Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 289
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2411, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160671

RESUMO

Despite more than a century of study, the fundamental mechanisms behind solid melting remain elusive at the nanoscale. Ultrafast phenomena in materials irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses have revived the interest in unveiling the puzzling processes of melting transitions. However, direct experimental validation of various microscopic models is limited due to the difficulty of imaging the internal structures of materials undergoing ultrafast and irreversible transitions. Here we overcome this challenge through time-resolved single-shot diffractive imaging using X-ray free electron laser pulses. Images of single Au nanoparticles show heterogeneous melting at the surface followed by density fluctuation deep inside the particle, which is directionally correlated to the polarization of the pumping laser. Observation of this directionality links the non-thermal electronic excitation to the thermal lattice melting, which is further verified by molecular dynamics simulations. This work provides direct evidence to the understanding of irreversible melting with an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

3.
Opt Lett ; 44(10): 2582-2585, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090737

RESUMO

We present the concept and a prototypical implementation of a compact x-ray split-delay system that is capable of performing continuous on-the-fly delay scans over a range of ∼10 ps with sub-100 nanoradian pointing stability. The system consists of four channel-cut silicon crystals, two of which have gradually varying gap sizes from intentional 5 deg asymmetric cuts. The delay adjustment is realized by linear motions of these two monolithic varying-gap channel cuts, where the x-ray beam experiences pairs of anti-parallel reflections, and thus becomes less sensitive in output beam pointing to motion imperfections of the translation stages. The beam splitting is accomplished by polished crystal edges. A high degree of mutual coherence between the two branches at the focus is observed by analyzing small-angle coherent x-ray scattering patterns. We envision a wide range of applications including single-shot x-ray pulse temporal diagnostics, studies of high-intensity x-ray-matter interactions, as well as measurement of dynamics in disordered material systems using split-pulse x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

4.
Langmuir ; 35(20): 6719-6726, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038315

RESUMO

Six amylose derivative (C12CMA) samples with hydrophobic dodecyl ether groups and hydrophilic sodium carboxymethyl groups were synthesized from an enzymatically synthesized amylose for which the weight-average molar mass is 50 kg mol-1 to realize amylose-based amphiphilic polymer micelles. The degree of substitution of hydrophobic (DSC12) and hydrophilic (DSCM) groups ranges between 0.076 and 0.39 and between 0.35 and 1.83, respectively. Static and dynamic light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and fluorescence measurements with pyrene as a probe were carried out for the samples in 150 mM aqueous NaCl to characterize the higher-order structure in solution. The fluorescence from pyrene showed that all six samples have hydrophobic environment, while the hydrophobicity tends to increase with rising DSC12. All six samples have high scattering intensity owing to the relatively large concentrated droplets ranging in the hydrodynamic radius from 50 to 110 nm, whereas the weight fraction of such large particles is substantially small except for the highest DSC12 sample. Most polymer chains for relatively low DSC12 of 0.076 were molecularly dispersed with a very small amount of large droplets. The dispersed chain has a slightly smaller helix pitch per residue and a more rigid main chain than those for amylose in dimethyl sulfoxide, suggesting that the amylosic main chain of C12CMA has a helical structure with dodecyl groups at least locally. On the other hand, an anisotropic shaped micelle-like structure is only found for relatively high DSC12 (0.23 and 0.39) samples, which was detected by the SAXS profile at a high scattering vector range. The micelle structure for high DSC12 samples is consistent with the high chain stiffness.

5.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 3): 647-652, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074427

RESUMO

A compact and robust diagnostic to determine spatial and temporal overlap between X-ray free-electron laser and optical laser pulses was developed and evaluated using monochromatic X-rays from the Linac Coherent Light Source. It was used to determine temporal overlap with a resolution of ∼10 fs, despite the large pulse energy fluctuations of the monochromatic X-ray pulses, and covers a wide optical wavelength range from ultraviolet to near-infrared with a single configuration.

6.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 3): 685-691, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074431

RESUMO

Experimental methods that use free-electron laser (FEL) sources that can deliver short X-ray pulses below a 10 fs pulse duration and traditional optical lasers are ideal tools for pump-probe experiments. However, these new methods also come with a unique set of challenges, such as how to accurately determine temporal overlap between two sources at the femtosecond scale and how to correct for the pulse-to-pulse beam property fluctuations of the FEL light derived from the self-amplified spontaneous emission process. Over the past several years of performing pump-probe experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), new methods and tools have been developed to improve the ways experimental timing is measured, monitored and scanned. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the most commonly used techniques at LCLS to perform pump-probe-type experiments.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6769, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043675

RESUMO

AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) functions as a tumor suppressor and several therapeutic targets in ARID1A-mutated cancers are under development. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of ARID1A for gastric cancer and its association with expression of PD-L1 and p53. ARID1A expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and negative expression of ARID1A was detected in 39 (19.5%) of 200 cases in a test cohort and in 40 (18.2%) of 220 cases in a validation cohort. Negative expression of ARID1A was associated with worse overall survival in undifferentiated cases, particularly early-stage cases. Negative expression of ARID1A was detected in 11 (50%) of 22 PD-L1-positive cases and in 68 (17.1%) of 398 PD-L1-negative cases in a combined cohort. Negative expression of ARID1A was detected in 45 (22%) of 205 p53-positive cases and in 34 (15.8%) of 215 p53-negative cases in a combined cohort. In addition, expression of EZH2, a potential synthetic lethal target in ARID1A-mutated tumors, was detected in 79 ARID1A-negative cases. An ARID1A-knockdown gastric cancer cell line was subjected to microarray analysis, but no actionable targets or pathways were identified. The present results indicate that ARID1A may serve as an early-stage prognostic biomarker for undifferentiated gastric cancer.

8.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 2): 346-357, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855242

RESUMO

The Macromolecular Femtosecond Crystallography (MFX) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the seventh and newest instrument at the world's first hard X-ray free-electron laser. It was designed with a primary focus on structural biology, employing the ultrafast pulses of X-rays from LCLS at atmospheric conditions to overcome radiation damage limitations in biological measurements. It is also capable of performing various time-resolved measurements. The MFX design consists of a versatile base system capable of supporting multiple methods, techniques and experimental endstations. The primary techniques supported are forward scattering and crystallography, with capabilities for various spectroscopic methods and time-resolved measurements. The location of the MFX instrument allows for utilization of multiplexing methods, increasing user access to LCLS by running multiple experiments simultaneously.

10.
Adapt Phys Activ Q ; : 1-18, 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525919

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the reflections of adults with visual impairments regarding paraeducator support during their school-based integrated physical education. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used, and 9 adults (age 21-34 years; 8 women and 1 man) with visual impairments acted as participants. Semistructured audio-recorded telephone interviews and reflective field notes were sources of data. A 3-step analytic process was adopted for thematic development. Based on the data analysis, 3 interrelated themes emerged: "they wouldn't let me participate"-restriction in the name of safety, "stuck out like a big tree in a field full of poppies"-unwanted social attention and isolation, and "I felt like they weren't trained"-paraeducator disengagement and training needs. The themes highlight concerns expressed by the participants, such as the need for paraeducator training, that should be considered when using paraeducator support during physical education.

11.
Knee Surg Relat Res ; 30(4): 293-302, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466250

RESUMO

Purpose: High tibial valgus osteotomy (HTO) is a well-established surgical procedure for patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The hybrid closed-wedge HTO (CWHTO) procedure permits extensive correction in patients with severe deformities or patellofemoral joint OA. The aim of this study was to report the short-term results in a consecutive series of patients treated with hybrid CWHTO. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcomes and radiographic parameters in 29 consecutive knees that underwent hybrid CWTHO to correct medial compartment OA at an average follow-up of 52.6 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Lysholm score and knee scoring system of the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA). The Kellgren-Lawrence grading system and pre- and postoperative mechanical axis (MA), femorotibial angle (FTA), posterior tibial slope, and patella height were assessed. Results: The FTA and MA significantly changed from 180.7° to 170.4° and from 22.0° to 60.2°, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the mean pre- and postoperative posterior tibial slope, Insall-Salvati ratio, or Caton-Deschamps index. The postoperative JOA and Lysholm scores significantly improved from 76.7 to 95.8 and from 58.8 to 90.2, respectively. Conclusions: Satisfactory outcomes can be achieved with hybrid CWHTO in patients with medial OA.

12.
Cell ; 175(5): 1244-1258.e26, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454645

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) promotes transcriptional elongation through RNAPII pause release. We now report that CDK9 is also essential for maintaining gene silencing at heterochromatic loci. Through a live cell drug screen with genetic confirmation, we discovered that CDK9 inhibition reactivates epigenetically silenced genes in cancer, leading to restored tumor suppressor gene expression, cell differentiation, and activation of endogenous retrovirus genes. CDK9 inhibition dephosphorylates the SWI/SNF protein BRG1, which contributes to gene reactivation. By optimization through gene expression, we developed a highly selective CDK9 inhibitor (MC180295, IC50 = 5 nM) that has broad anti-cancer activity in vitro and is effective in in vivo cancer models. Additionally, CDK9 inhibition sensitizes to the immune checkpoint inhibitor α-PD-1 in vivo, making it an excellent target for epigenetic therapy of cancer.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(12): 125901, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296113

RESUMO

We report channel-resolved measurements of the anharmonic coupling of the coherent A_{1g} phonon in photoexcited bismuth to pairs of high wave vector acoustic phonons. The decay of a coherent phonon can be understood as a parametric resonance process whereby the atomic displacement periodically modulates the frequency of a broad continuum of modes. This coupling drives temporal oscillations in the phonon mean-square displacements at the A_{1g} frequency that are observed across the Brillouin zone by femtosecond x-ray diffuse scattering. We extract anharmonic coupling constants between the A_{1g} and several representative decay channels that are within an order of magnitude of density functional perturbation theory calculations.

14.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 29 Suppl 16: 436-442, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Working Group 5 was assigned the task to review the current knowledge in the area of digital technologies. Focused questions on accuracy of linear measurements when using CBCT, digital vs. conventional implant planning, using digital vs. conventional impressions and assessing the accuracy of static computer-aided implant surgery (s-CAIS) and patient-related outcome measurements when using s-CAIS were addressed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature was systematically searched, and in total, 232 articles were selected and critically reviewed following PRISMA guidelines. Four systematic reviews were produced in the four subject areas and amply discussed in the group. After emendation, they were presented to the plenary where after further modification, they were accepted. RESULTS: Static computer-aided surgery (s-CAIS), in terms of pain & discomfort, economics and intraoperative complications, is beneficial compared with conventional implant surgery. When using s-CAIS in partially edentulous cases, a higher level of accuracy can be achieved when compared to fully edentulous cases. When using an intraoral scanner in edentulous cases, the results are dependent on the protocol that has been followed. The accuracy of measurements on CBCT scans is software dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Because the precision intraoral scans and of measurements on CBCT scans and is not high enough to allow for the required accuracy, s-CAIS should be considered as an additional tool for comprehensive diagnosis, treatment planning, and surgical procedures. Flapless s-CAIS can lead to implant placement outside of the zone of keratinized mucosa and thus must be executed with utmost care.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151222

RESUMO

Background: Since both the antibacterial effects and common adverse effects of colistin are concentration-dependent, determination of the most appropriate dosage regimen and administration method for colistin therapy is essential to ensure its efficacy and safety. We aimed to establish a rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based system for the clinical determination of colistin serum concentrations. Methods: Extraction using a solid-phase C18 cartridge, derivatisation with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate, and elution with a short reversed-phase Cl8 column effectively separated colistin from an internal standard. The HPLC apparatus and conditions were as follows: analytical column, Hydrosphere C18; sample injection volume, 50 µL; column temperature, 40 °C; detector, Shimadzu RF-5300 fluorescence spectrophotometer (excitation wavelength, 260 nm; emission wavelength, 315 nm); mobile phase, acetonitrile/tetrahydrofuran/distilled water (50,14,20, v/v/v); flow-rate, 1.6 mL/min. Results: The calibration curves obtained for colistin were linear in the concentration range of 0.10-8.0 µg/mL. The regression equation was y = 0.6496× - 0.0141 (r2 = 0.9999). The limit of detection was ~ 0.025 µg/mL, and the assay intra- and inter-day precisions were 0.87-3.74% and 1.97-6.17%, respectively. The analytical peaks of colistin A, colistin B, and the internal standard were resolved with adequate peak symmetries, and their retention times were approximately 8.2, 6.8, and 5.4 min, respectively. Furthermore, the assay was successfully applied to quantify the plasma colistin levels of a haemodialysis patient. Conclusion: The assay is a simple, rapid, accurate, selective, clinically applicable HPLC-based method for the quantification of colistin in human plasma.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097435

RESUMO

Purpose: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is required for normal mammary gland development and biology. A PTHLH gene polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk, and PTHrP promotes growth of osteolytic breast cancer bone metastases. Accordingly, current dogma holds that PTHrP is upregulated in malignant primary breast tumors, but solid evidence for this assumption is missing.Experimental Design: We used quantitative IHC to measure PTHrP in normal and malignant breast epithelia, and correlated PTHrP levels in primary breast cancer with clinical outcome.Results: PTHrP levels were markedly downregulated in malignant compared with normal breast epithelia. Moreover, low levels of nuclear localized PTHrP in cancer cells correlated with unfavorable clinical outcome in a test and a validation cohort of breast cancer treated at different institutions totaling nearly 800 cases. PTHrP mRNA levels in tumors of a third cohort of 737 patients corroborated this association, also after multivariable adjustment for standard clinicopathologic parameters. Breast cancer PTHrP levels correlated strongly with transcription factors Stat5a/b, which are established markers of favorable prognosis and key mediators of prolactin signaling. Prolactin stimulated PTHrP transcript and protein in breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo, effects mediated by Stat5 through the P2 gene promoter, producing transcript AT6 encoding the PTHrP 1-173 isoform. Low levels of AT6, but not two alternative transcripts, correlated with poor clinical outcome.Conclusions: This study overturns the prevailing view that PTHrP is upregulated in primary breast cancers and identifies a direct prolactin-Stat5-PTHrP axis that is progressively lost in more aggressive tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 1-12. ©2018 AACR.

17.
Microbes Environ ; 33(2): 222-226, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29910221

RESUMO

Experimental contamination by exogenous DNA is a major issue in molecular biological studies for data quality and its management. We herein assessed DNA aerosols for the risk of contamination and tested the capacity of clean air filters to trap and remove DNA aerosols. DNA aerosols were generated by atomizing a DNA solution and introduced into a laminar flow clean air unit. Capture and detection performed upstream and downstream of the clean air unit showed that a significant fraction (>99.96%) of introduced molecules was trapped and removed by the filter. Although DNA aerosols appear to be an avoidable source of exogenous contamination, a clearer understanding and careful experimental procedures are needed in order to perform contamination-free, high-quality molecular biology experiments.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , DNA/normas , Filtração/normas , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Biologia Molecular/normas , Aerossóis/análise , DNA/análise , Contaminação por DNA , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Medição de Risco
18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1917, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765052

RESUMO

The dynamics of liquid water feature a variety of time scales, ranging from extremely fast ballistic-like thermal motion, to slower molecular diffusion and hydrogen-bond rearrangements. Here, we utilize coherent X-ray pulses to investigate the sub-100 fs equilibrium dynamics of water from ambient conditions down to supercooled temperatures. This novel approach utilizes the inherent capability of X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy to measure equilibrium intermolecular dynamics with lengthscale selectivity, by measuring oxygen motion in momentum space. The observed decay of the speckle contrast at the first diffraction peak, which reflects tetrahedral coordination, is attributed to motion on a molecular scale within the first 120 fs. Through comparison with molecular dynamics simulations, we conclude that the slowing down upon cooling from 328 K down to 253 K is not due to simple thermal ballistic-like motion, but that cage effects play an important role even on timescales over 25 fs due to hydrogen-bonding.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(6)2018 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collateral arteries provide an alternative blood supply and protect tissues from ischemic damage in patients with peripheral artery disease. However, the mechanism of collateral artery development is difficult to validate. METHODS AND RESULTS: Collateral arteries were visualized using micro-x-ray computed tomography. Developmental characteristics were assessed using confocal microscopy. We conducted a single-center, retrospective, observational study and assessed the dilatation of collateral arteries on ischemic sides. We quantified the vascular volume in both ischemic and nonischemic legs. A prominent increase in vascular volume was observed in the ischemic leg using a murine hind-limb ischemia model. We also performed qualitative assessment and confirmed that the inferior gluteal artery functioned as a major collateral source. Serial analysis of murine hind-limb vessel development revealed that the inferior gluteal artery was a remnant of the ischial artery, which emerged as a representative vessel on the dorsal side during hind-limb organogenesis. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients who were admitted for the diagnosis or treatment of peripheral artery disease. The diameter of the inferior gluteal artery on the ischemic side showed significant dilatation compared with that on the nonischemic side. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that an embryonic remnant artery can become a collateral source under ischemic conditions. Flow enhancement in the inferior gluteal artery might become a novel therapeutic approach for patients with peripheral artery disease.

20.
Cell Metab ; 27(4): 786-804, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576534

RESUMO

Ghrelin, a gastric-derived acylated peptide, regulates energy homeostasis by transmitting information about peripheral nutritional status to the brain, and is essential for protecting organisms against famine. Ghrelin operates brain circuits to regulate homeostatic and hedonic feeding. Recent research advances have shed new light on ghrelin's multifaceted roles in cellular homeostasis, which could maintain the internal environment and overcome metaflammation in metabolic organs. Here, we highlight our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the ghrelin system in energy metabolism and cellular homeostasis and its clinical trials. Future studies of ghrelin will further elucidate how the stomach regulates systemic homeostasis.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA