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2.
Diabetologia ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618177

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We assessed the real-world effect of flash monitor (FM) usage on HbA1c levels and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and severe hospitalised hypoglycaemia (SHH) rates among people with type 1 diabetes in Scotland and across sociodemographic strata within this population. METHODS: This study was retrospective, observational and registry based. Using the national diabetes registry, 14,682 individuals using an FM at any point between 2014 and mid-2020 were identified. Within-person change from baseline in HbA1c following FM initiation was modelled using linear mixed models accounting for within-person pre-exposure trajectory. DKA and SHH events were captured through linkage to hospital admission and mortality data. The difference in DKA and SHH rates between FM-exposed and -unexposed person-time was assessed among users, using generalised linear mixed models with a Poisson likelihood. In a sensitivity analysis, we tested whether changes in these outcomes were seen in an age-, sex- and baseline HbA1c-matched sample of non-users over the same time period. RESULTS: Prevalence of ever-FM use was 45.9% by mid-2020, with large variations by age and socioeconomic status: 64.3% among children aged <13 years vs 32.7% among those aged ≥65 years; and 54.4% vs 36.2% in the least-deprived vs most-deprived quintile. Overall, the median (IQR) within-person change in HbA1c in the year following FM initiation was -2.5 (-9.0, 2.5) mmol/mol (-0.2 [-0.8, 0.2]%). The change varied widely by pre-usage HbA1c: -15.5 (-31.0, -4.0) mmol/mol (-1.4 [-2.8, -0.4]%) in those with HbA1c > 84 mmol/mol [9.8%] and 1.0 (-2.0, 5.5) mmol/mol (0.1 [-0.2, 0.5]%) in those with HbA1c < 54 mmol/mol (7.1%); the corresponding estimated fold change (95% CI) was 0.77 (0.76, 0.78) and 1.08 (1.07, 1.09). Significant reductions in HbA1c were found in all age bands, sexes and socioeconomic strata, and regardless of prior/current pump use, completion of a diabetes education programme or early FM adoption. Variation between the strata of these factors beyond that driven by differing HbA1c at baseline was slight. No change in HbA1c in matched non-users was observed in the same time period (median [IQR] within-person change = 0.5 [-5.0, 5.5] mmol/mol [0.0 (-0.5, 0.5)%]). DKA rates decreased after FM initiation overall and in all strata apart from the adolescents. Estimated overall reduction in DKA event rates (rate ratio) was 0.59 [95% credible interval (CrI) 0.53, 0.64]) after FM vs before FM initiation, accounting for pre-exposure trend. Finally, among those at higher risk for SHH, estimated reduction in event rates was rate ratio 0.25 (95%CrI 0.20, 0.32) after FM vs before FM initiation. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: FM initiation is associated with clinically important reductions in HbA1c and striking reduction in DKA rate. Increasing uptake among the socioeconomically disadvantaged offers considerable potential for tightening the current socioeconomic disparities in glycaemia-related outcomes.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to evaluate secondary stroke prevention in Poland and its association with sociodemographic factors, place of residence, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From all patients in LIPIDOGRAM2015 Study (n = 13,724), 268 subjects had a history of ischaemic stroke and were included. RESULTS: 165 subjects (61.6%) used at least one preventive medication. Oral antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents were used by 116 (43.3%) and 70 (26.1%) patients, respectively. Only 157 (58.6%) participants used lipid-lowering drugs, and 205 (76.5%) were treated with antihypertensive drugs. Coronary heart disease (CHD) and dyslipidaemia were associated with antiplatelet treatment (p = 0.047 and p = 0.012, respectively). A history of atrial fibrillation, CHD, and previous myocardial infarction correlated with anticoagulant treatment (p = 0.001, p = 0.011, and p < 0.0001, respectively). Age, gender, time from stroke onset, place of residence, and level of education were not associated with antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment. Only 31.7% of patients were engaged in regular physical activity, 62% used appropriate diet, and 13.6% were current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: In Poland drugs and lifestyle modification for secondary stroke prevention are not commonly adhered to. Educational programmes for physicians and patients should be developed to improve application of effective secondary prevention of stroke.

4.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2587-2597, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and thromboembolism including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-controlled case-series study was conducted covering the whole of Scotland's general population. The study population comprised individuals with confirmed (positive test) COVID-19 and at least one thromboembolic event between March 2018 and October 2020. Their incidence rates during the risk interval (5 days before to 56 days after the positive test) and the control interval (the remaining periods) were compared intrapersonally. RESULTS: Across Scotland, 1449 individuals tested positive for COVID-19 and experienced a thromboembolic event. The risk of thromboembolism was significantly elevated over the whole risk period but highest in the 7 days following the positive test (incidence rate ratio, 12.01; 95% CI, 9.91 to 14.56) in all included individuals. The association was also present in individuals not originally hospitalized for COVID-19 (incidence rate ratio, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.83 to 5.85). Risk of MI, stroke, PE, and DVT were all significantly higher in the week following a positive test. The risk of PE and DVT was particularly high and remained significantly elevated even 56 days following the test. CONCLUSION: Confirmed COVID-19 infection was associated with early elevations in risk with MI, ischemic stroke, and substantially stronger and prolonged elevations with DVT and PE both in hospital and community settings. Clinicians should consider thromboembolism, especially PE, among people with COVID-19 in the community.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico
5.
Diabetologia ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668055

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Excess risks of type 2 diabetes in UK South Asians (SA) and African Caribbeans (AC) compared with Europeans remain unexplained. We studied risks and determinants of type 2 diabetes in first- and second-generation (born in the UK) migrants, and in those of mixed ethnicity. METHODS: Data from the UK Biobank, a population-based cohort of ~500,000 participants aged 40-69 at recruitment, were used. Type 2 diabetes was assigned using self-report and HbA1c. Ethnicity was both self-reported and genetically assigned using admixture level scores. European, mixed European/South Asian (MixESA), mixed European/African Caribbean (MixEAC), SA and AC groups were analysed, matched for age and sex to enable comparison. In the frames of this cross-sectional study, we compared type 2 diabetes in second- vs first-generation migrants, and mixed ethnicity vs non-mixed groups. Risks and explanations were analysed using logistic regression and mediation analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Type 2 diabetes prevalence was markedly elevated in SA (599/3317 = 18%) and AC (534/4180 = 13%) compared with Europeans (140/3324 = 4%). Prevalence was lower in second- vs first-generation SA (124/1115 = 11% vs 155/1115 = 14%) and AC (163/2200 = 7% vs 227/2200 = 10%). Favourable adiposity (i.e. lower waist/hip ratio or BMI) contributed to lower risk in second-generation migrants. Type 2 diabetes in mixed populations (MixESA: 52/831 = 6%, MixEAC: 70/1045 = 7%) was lower than in comparator ethnic groups (SA: 18%, AC: 13%) and higher than in Europeans (4%). Greater socioeconomic deprivation accounted for 17% and 42% of the excess type 2 diabetes risk in MixESA and MixEAC compared with Europeans, respectively. Replacing self-reported with genetically assigned ethnicity corroborated the mixed ethnicity analysis. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Type 2 diabetes risks in second-generation SA and AC migrants are a fifth lower than in first-generation migrants. Mixed ethnicity risks were markedly lower than SA and AC groups, though remaining higher than in Europeans. Distribution of environmental risk factors, largely obesity and socioeconomic status, appears to play a key role in accounting for ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes risk.

6.
Atherosclerosis ; 334: 48-56, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: South Asian (SA) ethnicity is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, the implications of considering SA ethnicity as a "risk-enhancing factor" per recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines are not fully understood. METHODS: We used data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study, a community-based cohort study of individuals of SA ancestry living in the US. The Pooled Cohort Equations were used to estimate 10-year ASCVD risk. Metabolic risk factors and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were assessed. RESULTS: Among 1114 MASALA participants included (median age 56 years, 48% women), 28% were already using a statin at baseline, 25% had prevalent diabetes, and 59% qualified for 10-year ASCVD risk assessment for statin allocation purposes. The prevalence of low, borderline, intermediate, and high estimated ASCVD risk was 65%, 11%, 20% and 5%, respectively. Among participants at intermediate risk, 30% had CAC = 0 and 37% had CAC>100, while among participants at borderline risk, 54% had CAC = 0 and 13% had CAC>100. Systematic consideration of intermediate and, particularly, of borderline risk individuals as statin candidates would enrich the statin-consideration group with CAC = 0 participants up to 35%. Prediabetes and abdominal obesity were highly prevalent across all estimated risk strata, including among those with CAC = 0. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that systematic consideration of borderline risk SAs as statin candidates might result in considerable overtreatment, and further risk assessment with CAC may help better personalize statin allocation in these individuals. Early, aggressive lifestyle interventions aimed at reducing the risk of incident diabetes should be strongly recommended in US SAs, particularly among those considered candidates for statin therapy for primary prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the favorable prognosis of CAC = 0 in SAs.

7.
J Invest Dermatol ; 141(10): 2322-2325, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560915

RESUMO

Patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are at an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by González Cantero et al. (2021) evaluated the effects of biologics on CV imaging and biomarkers in patients with psoriasis. In this commentary, we discuss the clinical and management implications of these and the related results for patients with psoriatic disease and the need for further pharmacoepidemiological research.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(13): 1321-1332, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the benefits of empagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the relationship between NT-proBNP and empagliflozin effects in EMPEROR-Reduced (Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction). METHODS: Patients with HFrEF were randomly assigned to placebo or empagliflozin 10 mg daily. NT-proBNP was measured at baseline, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, 52 weeks, and 100 weeks. Patients were divided into quartiles of baseline NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Incidence rates for each study outcome were 4- to 6-fold higher among those in the highest versus lowest NT-proBNP quartiles (≥3,480 vs <1,115 pg/mL). Study participants with higher NT-proBNP had 2- to 3-fold total hospitalizations higher than the lowest NT-proBNP quartile. Empagliflozin reduced risk for major cardiorenal events without heterogeneity across NT-proBNP quartiles (primary endpoint Pinteraction = 0.94; renal composite endpoint Pinteraction = 0.71). Empagliflozin treatment significantly reduced NT-proBNP at all timepoints examined; by 52 weeks, the adjusted mean difference from placebo was 13% (P < 0.001). An NT-proBNP in the lowest quartile (<1,115 pg/mL) 12 weeks after randomization was associated with lower risk for subsequent cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization regardless of baseline concentration. Treatment with empagliflozin resulted in 27% higher adjusted odds of an NT-proBNP concentration of <1,115 pg/mL by 12 weeks compared with placebo (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In EMPEROR-Reduced, higher baseline NT-proBNP concentrations were associated with greater risk for adverse heart failure or renal outcomes, but empagliflozin reduced risk regardless of baseline NT-proBNP concentration. The NT-proBNP concentration after treatment with empagliflozin better informs subsequent prognosis than pretreatment concentrations. (Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction [EMPEROR-Reduced]; NCT03057977).

10.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(4): e00283, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505416

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine risk of being SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe infection (associated with hospitalization/mortality) in those with family history of diabetes. METHODS: We used UK Biobank, an observational cohort recruited between 2006 and 2010. We compared the risk of being SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe infection for those with family history of diabetes (mother/father/sibling) against those without. RESULTS: Of 401,268 participants in total, 13,331 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 2282 had severe infection by end of January 2021. In unadjusted models, participants with ≥2 family members with diabetes were more likely to be SARS-CoV-2 positive (risk ratio-RR 1.35; 95% confidence interval-CI 1.24-1.47) and severe infection (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.04-1.59), compared to those without. The excess risk of being tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 was attenuated but significant after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, multimorbidity and presence of cardiometabolic conditions. The excess risk for severe infection was no longer significant after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, multimorbidity and presence of cardiometabolic conditions, and was absent when excluding incident diabetes. CONCLUSION: The totality of the results suggests that good lifestyle and not developing incident diabetes may lessen risks of severe infections in people with a strong family of diabetes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
11.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(4): e00287, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505420

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To investigate type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for COVID-19 death following hospital admission in Kuwait. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using data from a central hospital that cared for all hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Kuwait. We investigated the association between type 2 diabetes, with COVID-19 mortality using multiply imputed logistic regression and calculated the population attributable fraction. RESULTS: A total of 5333 patients were admitted with COVID-19, of whom 244 died (4.6%). Diabetes prevalence was 24.8%, but 53.7% of those who died had diabetes. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity and other comorbidities, diabetes was associated with death (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.23, 2.34]) and admission to the intensive care unit more than 3 days after initial admission (OR 1.78 [95% CI 1.17, 2.70]). Assuming causality, the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes in COVID-19 death was 19.6% (95% CI 10.8, 35.6). CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes is a strong risk factor for COVID-19 death in the Middle East. Given the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the Middle East, as well as many Western countries, the public health implications are considerable.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 101030, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505030

RESUMO

Background: We examined whether an increased risk of cancer incidence and death is associated with kidney function and albuminuria and whether the risk is more readily identified when kidney function is estimated using cystatin C. Methods: Participants were from UK Biobank (recruitment spanning 2007-2010), excluding those with a prior diagnosis of cancer. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73m2) was calculated using creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcys) and creatinine-cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys). Cox proportional hazards models tested associations between eGFR, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (uACR) and cancer incidence and death. Findings: In 431,263 participants over median follow-up of 11.3 (IQR 10.6-12.0) years, there were 41,745 incident cancers and 11,764 cancer deaths. eGFRcys was most strongly associated with cancer incidence and death (HR 1.04 (95% CI 1.03-1.04) and 1.06 (1.05-1.07) per 10 ml/min/1.73m2 decline, respectively). eGFRcr was not associated with either outcome (incidence: HR 1.00 (1.00-1.01); death: HR 0.99 (0.98-1.01) per 10 ml/min/1.73m2 decline). Relative to eGFRcys>90 or uACR<3 mg/mmol, eGFRcys60-89 (HR 1.04 (95% CI 1.02-1.07)), eGFRcys<60 (HR 1.19 (1.14-1.24)) and uACR≥3 mg/mmol (HR 1.09 (1.06-1.12)) were associated with higher risk of incident cancer. eGFRcys60-89 (HR 1.15 (1.10-1.21)); eGFRcys<60 (HR 1.48 (1.38-1.59)) and uACR≥3 mg/mmol (HR 1.17 (1.11-1.24)) were associated with cancer death. Interpretation: Excess risk of cancer incidence and cancer death is more readily captured in early chronic kidney disease by eGFRcys than by current measures. The association between kidney function, uACR and cancer death in particular is concerning and warrants further scrutiny. Funding: Chief Scientist Office; ANID Becas Chile; Medical Research Council; British Medical Association; British Heart Foundation.

13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463409

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effects of empagliflozin versus placebo on subsequent insulin initiation or dosing changes in a large cardiovascular outcomes trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In EMPA-REG OUTCOME, 7020 patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease received empagliflozin 10 mg, 25 mg, or placebo. Median follow-up was 3.1 years. After 12 weeks of treatment, changes in background antihyperglycaemic therapy were permitted. Among insulin-naïve patients, we assessed the effects of pooled empagliflozin arms versus placebo on time to initiation of insulin. Among insulin-treated patients, we assessed effects on time to an increase or decrease in insulin dose of more than 20%. RESULTS: In 3633 (52%) participants not treated with insulin at baseline, empagliflozin reduced new use of insulin versus placebo by 60% (7.1% vs. 16.4%; adjusted HR 0.40 [95% CI 0.32-0.49]; P < .0001). In 3387 (48%) patients using insulin at baseline, empagliflozin reduced the need for a greater than 20% insulin dose increase by 58% (14.4% vs. 29.3%; adjusted HR 0.42 [95% CI 0.36-0.49]; P < .0001) and increased the proportion achieving sustained greater than 20% insulin dose reductions without subsequent increases in HbA1c compared with placebo (9.2% vs. 4.9%; adjusted HR 1.87 [95% CI: 1.39-2.51]; P < .0001). Sensitivity analyses confirmed consistent findings when insulin dose changes of more than 10% or more than 30% were considered. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, empagliflozin markedly and durably delays insulin initiation and substantial increases in insulin dose, while facilitating sustained reductions in insulin requirements over time.

14.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(10): 653-662, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GLP-1 receptor agonists reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, uncertainty regarding kidney outcomes persists and whether benefits extend to exendin-4-based GLP-1 receptor remains uncertain. We aimed to meta-analyse the most up-to-date evidence on the cardiovascular benefits and risks of GLP-1 receptor agonists from outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a meta-analysis, including new data from AMPLITUDE-O, using a random effects model to estimate overall hazard ratio (HR) for MACE; its components; all-cause mortality; hospital admission for heart failure; a composite kidney outcome consisting of development of macroalbuminuria, doubling of serum creatinine, or at least 40% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), kidney replacement therapy, or death due to kidney disease; worsening of kidney function, based on eGFR change; and odds ratios for key safety outcomes (severe hypoglycaemia, retinopathy, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer). We also examined MACE outcome in patient subgroups on the basis of MACE incidence rates in the placebo group, presence or absence of cardiovascular disease, HbA1c level, trial duration, treatment dosing interval, structural homology to human GLP-1 or exendin-4, BMI, age, and eGFR. We searched PubMed for eligible trials reporting MACE (ie, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), up to June 9, 2021. We meta-analysed data from published randomised placebo-controlled trials testing either injectable or oral GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes. We restricted the search to trials of more than 500 patients with a primary outcome that included cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO, CRD42021259711. FINDINGS: Of 98 articles screened, eight trials comprising 60 080 patients fulfilled the prespecified criteria and were included. Overall, GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced MACE by 14% (HR 0·86 [95% CI 0·80-0·93]; p<0·0001), with no significant heterogeneity across GLP-1 receptor agonist structural homology or eight other examined subgroups (all pinteraction≥0·14). GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced all-cause mortality by 12% (HR 0·88 [95% CI 0·82-0·94]; p=0·0001), hospital admission for heart failure by 11% (HR 0·89 [95% CI 0·82-0·98]; p=0·013), and the composite kidney outcome by 21% (HR 0·79 [95% CI 0·73-0·87]; p<0·0001), with no increase in risk of severe hypoglycaemia, retinopathy, or pancreatic adverse effects. In sensitivity analyses removing the only trial restricted to patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ELIXA), all benefits marginally increased, including the outcome of worsening of kidney function, based on eGFR change (HR 0·82 [95% CI 0·69-0·98]; p=0·030). INTERPRETATION: GLP-1 receptor agonists, regardless of structural homology, reduced the risk of individual MACE components, all-cause mortality, hospital admission for heart failure, and worsening kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Rim
15.
Curr Obes Rep ; 10(3): 282-289, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374955

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To collate the best evidence from several strands-epidemiological, genetic, comparison with historical data and mechanistic information-and ask whether obesity is an important causal and potentially modifiable risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several hundred studies provide powerful evidence that body mass index (BMI) is a strong linear risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes, with recent studies suggesting ~5-10% higher risk for COVID-19 hospitalisation per every kg/m2 higher BMI. Genetic data concur with hazard ratios increasing by 14% per every kg/m2 higher BMI. BMI to COVID-19 links differ markedly from prior BMI-infection associations and are further supported as likely causal by multiple biologically plausible pathways. Excess adiposity appears to be an important, modifiable risk factor for adverse COVID-19 outcomes across all ethnicities. The pandemic is also worsening obesity levels. It is imperative that medical systems worldwide meet this challenge by upscaling investments in obesity prevention and treatments.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adiposidade , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(9): 931-942, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373953

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the association between sepsis and long-term cardiovascular events. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of observational studies evaluating post-sepsis cardiovascular outcomes in adult sepsis survivors. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from inception until April 21st, 2021. Two reviewers independently extracted individual study data and evaluated risk of bias. Random-effects models estimated the pooled crude cumulative incidence and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of cardiovascular events compared to either non-septic hospital survivors or population controls. Primary outcomes included myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure; outcomes were analysed at maximum reported follow-up (from 30 days to beyond 5 years post-discharge). RESULTS: Of 12,649 screened citations, 27 studies (25 cohort studies, 2 case-crossover studies) were included with a median of 4,289 (IQR 502-68,125) sepsis survivors and 18,399 (IQR 4,028-83,506) controls per study. The pooled cumulative incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure in sepsis survivors ranged from 3 to 9% at longest reported follow-up. Sepsis was associated with a higher long-term risk of myocardial infarction (aHR 1.77 [95% CI 1.26 to 2.48]; low certainty), stroke (aHR 1.67 [95% CI 1.37 to 2.05]; low certainty), and congestive heart failure (aHR 1.65 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.86]; very low certainty) compared to non-sepsis controls. CONCLUSIONS: Surviving sepsis may be associated with a long-term, excess hazard of late cardiovascular events which may persist for at least 5 years following hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Sepse , Sobrevivência , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Sepse/epidemiologia
17.
N Engl J Med ; 385(16): 1451-1461, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, but their effects in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction are uncertain. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 5988 patients with class II-IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of more than 40% to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to usual therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: Over a median of 26.2 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 415 of 2997 patients (13.8%) in the empagliflozin group and in 511 of 2991 patients (17.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 0.90; P<0.001). This effect was mainly related to a lower risk of hospitalization for heart failure in the empagliflozin group. The effects of empagliflozin appeared consistent in patients with or without diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (407 with empagliflozin and 541 with placebo; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.88; P<0.001). Uncomplicated genital and urinary tract infections and hypotension were reported more frequently with empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin reduced the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Preserved ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057951).

18.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 50(3): 415-430, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399954

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV) mortality in diabetes has declined substantially over the last 3 decades in high-income countries from a multifactorial approach targeting glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure, and lower smoking rates. Additional CV gains may be achieved from large-scale weight loss, which ongoing trials are testing, and from delaying diabetes in those at highest risk. Finally, recent outcome trials support a role for (1) sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, which lower major adverse cardiovascular events but incident heart failure more strongly, and (2) glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, which lower atherothrombotic outcomes more consistently, including stroke and peripheral arterial disease.

20.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046441, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of evidence to inform the delivery and follow-up of bariatric surgery for people with severe obesity. The SurgiCal Obesity Treatment Study (SCOTS) is a national longitudinal cohort of people undergoing bariatric surgery. Here, we describe characteristics of the recruited SCOTS cohort, and the relationship between health and socioeconomic status with body mass index (BMI) and age. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: 445 participants scheduled for bariatric surgery at any of 14 centres in Scotland, UK, were recruited between 2013 and 2016 for this longitudinal cohort study (1 withdrawal); 249 completed health-related preoperative patient-reported outcome measures. Regression models were used to estimate the effect of a 10-unit increase in age or BMI, adjusting for sex, smoking and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Mean age was 46 years and median BMI was 47 kg/m2. For each 10 kg/m2 higher BMI, there was a change of -5.2 (95% CI -6.9 to -3.5; p<0.0001) in Rand 12-item Short Form Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS), -0.1 (95% CI -0.2 to -0.1; p<0.0001) in EuroQoL 5-level EQ-5D version index score and 14.2 (95% CI 10.7 to 17.7; p<0.0001) in Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite Physical Function Score. We observed a 3.1 times higher use of specialist aids and equipment at home (OR: 3.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 5.0; p<0.0001). Broadly, similar results were seen for each 10-year higher age, including a change of -2.1 (95% CI -3.7 to -0.5; p<0.01) in SF-12 PCS. CONCLUSIONS: A higher BMI combined with older age is associated with poor physical functioning and quality of life in people seeking bariatric surgery treatment. Policy-makers must consider the health and care needs of these individuals and invest to provide increased access to effective weight management. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN47072588.


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Escócia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido
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