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1.
J Virol ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996435

RESUMO

Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a potentially lethal disease that is caused by Junin virus (JUNV). There are currently around 5 million individuals at risk of infection within endemic regions in Argentina. The live attenuated vaccine strain, Candid #1 (Can), is approved for use in endemic regions and has substantially decreased the number of annual Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) cases. The glycoprotein (GPC) gene is primarily responsible for the attenuation of the Can strain, and we have shown that the absence of an N-linked glycosylation motif in the subunit G1 of the GP complex of Can, which is otherwise present in the wild type pathogenic JUNV, causes GPC retention in the ER. Here, we show that Can GPC aggregates in the ER of infected cells, forming incorrect cross-chain disulfide bonds, which results in impaired GPC processing into G1 and G2. The GPC fails to cleave into its G1 and G2 subunits and is targeted for degradation within lysosomes. Cells infected with the wild-type Romero (Rom) strain do not produce aggregates that are observed in Can infection, and the stress on the ER remains minimal. While the mutation of the N-linked glycosylation motif (T168A) is primarily responsible for the formation of aggregates, other mutations within G1 that occurred earlier in the passage history of the Can strain also contribute to aggregation of the GPC within the ER.ImportanceThe development of vaccines and therapeutics to combat viral hemorrhagic fevers remains a top priority within the Implementation Plan of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise. The Can strain, derived from the pathogenic XJ strain of JUNV, has been demonstrated to be both safe and protective against AHF. While the vaccine strain is approved for use in endemic regions within Argentina, the mechanisms of Can attenuation have not been elucidated. A better understanding of the viral genetic determinants of attenuation will improve our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to disease pathogenesis and provide critical information for the rational design of live attenuated vaccine candidates for other viral hemorrhagic fevers.

2.
Vaccine ; 37(45): 6824-6831, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561999

RESUMO

Lassa virus (LASV), the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF), was first identified in 1969. Since then, outbreaks in the endemic countries of Nigeria, Liberia, and Sierra Leone occur on an annual basis resulting in a case-fatality rate of 15-70% in hospitalized patients. There is currently no licensed vaccine and there are limited animal models to test vaccine efficacy. An estimated 37.7 million people are at risk of contracting LASV; therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of a safe, effective vaccine against LASV infection. The LF endemic countries are also inflicted with HIV, Ebola, and malaria infections. The safety in immunocompromised populations must be considered in LASV vaccine development. The novel adenovirus vector-based platform, Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) has been used in clinical trial protocols for treatment of immunocompromised individuals, has been shown to exhibit high stability, low safety risk in humans, and induces a strong cell-mediated and pro-inflammatory immune response even in the presence of pre-existing adenovirus immunity. To this nature, our lab has developed an Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) vector-based vaccine expressing the LASV-NP or LASV-GPC. We found that guinea pigs vaccinated with two doses of Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) LASV-NP and Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) LASV-GPC were protected against lethal LASV challenge. The Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) LASV-NP and LASV-GPC vaccine represents a potential vaccine candidate against LF.

3.
mSphere ; 4(5)2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554720

RESUMO

Lassa virus (LASV), a member of the family Arenaviridae, is the causative agent of Lassa fever. Lassa virus is endemic in West African countries, such as Nigeria, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, and causes outbreaks annually. Lassa fever onset begins with "flu-like" symptoms and may develop into lethal hemorrhagic disease in severe cases. Although Lassa virus is one of the most alarming pathogens from a public health perspective, there are few licensed vaccines or therapeutics against Lassa fever. The fact that animal models are limited and the fact that mostly laboratory-derived viruses are used for studies limit the successful development of countermeasures. In this study, we demonstrated that the LASV isolate LF2384-NS-DIA-1 (LF2384), which was directly isolated from a serum sample from a fatal human Lassa fever case in the 2012 Sierra Leone outbreak, causes uniformly lethal infection in outbred Hartley guinea pigs without virus-host adaptation. This is the first report of a clinically isolated strain of LASV causing lethal infection in outbred guinea pigs. This novel guinea pig model of Lassa fever may contribute to Lassa fever research and the development of vaccines and therapeutics.IMPORTANCE Lassa virus, the causative agent of Lassa fever, is a zoonotic pathogen causing annual outbreaks in West African countries. Human patients can develop lethal hemorrhagic fever in severe cases. Although Lassa virus is one of the most alarming pathogens from a public health perspective, there are few available countermeasures, such as antiviral drugs or vaccines. Moreover, the fact that animal models are not readily accessible and the fact that mostly laboratory viruses, which have been passaged many times after isolation, are used for studies further limits the successful development of countermeasures. In this study, we demonstrate that a human isolate of Lassa virus causes lethal infection uniformly in Hartley guinea pigs. This novel animal model of Lassa fever may contribute to Lassa fever research and the development of vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Febre Lassa/mortalidade , Febre Lassa/veterinária , Vírus Lassa/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Cobaias , Humanos , Vírus Lassa/isolamento & purificação , Dose Letal Mediana , Carga Viral
4.
Curr Opin Virol ; 37: 118-122, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479989

RESUMO

Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in West Africa, causing an estimated 100000-300000 new infections and up to 5000-10000 deaths yearly. There are no vaccines and therapeutics are extremely limited. Typical case fatality rates are ∼1%, although a recent 2018 Nigerian outbreak featured an unprecedented 25.4% case fatality rate. Survivors of infection suffer a lifetime of sequelae with sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) being the most prevalent. The cause of this hearing loss remains unknown, and there is a critical need for further research on its mechanisms and potential therapeutics. The objective of this review is to outline the only currently available small animal model for LASV-induced hearing loss and to identify potential surrogate models.

5.
Cancer Growth Metastasis ; 11: 1179064418767882, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662326

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are an attractive therapeutic target due to their predicted role in both metastasis and chemoresistance. One of the most commonly agreed on markers for ovarian CSCs is the cell surface protein CD133. CD133+ ovarian CSCs have increased tumorigenicity, resistance to chemotherapy, and increased metastasis. Therefore, we were interested in defining how CD133 is regulated and whether it has a role in tumor metastasis. Previously we found that overexpression of the transcription factor, ARID3B, increased the expression of PROM1 (CD133 gene) in ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in xenograft tumors. We report that ARID3B directly regulates PROM1 expression. Importantly, in a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer, knockdown of PROM1 in cells expressing exogenous ARID3B resulted in increased survival time compared with cells expressing ARID3B and a control short hairpin RNA. This indicated that ARID3B regulation of PROM1 is critical for tumor growth. Moreover, we hypothesized that CD133 may affect metastatic spread. Given that the peritoneal mesothelium is a major site of ovarian cancer metastasis, we explored the role of PROM1 in mesothelial attachment. PROM1 expression increased adhesion to mesothelium in vitro and ex vivo. Collectively, our work demonstrates that ARID3B regulates PROM1 adhesion to the ovarian cancer metastatic niche.

6.
Bone Res ; 6: 6, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581909

RESUMO

The vast osteocytic network is believed to orchestrate bone metabolic activity in response to mechanical stimuli through production of sclerostin, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin (OPG). However, the mechanisms of osteocyte mechanotransduction remain poorly understood. We've previously shown that osteocyte mechanosensitivity is encoded through unique intracellular calcium (Ca2+) dynamics. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Ca2+ and actin dynamics in single cells exposed to fluid shear flow, we detected actin network contractions immediately upon onset of flow-induced Ca2+ transients, which were facilitated by smooth muscle myosin and further confirmed in native osteocytes ex vivo. Actomyosin contractions have been linked to the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs), and our studies demonstrate that mechanical stimulation upregulates EV production in osteocytes through immunostaining for the secretory vesicle marker Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and quantifying EV release in conditioned medium, both of which are blunted when Ca2+ signaling was inhibited by neomycin. Axial tibia compression was used to induce anabolic bone formation responses in mice, revealing upregulated LAMP1 and expected downregulation of sclerostin in vivo. This load-related increase in LAMP1 expression was inhibited in neomycin-injected mice compared to vehicle. Micro-computed tomography revealed significant load-related increases in both trabecular bone volume fraction and cortical thickness after two weeks of loading, which were blunted by neomycin treatment. In summary, we found mechanical stimulation of osteocytes activates Ca2+-dependent contractions and enhances the production and release of EVs containing bone regulatory proteins. Further, blocking Ca2+ signaling significantly attenuates adaptation to mechanical loading in vivo, suggesting a critical role for Ca2+-mediated signaling in bone adaptation.

7.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0161468, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27537840

RESUMO

Arid3a and Arid3b belong to a subfamily of ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) transcription factors. The Arid family is involved in regulating chromatin accessibility, proliferation, and differentiation. Arid3a and Arid3b are closely related and share a unique REKLES domain that mediates their homo- and hetero-multimerization. Arid3a was originally isolated as a B cell transcription factor binding to the AT rich matrix attachment regions (MARS) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic enhancer. Deletion of Arid3a results in a highly penetrant embryonic lethality with severe defects in erythropoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The few surviving Arid3a-/- (<1%) animals have decreased HSCs and early progenitors in the bone marrow, but all mature lineages are normally represented in the bone marrow and periphery except for B cells. Arid3b-/- animals die around E7.5 precluding examination of hematopoietic development. So it is unclear whether the phenotype of Arid3a loss on hematopoiesis is dependent or independent of Arid3b. In this study we circumvented this limitation by also examining hematopoiesis in mice with a conditional allele of Arid3b. Bone marrow lacking Arid3b shows decreased common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and downstream B cell populations while the T cell and myeloid lineages are unchanged, reminiscent of the adult hematopoietic defect in Arid3a mice. Unlike Arid3a-/- mice, HSC populations are unperturbed in Arid3b-/- mice. This study demonstrates that HSC development is independent of Arid3b, whereas B cell development requires both Arid3a and Arid3b transcription factors.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Immunoblotting , Imunoprecipitação , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
8.
Interface Focus ; 6(1): 20150071, 2016 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26855756

RESUMO

Despite advancements in technology and science over the last century, the mechanisms underlying Wolff's law-bone structure adaptation in response to physical stimuli-remain poorly understood, limiting the ability to effectively treat and prevent skeletal diseases. A challenge to overcome in the study of the underlying mechanisms of this principle is the multiscale nature of mechanoadaptation. While there exist in silico systems that are capable of studying across these scales, experimental studies are typically limited to interpretation at a single dimension or time point. For instance, studies of single-cell responses to defined physical stimuli offer only a limited prediction of the whole bone response, while overlapping pathways or compensatory mechanisms complicate the ability to isolate critical targets in a whole animal model. Thus, there exists a need to develop experimental systems capable of bridging traditional experimental approaches and informing existing multiscale theoretical models. The purpose of this article is to review the process of mechanoadaptation and inherent challenges in studying its underlying mechanisms, discuss the limitations of traditional experimental systems in capturing the many facets of this process and highlight three multiscale experimental systems which bridge traditional approaches and cover relatively understudied time and length scales in bone adaptation.

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