.
Intern Med ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176841

RESUMO

A 94-year-old man was diagnosed with immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV), and losartan was initiated. His renal function rapidly deteriorated over a month; therefore, methylprednisolone was administered intravenously for three days followed by oral prednisolone. Renal function improvement and both proteinuria and hematuria remission were observed within six months. Prednisolone tapering was completed at eight months. In this case, we monitored the patient carefully and started glucocorticoids as soon as the patient's renal function deteriorated. We were thus able to treat the patient with a relatively small dose of glucocorticoids in a short treatment period without any adverse events due to glucocorticoids.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few studies describing the clinical course and spontaneous remission of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in adult patients receiving conservative treatment. METHOD: Data from 62 adult patients with biopsy-diagnosed IgAN, who received conservative treatment at least 5 years prior, were retrospectively investigated. No patients received corticosteroids, other immunosuppressants, or tonsillectomy. Remission of proteinuria and hematuria were defined as proteinuria <0.3 g/gCr and urine red blood cells (RBC) <5 / high power field (HPF) on three consecutive urinalyses obtained during an observation period of ≥6 months. RESULT: Thirty-eight (61.3%) patients had remission of hematuria, 24 (38.7%) had remission of proteinuria, and 19 (30.6%) had remission of both. Remission rates increased in patients with proteinuria <0.5 g/g Cr at diagnosis. The median time to remission of hematuria was 2.8 years and that of proteinuria was 2.6 years. Patients who showed renal function decline (defined as 30% decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] from baseline) were older, had significantly lower eGFR, and higher proteinuria at diagnosis. Two patients with preserved renal function and normal proteinuria at diagnosis experienced renal function decline. Renal function did not decline within 3 years of diagnosis in patients with proteinuria <1 g/gCr at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively high rates of spontaneous remission were observed. Remission of both hematuria and proteinuria were frequent within 3 years after diagnosis, and renal function was well preserved during this period. These data indicate that it is rational to use conservative treatment for 3 years after the diagnosis instead of aggressive treatments.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hematúria/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Remissão Espontânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890540

RESUMO

Due to its low postoperative complication rate, vaginal surgery is the preferred intervention for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in elderly patients. We aimed to assess outcomes and perioperative complication rates associated with laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC) in elderly women. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 74 consecutive patients [52 (70.3%) aged <75 years; 22 (29.7%) aged ≥75 years] with POP who underwent LSC between August 2015 and December 2017. We evaluated preoperative risks using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and complications, using the Clavien-Dindo grading (CDG). No between-group differences were observed in CCI. CDG indicated fewer perioperative complications in patients aged >75 years. Anatomical success rates at 15 months were 95.5% and 90.4% in patients aged ≥75 and <75 years, respectively. LSC has a high anatomical correction rate and few perioperative complications regardless of age. Thus, the appropriate surgical intervention method would depend on the patient's health and comorbidities.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC) is a superior method to vaginal surgery because of its anatomical and functional outcomes, particularly regarding sexual activity.What do the results of this study add? In this single-center study with a 15-month follow-up, we demonstrated that LSC has a high anatomical correction rate and few perioperative complications regardless of age at the time of surgery. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the rate of complications between the ≥75 and <75 years groups. Thus, LSC may be considered for women aged >75 years. However, in these elderly patients, the surgical method should be determined according to their health status and medical comorbidities.What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Age should not be the basis for exclusion from laparoscopic procedures. Moreover, LSC is a suitable and valid option for elderly women with POP. As the study population consisted of a homogenous group of Japanese women, it lacks generalisability. Studies evaluating these outcomes are required in other populations.

12.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922152

RESUMO

Perinatal transmission plays a critical role in the spread of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle herds. In the Holstein breed, we previously identified BLV resistant and susceptible bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3 alleles, including BoLA-DRB3*009:02 and *014:01:01 with a low BLV proviral load (PVL), and *015:01 and *012:01 with a high PVL. Here, we evaluated the perinatal BLV transmission risk in dams with different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. BoLA-DRB3 alleles of 120 dam-calf pairs from five dairy farms in Japan were identified; their PVL was quantified using the BLV-Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo)-qPCR-2 assay. Ninety-six dams were BLV-positive, and 29 gave birth to BLV-infected calves. Perinatal transmission frequency was 19% in dams with resistant alleles suppressed to a low PVL level, and 38% and 25% in dams with susceptible and neutral alleles that maintained high PVL levels, respectively. Notably, all calves with resistant alleles were BLV free, whereas 30% of calves with susceptible genes were infected. Thus, vertical transmission risk was extremely lower for dams and calves with resistant alleles compared to those with susceptible alleles. Our results can inform the development of effective BLV eradication programs under field conditions by providing necessary data to allow for optimal selection of dams for breeding.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105797, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Collateral status (CS) is considered a predictor of clinical outcome after reperfusion therapy (RT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We proposed a quantitative assessment of CS using cerebral blood volume (CBV) measured by computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Between February 2019 and September 2020, 60 patients with anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion who presented to our institution within 8 h after stroke onset were included. The ratio of the average CBV values in the affected middle cerebral artery (MCA) territories to the unaffected side was defined as the CBV ratio. CS was assessed by scores from previously reported qualitative scoring systems (Tan & regional leptomeningeal collateral (rLMC) scores). RESULTS: The CBV ratio was an independent factor contributing to a good functional outcome (P<0.01) and was significantly correlated with the Tan score (ρ=0.73, P<0.01) and the rLMC score (ρ=0.77, P<0.01). Among the patients with recanalization, the CBV ratio was a useful parameter that predicted both a good functional outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), 0.76; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89) and a good radiological outcome (AUC-ROC, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97), and it was an independent predictor for good radiological outcome (OR: 4.38; 95% CI:1.29-14.82; P<0.01) in multivariate models. CONCLUSIONS: The CBV ratio is a suitable parameter for evaluating CS quantitatively for patients with AIS that can predict patient response to recanalization.


Assuntos
Volume Sanguíneo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Circulação Colateral , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Imagem de Perfusão , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Med Mycol ; 59(9): 855-863, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838030

RESUMO

Prototheca spp. are achlorophyllous algae, ubiquitous in nature. An increasing number of human and animal cases of Prototheca infection (protothecosis) are reported, and antifungal azoles, which inhibit sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51/ERG11) involved in ergosterol biosynthesis, have empirically been used for the treatment of protothecosis. Although Prototheca, like fungi, has ergosterol in the cell membrane, efficacy of the antifungal azoles in the treatment of protothecosis is controversial. For investigating the interaction of azole drugs with Prototheca CYP51/ERG11, the CYP51/ERG11 genomic genes of four strains of P. wickerhamii and one strain each of P. cutis and P. miyajii were isolated and characterized in this study. Compared with the CYP51/ERG11 gene of chlorophyllous Auxenochlorella Protothecoides, it is possible that ProtothecaCYP51/ERG11 gene, whose exon-intron structure appeared to be species-specific, lost introns associated with the loss of photosynthetic activity. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Prototheca CYP51/ERG11 and fungal CYP51/ERG11 are phylogenetically distant from each other although their overall structures are similar. Our basic in silico studies predicted that antifungal azoles could bind to the catalytic pocket of Prototheca CYP51/ERG11. It was also suggested that amino acid residues away from the catalytic pocket might affect the drug susceptibility. The results of this study may provide useful insights into the phylogenetic taxonomy of Prototheca spp. in relationship to the CYP51/ERG11 structure and development of novel therapeutic drugs for the treatment of protothecosis. LAY SUMMARY: Cases of infection by microalgae of Prototheca species are increasing. However, effective treatment has not been established yet. In this study, gene and structure of Prototheca's CYP51/ERG11, an enzyme which might serve as a target for therapeutic drugs, were characterized for the first time.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Azóis/farmacologia , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Prototheca/efeitos dos fármacos , Prototheca/genética , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/tratamento farmacológico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética
15.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12218, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The comprehensive detection of environmental chemicals in biospecimens, an indispensable task in exposome research, is advancing. This study aimed to develop an exposomic approach to identify urinary metabolites of organophosphate (OP) pesticides, specifically cadusafos and prothiofos metabolites, as an example chemical group, using an original metabolome dataset generated from animal experiments. METHODS: Urine samples from 73 university students were analyzed using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The metabolome data, including the exact masses, retention time (tR ), and tandem mass spectra obtained from the human samples, were compared with the existing reference databases and with our original metabolome dataset for cadusafos and prothiofos, which was produced from mice to whom two doses of these OPs were orally administered. RESULTS: Using the existing databases, one chromatographic peak was annotated as 2,4-dichlorophenol, which could be a prothiofos metabolite. Using our original dataset, one peak was annotated as a putative cadusafos metabolite and three peaks as putative prothiofos metabolites. Of these, all three peaks suggestive of prothiofos metabolites, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) oxane-2-carboxylic acid, and (2,4-dichlorophenyl) hydrogen sulfate were confirmed as authentic compounds by comparing their peak data with both the original dataset and peak data of the standard reagents. The putative cadusafos metabolite was identified as a level C compound (metabolite candidate with limited plausibility). CONCLUSIONS: Our developed method successfully identified prothiofos metabolites that are usually not a target of biomonitoring studies. Our approach is extensively applicable to various environmental contaminants beyond OP pesticides.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Organotiofosfatos/urina , Compostos Organotiofosforados/urina , Praguicidas/urina , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Valores de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Turk Neurosurg ; 31(3): 379-384, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759162

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the low-profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS or LVIS Jr.) stent, which is a braided microstent, and Enterprise Vascular Reconstructive Device (VRD), which is fabricated using laser cutting technology, in the treatment of internal carotid artery aneurysms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 49 unruptured aneurysm cases in which follow-up digital subtraction angiography had been performed. Results of the occlusion were divided into classes 1, 2, and 3 of the Raymond-Roy Occlusion Classification. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. RESULTS: In the 49 aneurysm cases, we achieved class 1 in 23 (47%; LVIS or LVIS Jr., 7; Enterprise, 16; p=0.76), class 2 in 13 (27%; LVIS or LVIS Jr., 5; Enterprise, 8; p=0.74), and class 3 in 13 (27%; LVIS or LVIS Jr., 5; Enterprise, 8; p=0.74). Based on the follow-up imaging of the 49 aneurysms, we achieved class 1 in 32 cases (65%; LVIS or LVIS Jr., 16; Enterprise, 16; p < 0.01), class 2 in 7 (14%; LVIS or LVIS Jr., 0; Enterprise, 7; p < 0.01), and class 3 in 10 (20%; LVIS or LVIS Jr., 1; Enterprise, 9; p=0.13). CONCLUSION: Recently, the flow diversion effect of stents has garnered more attention compared to coil embolization. LVIS or LVIS Jr. exerts a higher flow diversion effect than other stents and may improve the Raymond-Roy Occlusion Classification. In the future, the role of stents in the treatment of aneurysms will become more important.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Stents , Adulto , Idoso , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513597

RESUMO

In the research and development of micro air vehicles, understanding and imitating the flight mechanism of insects presents a viable way of progressing forward. While research is being conducted on the flight mechanism of insects such as flies and dragonflies, research on beetles that can carry larger loads is limited. Here, we clarified the beetle midlegs' role in the attenuation and cessation of the wingbeat. We anatomically confirmed the connection between the midlegs and the elytra. We also further clarified which pair of legs are involved in the wingbeat attenuation mechanism, and lastly demonstrated free-flight control via remote leg muscle stimulation. Observation of multiple landings using a high-speed camera revealed that the wingbeat stopped immediately after their midlegs were lowered. Moreover, the action of lowering the midleg attenuated and often stopped the wingbeat. A miniature remote stimulation device (backpack) mountable on beetles was designed and utilized for the free-flight demonstration. Beetles in free flight were remotely induced into lowering (swing down) each leg pair via electrical stimulation, and they were found to lose significant altitude only when the midlegs were stimulated. Thus, the results of this study revealed that swinging down of the midlegs played a significant role in beetle wingbeat cessation. In the future, our findings on the wingbeat attenuation and cessation mechanism are expected to be helpful in designing bioinspired micro air vehicles.

18.
Toxicology ; 450: 152679, 2021 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460720

RESUMO

Urinary dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are measured to assess exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), but they are common metabolites of OPs and not specific indices for individual agents. Biomonitoring (BM) of urinary DAPs has been widely adopted as an assessment of individual exposure in general environments, however, guidance values for DAPs based on health effects have yet to be established. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between the amount of urinary dimethylphosphate (DMP), a metabolite of dichlorvos (DDVP), and the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in rats exposed to DDVP. The relationship was analyzed using a nonlinear model analysis, and the excretion level of urinary DMP equivalent to ChE 20 % inhibition (EL20) and the lower limit of the 95 % confidence interval of EL20 (ELL20) were estimated. EL20 and ELL20 (mg/24 h urine) of brain, erythrocyte, and plasma ChE activities after 10-day administration of DDVP were 0.21 and 0.15, 0.11 and 0.06, and 0.23 and 0.09, respectively. Extrapolating ELL20 of the brain ChE to humans, the range of 24 h urinary DMP concentration according to the 20 % inhibition of cholinesterase activity was estimated to be 20.5-30.8 mg/l. In conclusion, the amount of urinary DMP as ELL20 for DDVP exposure was identified and could probably be used as a novel index for the assessment of risk from OP exposure. Further studies are needed to clarify the ELL20 s derived from OPs other than DDVP, for informing efforts to establish guidance values of urinary OP metabolites that should prevent neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Diclorvós/toxicidade , Dinâmica não Linear , Compostos Organofosforados/urina , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 41(1): 128-132, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148120

RESUMO

Evidence on laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC) is lacking. Herein, we describe the complications and outcomes of LSC. This single-centre, retrospective cohort study included women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) who underwent LSC between 2015 and 2017. Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and demographic data were collected. We evaluated patients using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system and questionnaires. The primary outcomes were operative characteristics, perioperative complications, early postoperative complications, and anatomical results at 12 months. Forty-six patients (median age: 71 years) underwent LSC. The median follow-up period was 12.0 ± 5.0 (range: 11-26) months. The perioperative complications were bladder perforation and vaginal injury (2.2%). Two (4.3%) patients required reoperation for port-site hernia. One (2.2%) patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess, and one (2.2%) had worsened stress urinary incontinence after LSC. Three (6.5%) patients presented with recurrence of prolapse. LSC is safe and effective for POP.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC) has become a widely used intervention strategy during the last decade; nevertheless, few studies have reported its outcomes and complications.What do the results of this study add? We demonstrate that LSC for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) has favourable anatomical and voiding functional results, and few perioperative complications. However, it is important to preoperatively inform patients regarding the incidence of mesh-related postoperative complications, although they are not life-threatening, and secure their informed consent.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? We believe that the LSC procedure, because of its short-term and functional outcomes in the lower urinary tract discussed here, will be more commonly available in clinical practice as a feasible and safe surgical option for POP. However, prospective, large-sample studies should be performed to verify the efficacy of LSC, as further evaluation of the procedure is required.


Assuntos
Colposcopia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Sacro/cirurgia , Idoso , Colposcopia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telas Cirúrgicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/etiologia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141630, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182171

RESUMO

Exposure levels of neonicotinoids (NEO) in young children remain unknown, despite their widespread use and the plausible vulnerability of toddlers to environmental toxicants. Herein we aimed to clarify the exposure levels and sources of NEOs in young Japanese children. Disposable diapers were collected from 1036 children (16-23 months old) participating in an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study between 2015 and 2016. Six NEOs and one metabolite in urine extracted from a diaper from each child were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A relative potency factor approach was used to assess the cumulative exposure to NEOs equivalent to dinotefuran levels (DINRPF). The 95th percentile urinary concentration of DINRPF was 157 µg/L and 380 µg/g creatinine (Cr). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for the propensity scores of the possible exposure-related factors revealed that the discriminatory powers determining whether Cr-adjusted and Cr-unadjusted DINRPF concentrations exceeding the 95th percentile values were higher for the amount of each foodstuff ingested on the survey day (areas under the curve were 0.62 and 0.75, respectively) than for the exposure-related behaviors (0.60 and 0.71, respectively) or for mothers' attitudes toward food selection and preparation (0.54 and 0.57, respectively). Use of a mosquito coil, insect repellent, and mothproof net for a screen door, and playing on a lawn were associated with increased urinary NEO levels (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0-2.9), while care about the child's nutritional balance by mothers reduced urinary NEO levels (OR: 0.23-0.41). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that dealt with urinary concentrations and possible exposure sources of NEOs in a large number of young children. Attention to the children's behavior and diet might result in the reduction of a high exposure to NEOs in young children.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Japão , Mães , Neonicotinoides
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