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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312620

RESUMO

The time to positivity (TTP) of blood culture has significant value for clinicians. However, almost all subjects of previous studies regarding TTP were adults and early infants. Therefore, careful attention is required when referring to previously published data, which might differ according to the age of subjects, as the tendency of infectious focus and pathogens identified from culture vary with age. In this study, we compared the TTP between two pediatric age groups (≤12 months and 13 months to 15 years [>12 months]) at a teaching hospital during a 5-year period. Of the 95 subjects, 41 and 54 were aged ≤12 and > 12 months, among whom true pathogenic bacteria were identified in 12 (29.3%) and 19 (35.2%), respectively. The median TTP for the younger group with pathogenic bacteria was 11.2 (interquartile range, 10.0-11.9) hours, which was significantly shorter than that for the older group (12.6 [interquartile range, 11.9-16.9] hours) (P = 0.01). At 12 h after the initiation of culture, the younger group with pathogenic bacteria had a significantly higher positivity rate (83.3%) than the older group (26.3%) (P < 0.01). The times required for the positivity to exceed 90% were 13.4 and 20.1 h for the younger and older pathogenic groups and 30.4 and 67.8 h for the younger and older contaminant groups, respectively. The range of TTP could be assessed more accurately by considering the effect of age on the infectious background.

2.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 215: 127-134, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Screening of early-stage keratoconus using auto-keratometer parameters. DESIGN: Evaluation of a screening approach. METHODS: At 5 major centers in Japan, we enrolled 123 eyes of 123 patients with Amsler-Krumeich classification stage 1 (<50 years of age [average 26.36 ± 8.68 years]; 84/39 male/female) and 205 eyes of 205 healthy subjects (average age 26.20 ± 7.34 years, 139/66 male/female). Participants were divided 2:1 into a prediction group and an application group. In the prediction group, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with keratoconus diagnosis as the dependent variable, and auto-keratometer parameters including average K, steep K, flat K, astigmatism, and astigmatic axis (no, with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique) as independent variables. The diagnostic probability determined by regression analysis was defined as the keratometer keratoconus index. The cutoff value was determined from the receiver operating characteristic curve. This prediction equation was evaluated in the application group. Our primary outcome measure was the accuracy of the prediction equation for discriminating keratoconus from normal eyes. RESULTS: The selected explanatory variables were steep K (partial regression coefficient [ß] 1.284, odds ratio [OR] 3.610), flat K (ß -0.618, OR 0.539), and with-the-rule astigmatism (ß -3.163, OR 0.042). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of keratometer keratoconus index was 0.90, which was significantly better than individual parameters (P < .001). The sensitivity and specificity values in the application group were 85.0% and 86.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sensitivity/specificity was not high, the new prediction equation using auto-keratometer-derived parameters enabled better discrimination of early-stage keratoconus than the isolated parameters.

3.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(3): e13271, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the major factors that affect morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant (KTx) patients. The rate of CMV seropositivity in children before KTx is lower than that in adults; therefore, pediatric KTx patients have a higher risk of CMV infection. In Japanese pediatric KTx patients, preemptive therapy for CMV infection is a main conventional therapy. This study investigated whether this preemptive treatment would affect kidney function at 2 years post-KTx. METHODS: A total of 163 patients, that is approximately half of the Japanese pediatric KTx patients nationwide, were recruited to participate in our study. We compared the values of the sequential estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at two years post-KTx and other influencing factors in CMV viremia, CMV disease, and no-infection groups. RESULTS: Cytomegalovirus infection after KTx occurred in 75 patients (46.0%), 38.7% of whom developed CMV disease. The sequential eGFR values post-KTx did not differ significantly between the three groups. CMV infection was not significantly correlated with other factors, other infections (including Epstein-Barr [EB] virus infection), acute rejection (AR), or adverse events. Only prolonged duration of total hospitalization was significantly associated with CMV infection (P = .002). In the multivariate analysis, younger age, CMV infection, and adverse effects were independently significantly related to prolonged total hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Preemptive therapy for CMV infection evidenced by viremia and disease did not significantly influence kidney function in Japanese pediatric KTx patients at two years after the operation.

4.
Vet Pathol ; 57(3): 418-426, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096446

RESUMO

This is a histopathologic and endocrinologic study of 6 calves diagnosed with cryptorchidism. Cases 1-3 were diagnosed as resembling testicular regression syndrome. In cases 1 and 2, the extracted tissue was a small, firm, gray-white mass, and there was lack of obvious testicular tissue in case 3. Histopathologically, the excised tissue in cases 1-3 was a fibrotic testicular remnant with inflammation, mineralization, hemosiderin-laden macrophages or lipofuscin-laden macrophages, and lack of germ cells and interstitial endocrine cells. These findings were compared with cases 4-6, which were diagnosed as testicular hypoplasia due to cryptorchidism. These cases had small but otherwise grossly unremarkable intra-abdominal testicular tissue and histologically had a few germ cells and sustentacular cells with arrested spermatogenesis and an increase in interstitial endocrine cells. Cases 1-3 had more severe degenerative changes compared with cases 4-6. In case 2, the average diameter of the seminiferous tubules was much smaller than in cases 4-6, and there were few tubule cross sections. Anti-Müllerian hormone (214 pg/ml) was detected in the plasma of case 2. Based on the macroscopic and histopathologic findings as well as endocrinologic profiles, the testicular degeneration in cases 1-3 was considered similar to that of testicular regression syndrome. In this condition, it is thought that a normally developing intra-abdominal testis undergoes degeneration due to heat or a vascular disorder such as torsion.

5.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 9, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Principal component analysis (PCA) is an essential method for analyzing single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) datasets, but for large-scale scRNA-seq datasets, computation time is long and consumes large amounts of memory. RESULTS: In this work, we review the existing fast and memory-efficient PCA algorithms and implementations and evaluate their practical application to large-scale scRNA-seq datasets. Our benchmark shows that some PCA algorithms based on Krylov subspace and randomized singular value decomposition are fast, memory-efficient, and more accurate than the other algorithms. CONCLUSION: We develop a guideline to select an appropriate PCA implementation based on the differences in the computational environment of users and developers.


Assuntos
Análise de Componente Principal , RNA-Seq/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Algoritmos , Benchmarking
6.
Eye (Lond) ; 34(3): 507-514, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332294

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report an initial case series of Japanese patients with refractory glaucoma treated with endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) using an ECP device that was equipped with a 532-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. METHODS: This observational case series included 10 consecutive glaucomatous eyes (7 with primary open-angle glaucoma; 3 with secondary glaucoma after cataract surgery) of 10 Japanese subjects (7 men, 3 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 65.7 ± 15.0 years) who underwent ECP to control intraocular pressure (IOP), and preserve visual function. Age, sex, glaucoma type, ocular surgical history, preoperative and postoperative logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (VA), IOP, number of antiglaucoma medications, perioperative complications, and treatments for complications were collected from the medical and surgical records. The IOP and numbers of antiglaucoma medications were compared between preoperative and postoperative values. RESULTS: The mean preoperative IOP (27.3 ± 5.4 mm Hg; range, 19-36) and number of antiglaucoma medications (4.4 ± 0.8; range, 3-6) decreased significantly by 53% and 39% ( p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0043, respectively) to 12.9 ± 5.2 mm Hg (range, 8-20) and 2.7 ± 1.4 (range, 0-4), respectively, at the final visit. Compared with preoperative values, a mixed-effect regression model showed significant decreases in the IOP and numbers of medications at every time point up to 24 months postoperatively. No phthisis bulbi or persistent hypotony was recorded. At the final visit, compared with preoperative values, the VA decreased in three eyes by >0.2 unit because of glaucoma progression. CONCLUSIONS: ECP with Nd:YAG laser is a reasonable option in eyes with refractory glaucoma.

8.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1270-1277, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381237

RESUMO

The slope-ratio assay for rat was used to determine whether tryptophan (Trp) availability in soybean meal (SBM) is affected by the presence of other amino acids (AAs). In a preliminary study, rats were fed graded levels of Trp-supplemented diets to establish the Trp concentration range over which the weight gain response was linear. This range was found to be from 0.04% to 0.12% Trp. Subsequently, rats were fed basal (0.045% Trp) or Trp-supplemented diets from three different sources: l-Trp alone, SBM, or l-Trp mixed with other AAs to reflect AA levels in the test SBM (AA-mix). Weight gain in rats increased linearly with supplemental Trp intake (p < .05) for all Trp sources. Compared to the slope achieved with l-Trp alone, the estimated availability of Trp in SBM was 84.4%, while for the AA-mix it was 93.4%. It is evident that the 6.6% reduction in l-Trp availability in AA-mix is due to metabolic costs derived from excess levels of other AAs beside Trp, given that the absorption of crystalline l-Trp in the small intestine is 100%. In conclusion, the Trp availability of SBM was estimated to be around 90.4% (i.e., 84.4/93.4 × 100) after correcting for the effects of the other AAs in SBM.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Triptofano , Ração Animal , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Ratos , Ganho de Peso
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 859: 172521, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276666

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors prevent the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and improve glycemic control. The GLP-1 insulinotropic effect involves a pathway through vagus nerve GLP-1 receptors in the gut, in addition to a direct effect on the pancreas. Therefore, this study verified whether DPP-4 inhibition in the gut contributed to the improvement of glycemic control. Anagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, was administered orally or subcutaneously (with or without passing through the gastrointestinal tract, respectively) to mice. The association between blood glucose suppression following oral glucose challenge and DPP-4 inhibition in the small intestine and plasma was assessed. Oral administration of anagliptin (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) in normal mice significantly suppressed blood glucose, which was associated with an increase in insulin secretion at a dose of ≥0.1 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Subcutaneous administration of anagliptin (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) produced similar results. However, plasma DPP-4 inhibition following oral administration was weaker than that following subcutaneous administration; blood glucose suppression was significantly correlated with small intestinal DPP-4 inhibition (r = 0.949, P < 0.01), but not with plasma DPP-4 inhibition. Additionally, similar results were observed in a type 2 diabetes model (r = 0.975, P < 0.001). Thus, these results demonstrated that an improvement in glycemic control was dependent upon small intestinal DPP-4 inhibition. As these effects were accompanied by the elevation of intact GLP-1 in the portal, this suggests that improvement in glucose tolerance after anagliptin treatment might be related to an increase in GLP-1 receptor signaling in the small intestine and portal vein.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Incretinas/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Incretinas/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
10.
Intern Med ; 58(20): 2993-3000, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243236

RESUMO

Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked hereditary disorder (Xq22) caused by a deficiency in alpha-galactosidase activity. A 34-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of renal dysfunction. He had previously undergone pacemaker implantation at 24 years of age. Investigations revealed undetectable alpha-galactosidase A activity levels. Renal biopsy results indicated vacuolization of podocytes. A genetic analysis revealed that the patient carried the W340X mutation. Enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase beta was started. This case is novel because most cases of FD nephropathy precede cardiac disease. In our patient, the cardiac event was the initial event, and renal impairment followed.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Doença de Fabry/complicações , Marca-Passo Artificial , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas/complicações , Biópsia , Eletrocardiografia , Doença de Fabry/genética , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico
11.
Clin Case Rep ; 7(5): 1007-1011, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110736

RESUMO

Despite the requirement for histopathological evidence to make a definite diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis, the sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsy is still low. Recently, Japanese Circulation Society suggests a new strategy that patients diagnosed clinically do not require the endomyocardial biopsy evidence. Physicians should familiarize themselves with such paradigm shifts.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical significance of color visual acuity (CVA) in preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) and open-angle glaucoma (OAG). METHODS: A total of 123 eyes of 73 subjects (22 normal eyes, 14 PPG eyes, and 87 OAG eyes; mean age: 44.9 ± 10.1 years, age range: 21-64 years) were enrolled. CVA was tested for red, green-yellow, blue-green and blue-purple with a newly developed test. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in clinical background factors, including age, sex, intraocular pressure, or spherical equivalent between the three groups. Red VA and blue-green VA were significantly worse in the OAG eyes than in the normal eyes (P = 0.008 and P = 0.015, respectively), although green-yellow VA and blue-purple VA were not significantly worse. Furthermore, red VA and blue-green VA were significantly correlated with MD in a group of eyes with either PPG or OAG (r = -0.23, P = 0.023; r = -0.25, P = 0.012, respectively), but green-yellow VA and blue-purple VA were not. CONCLUSION: Red VA and blue-green VA were detectably worse in eyes with OAG, in close association with the degree of functional loss. This suggests that measuring CVA with the new color test described here may be a promising supplement to existing methods of detecting glaucoma and evaluating its severity.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Gen Fam Med ; 20(2): 65-67, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873307

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) has been known to have a favorable prognosis. Beta-blockers are reported to be effective for TTS patients with cardiogenic heart failure due to left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. However, there is no report on ultrashort-acting beta-blockers being used for treating TTS, and there are no clear guidelines for their dosages or applications. Herein, we describe a 72-year-old woman in whom landiolol hydrochloride was used in the acute phase of TTS with LVOT obstruction. In this case, the dose of landiolol hydrochloride was increased to 10 µg/kg/min, resulting in improvement of LVOT obstruction, which led to hemodynamic stabilization.

14.
Radiol Phys Technol ; 12(1): 76-85, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569400

RESUMO

Radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) often uses computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed utilizing various section thickness and field-of-view (FOV) settings. Based on these images, a geometrical model is created by setting material regions manually over the pixel space defined in the treatment planning system. Thus, a setting difference of several pixels inevitably occurs in creation of the model. The influence of different section thicknesses and FOVs on thermal neutron flux estimations using the BNCT planning system was studied here. A virtual phantom was created with six FOV sizes on the planning system. The position of the irradiated side of the phantom surface was shifted by 1-10 pixels along the beam direction or in the opposite direction to simulate the material setting on different pixels in the geometric model. The effect of a one-pixel-difference setting on thermal neutron flux increased with increasing FOV size. Next, a cylindrical and a spherical phantom were scanned, and each CT image was reconstructed with six FOV sizes and seven section thicknesses. The flux changes for all conditions were compared, with an allowable error rate of ± 0.05, as in conventional X-ray radio therapy. The accuracy of neutron flux estimations was also evaluated by repeating the calculation procedures with CT scanning 5 or 10 times, and was found to be mostly within 0.03, except for the FOV-500 condition (0.074). These results suggested that a smaller FOV and section thickness with realistic conditions could improve evaluation accuracy of the thermal neutron flux for BNCT.


Assuntos
Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro , Nêutrons , Doses de Radiação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Temperatura , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
15.
Retina ; 39(5): 896-905, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370029

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential of subretinal endoscopic surgery as a novel treatment for large subretinal hemorrhage secondary to age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: Five patients with large subretinal hemorrhage secondary to age-related macular degeneration underwent subretinal endoscopic surgery, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. RESULTS: The large subretinal hemorrhage was completely removed by subretinal endoscopic surgery without a large retinotomy in all cases. The fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment including choroidal neovascularization was completely removed in four cases. In three of these cases, the bleeding was confirmed to be originating from one point of rupture in the Bruch membrane, which was treated by coagulation using intraocular diathermy. Although visual acuity improved in three cases, it deteriorated and remained stable in one case each. Fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment persisted in one patient after surgery; he needed anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, whereas the other four did not because their fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment was removed. At the final follow-up, no severe postoperative complications, such as retinal detachment or proliferative vitreoretinopathy, were noted. CONCLUSION: Subretinal endoscopic surgery can completely remove subretinal hemorrhage and fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment including choroidal neovascularization without a large retinotomy. It also aids in the direct and detailed confirmation of subretinal lesions by ophthalmic endoscope.

16.
Intern Med ; 58(5): 675-678, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333397

RESUMO

The effects of bariatric/metabolic surgery on glycemic control in obese type 1 diabetic patients are controversial. We herein report a case of a morbidly obese 35-year-old woman who completely recovered from slowly progressive type 1 diabetes (SPIDDM) following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Preoperatively, her body mass index (BMI) was 49.8 kg/m2 and hemoglobin A1c was 5.7% with intensive insulin therapy. Six months after bariatric/metabolic surgery, her BMI decreased to 33.2 kg/m2 and her glycemic control was normal despite the discontinuation of all diabetic medicine. This case demonstrates the usefulness of bariatric/metabolic surgery for achieving glycemic control in morbidly obese patients with SPIDDM in Japan.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/cirurgia , Gastrectomia/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Indução de Remissão
17.
Retina ; 39(6): 1066-1075, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528982

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of novel endoscope-assisted vitreous surgery techniques in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated by Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy. METHODS: Eight consecutive patients who had undergone endoscope-assisted vitreous surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated by Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy were investigated. The peripheral vitreous was cut under air with the aid of endoscopic view (atmospheric endoscopic technique), and the subretinal proliferation was removed under subretinal endoscopic observation (subretinal endoscopic technique). RESULTS: Retinal reattachment was achieved after the primary surgery without a large retinotomy and scleral buckling in each case. The mean follow-up was 16.8 months (range, 8-28 months). Atmospheric endoscopic technique was performed in all cases, and subretinal endoscopic technique was performed in three cases. After surgery, the mean best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved from 20/778 to 20/111 (P = 0.014). Although microretinal breaks occurred during the removal of vitreous using atmospheric endoscopic technique in all cases, there were no severe postoperative complications, such as retinal detachment or proliferative vitreoretinopathy. CONCLUSION: Endoscope-assisted vitreous surgery with atmospheric endoscopic technique and/or subretinal endoscopic technique is safe and effective in the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

18.
BMC Nephrol ; 19(1): 312, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid decline in renal dysfunction due to primary renal lymphoma, or secondary renal lymphoma by infiltration from a primary origin, is extremely rare. There are notably few reports indicating infiltration of T-cell lymphoma into the kidney. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old woman with a sudden body rash and liver dysfunction was brought to our hospital presenting with a dull headache and blurred vision. Laboratory tests revealed rapidly progressive renal failure. Histological examination of the kidney and skin indicated infiltration of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Infiltration of PTCL-NOS to the liver and spleen, and presence of Uveitis masquerade syndrome were suspected. Imaging showed that the lesion was limited to extralymphatic organs. Renal function was improved with administration of steroids, including pulse steroid therapy, before administering cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of rapidly progressive renal failure caused by perivascular tubulointerstitial nephritis with the direct invasion of PTCL-NOS. In our case, a single steroid dose showed dramatic results with respect to renal symptoms.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefrite Intersticial/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Uveíte/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/sangue , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrite Intersticial/sangue , Nefrite Intersticial/complicações , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Fatores de Tempo , Uveíte/sangue , Uveíte/complicações
19.
Breed Sci ; 68(4): 413-419, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369815

RESUMO

Bacterial grain rot (BGR), caused by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae, is one of the most destructive rice (Oryza sativa) diseases in Japan; however, there are no BGR-resistant cultivars for use in Japan. We previously developed a cut-panicle inoculation method to assess the levels of BGR resistance in the World Rice Collection (WRC). Here, we evaluated major Japanese cultivars for BGR resistance and found that none showed "strong" or "medium to strong" resistance; most were categorized as "medium to weak". On the basis of the screening results, standard cultivars for BGR resistance were selected according to resistance level and relative maturity. Our results indicate that it is necessary to introduce quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from indica or tropical japonica resistant cultivars into Japanese temperate japonica to develop BGR-resistant cultivars for Japan. We previously developed a near-isogenic line (RBG2-NIL) by introducing the genomic region containing RBG2 from 'Kele' (indica) into 'Hitomebore'. In this experiment, we confirmed the resistance level of RBG2-NIL. The resistance score of RBG2-NIL was "medium to strong", indicating its effectiveness against BGR.

20.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 12: 1-8, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182068

RESUMO

In oncology, next generation sequencing and comprehensive genomic profiling have enabled the detailed classification of tumors using molecular biology. However, it is unrealistic to conduct phase I-III trials according to each sub-population based on patient molecular subtypes. Common protocols that assess the combination of several molecular markers and their targeted therapies by means of multiple sub-studies are required. These protocols are called "master protocols," and are drawing attention as a next-generation clinical trial design. Recently, several reviews of clinical trials based on the master protocol design have been published, but their definitions of these such trials, including basket, umbrella, and platform trials, were not consistent. Concurrently, the acceleration of the development of new statistical designs for master protocol trials has been underway. This article provides an overview of recent reviews for master protocols, including their statistical design methodologies in Oncology. We also introduce several examples of previous and on-going master protocol trials along with their classifications by some recent studies.

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