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1.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806104

RESUMO

Novel SARS-CoV-2 variants with potential impacts on diagnostics, antivirals, and vaccines are spreading in Italy. In this editorial, we highlight the role that veterinary public health institutes may have in this global crisis, as their expertise in genomic/antigenic surveillance and animal studies are crucial to tackle SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
/virologia , /genética , /epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mutação , Filogenia , Saúde Pública , /fisiologia
2.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671821

RESUMO

Data on the immune response to West Nile virus (WNV) are limited. We analyzed the antiviral cytokine response in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with WNV fever and WNV neuroinvasive disease using a multiplex bead-based assay for the simultaneous quantification of 13 human cytokines. The panel included cytokines associated with innate and early pro-inflammatory immune responses (TNF-α/IL-6), Th1 (IL-2/IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4/IL-5/IL-9/IL-13), Th17 immune response (IL-17A/IL-17F/IL-21/IL-22) and the key anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Elevated levels of IFN-γ were detected in 71.7% of CSF and 22.7% of serum samples (p = 0.003). Expression of IL-2/IL-4/TNF-α and Th1 17 cytokines (IL-17A/IL-17F/IL-21) was detected in the serum but not in the CSF (except one positive CSF sample for IL-17F/IL-4). While IL-6 levels were markedly higher in the CSF compared to serum (CSF median 2036.71, IQR 213.82-6190.50; serum median 24.48, IQR 11.93-49.81; p < 0.001), no difference in the IL-13/IL-9/IL-10/IFN-γ/IL-22 levels in serum/CSF was found. In conclusion, increased concentrations of the key cytokines associated with innate and early acute phase responses (IL-6) and Th1 type immune responses (IFN-γ) were found in the CNS of patients with WNV infection. In contrast, expression of the key T-cell growth factor IL-2, Th17 cytokines, a Th2 cytokine IL-4 and the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α appear to be concentrated mainly in the periphery.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 753-755, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684558

RESUMO

Following the announcement on December 2020 about the emergence of a new variant (VOC 202012/ 01, B.1.1.7 lineage) in the United Kingdom, a targeted surveillance was put in place in the Abruzzo region (Italy), which allowed detection of 313 persons affected by lineage B.1.1.7, up to the 20th of February 2021. We investigated the results of RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs tested from December 2020 to February 2021 to verify any difference on the viral load and persistence between people infected by lineage B.1.1.7 and others. Statistically significant lower values of CT associated with the detection of the N protein encoding gene (CT N) were observed in persons with lineage B.1.1.7 infection (median CT N = 15.8)in comparison to those infected by other lineages (median CT N = 16.9). A significantly longer duration of the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs was observed in persons with lineage B.1.1.7 infection (16 days) in comparison to those infected by other lineages (14 days).

4.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging neurotropic arthropod-borne virus recently involved in massive die offs of wild birds predominantly reported in Europe. Although primarily asymptomatic or presenting mild clinical signs, humans infected by USUV can develop neuroinvasive pathologies (including encephalitis and meningoencephalitis). Similar to other flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus, USUV is capable of reaching the central nervous system. However, the neuropathogenesis of USUV is still poorly understood, and the virulence of the specific USUV lineages is currently unknown. One of the major complexities of the study of USUV pathogenesis is the presence of a great diversity of lineages circulating at the same time and in the same location. METHODS: The aim of this work was to determine the neurovirulence of isolates from the six main lineages circulating in Europe using mouse model and several neuronal cell lines (neurons, microglia, pericytes, brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and in vitro Blood-Brain Barrier model). RESULTS: Our results indicate that all strains are neurotropic but have different virulence profiles. The Europe 2 strain, previously described as being involved in several clinical cases, induced the shortest survival time and highest mortality in vivo and appeared to be more virulent and persistent in microglial, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells, while also inducing an atypical cytopathic effect. Moreover, an amino acid substitution (D3425E) was specifically identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain of the NS5 protein of this lineage. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these data show a broad neurotropism for USUV in the central nervous system with lineage-dependent virulence. Our results will help to better understand the biological and epidemiological diversity of USUV infection.

5.
Vet Microbiol ; 252: 108933, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278734

RESUMO

There is strong evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, originated from an animal reservoir. However, the exact mechanisms of emergence, the host species involved, and the risk to domestic and agricultural animals are largely unknown. Some domestic animal species, including cats, ferrets, and minks, have been demonstrated to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while others, such as pigs and chickens, are not. Importantly, the susceptibility of ruminants to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown, even though they often live in close proximity to humans. We investigated the replication and tissue tropism of two different SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the respiratory tract of three farm animal species - cattle, sheep, and pigs - using respiratory ex vivo organ cultures (EVOCs). We demonstrate that the respiratory tissues of cattle and sheep, but not of pigs, sustain viral replication in vitro of both isolates and that SARS-CoV-2 is associated to ACE2-expressing cells of the respiratory tract of both ruminant species. Intriguingly, a SARS-CoV-2 isolate containing an amino acid substitution at site 614 of the spike protein (mutation D614G) replicated at higher magnitude in ex vivo tissues of both ruminant species, supporting previous results obtained using human cells. These results suggest that additional in vivo experiments involving several ruminant species are warranted to determine their potential role in the epidemiology of this virus.

7.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142840

RESUMO

By late March 2020, Villa Caldari, a small village of the municipality of Ortona (Abruzzo region), was registering an incidence rate of COVID-19 cases ten times greater than the overall municipality and was declared a hotspot area. Twenty-two days later, epidemiological investigation and sampling were performed, to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 circulation and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Overall, 681 nasopharyngeal swabs and 667 blood samples were collected. Only one resident of the village resulted in being positive for RNA viral shedding, while 73 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The overall seroprevalence was 10.9%. The difference between the seroprevalence of infection in asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals was significant (χ2 = 14.50 p-value = 0.0001). Amongst the residents positive for antibodies, fatigue and/or muscle pain, fever and anosmia were the most experienced symptoms, whose most frequent onset was observed during the first two weeks of March. Familial and habit-related clusters were highlighted. Nevertheless, the investigations showed a low SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the village at the time of the sampling, demonstrating virus transmission could be limited when strict emergency measures are followed. Given the favorable results, the emergency measures were then lifted.

8.
Front Neurol ; 11: 1021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071930

RESUMO

Introduction: With the shift of research focus to personalized medicine in Alzheimer's Dementia (AD), there is an urgent need for tools that are capable of quantifying a patient's risk using diagnostic biomarkers. The Medical Informatics Platform (MIP) is a distributed e-infrastructure federating large amounts of data coupled with machine-learning (ML) algorithms and statistical models to define the biological signature of the disease. The present study assessed (i) the accuracy of two ML algorithms, i.e., supervised Gradient Boosting (GB) and semi-unsupervised 3C strategy (Categorize, Cluster, Classify-CCC) implemented in the MIP and (ii) their contribution over the standard diagnostic workup. Methods: We examined individuals coming from the MIP installed across 3 Italian memory clinics, including subjects with Normal Cognition (CN, n = 432), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, n = 456), and AD (n = 451). The GB classifier was applied to best discriminate the three diagnostic classes in 1,339 subjects, and the CCC strategy was used to refine the classical disease categories. Four dementia experts provided their diagnostic confidence (DC) of MCI conversion on an independent cohort of 38 patients. DC was based on clinical, neuropsychological, CSF, and structural MRI information and again with addition of the outcome from the MIP tools. Results: The GB algorithm provided a classification accuracy of 85% in a nested 10-fold cross-validation for CN vs. MCI vs. AD discrimination. Accuracy increased to 95% in the holdout validation, with the omission of each Italian clinical cohort out in turn. CCC identified five homogeneous clusters of subjects and 36 biomarkers that represented the disease fingerprint. In the DC assessment, CCC defined six clusters in the MCI population used to train the algorithm and 29 biomarkers to improve patients staging. GB and CCC showed a significant impact, evaluated as +5.99% of increment on physicians' DC. The influence of MIP on DC was rated from "slight" to "significant" in 80% of the cases. Discussion: GB provided fair results in classification of CN, MCI, and AD. CCC identified homogeneous and promising classes of subjects via its semi-unsupervised approach. We measured the effect of the MIP on the physician's DC. Our results pave the way for the establishment of a new paradigm for ML discrimination of patients who will or will not convert to AD, a clinical priority for neurology.

9.
J Virol ; 95(1)2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028716

RESUMO

Genome segmentation is mainly thought to facilitate reassortment. Here, we show that segmentation can also allow differences in segment abundance in populations of bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV has a genome consisting in 10 segments, and its cycle primarily involves periodic alternation between ruminants and Culicoides biting midges. We have developed a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) approach to quantify each segment in wild BTV populations sampled in both ruminants and midges during an epizootic. Segment frequencies deviated from equimolarity in all hosts. Interestingly, segment frequencies were reproducible and distinct between ruminants and biting midges. Beyond a putative regulatory role in virus expression, this phenomenon could lead to different evolution rates between segments.IMPORTANCE The variation in viral gene frequencies remains a largely unexplored aspect of within-host genetics. This phenomenon is often considered to be specific to multipartite viruses. Multipartite viruses have segmented genomes, but in contrast to segmented viruses, their segments are each encapsidated alone in a virion. A main hypothesis explaining the evolution of multipartism is that, compared to segmented viruses, it facilitates the regulation of segment abundancy, and the genes the segments carry, within a host. These differences in gene frequencies could allow for expression regulation. Here, we show that wild populations of a segmented virus, bluetongue virus (BTV), also present unequal segment frequencies. BTV cycles between ruminants and Culicoides biting midges. As expected from a role in expression regulation, segment frequencies tended to show specific values that differed between ruminants and midges. Our results expand previous knowledge on gene frequency variation and call for studies on its role and conservation beyond multipartite viruses.

10.
Pathogens ; 9(9)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858963

RESUMO

Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging arbovirus isolated in 1959 (Usutu River, Swaziland). Previously restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, the virus was introduced in Europe in 1996. While the USUV has received little attention in Africa, the virus emergence has prompted numerous studies with robust epidemiological surveillance programs in Europe. The natural transmission cycle of USUV involves mosquitoes (vectors) and birds (amplifying hosts) with humans and other mammals considered incidental ("dead-end") hosts. In Africa, the virus was isolated in mosquitoes, rodents and birds and serologically detected in horses and dogs. In Europe, USUV was detected in bats, whereas antibodies were found in different animal species (horses, dogs, squirrels, wild boar, deer and lizards). While bird mortalities were not reported in Africa, in Europe USUV was shown to be highly pathogenic for several bird species, especially blackbirds (Turdus merula) and great gray owls (Strix nebulosa). Furthermore, neurotropism of USUV for humans was reported for the first time in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Epizootics and genetic diversity of USUV in different bird species as well as detection of the virus in mosquitoes suggest repeated USUV introductions into Europe with endemization in some countries. The zoonotic potential of USUV has been reported in a growing number of human cases. Clinical cases of neuroinvasive disease and USUV fever, as well as seroconversion in blood donors were reported in Europe since 2009. While most USUV strains detected in humans, birds and mosquitoes belong to European USUV lineages, several reports indicate the presence of African lineages as well. Since spreading trends of USUV are likely to continue, continuous multidisciplinary interventions ("One Health" concept) should be conducted for monitoring and prevention of this emerging arboviral infection.

11.
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722621

RESUMO

Since February 2020, Italy has been seriously affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. To support the National Health Care system, naso-pharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from suspected cases of Teramo province, Abruzzo region, are tested at Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise G. Caporale, for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Out of 12,446 tested individuals, 605 returned positive results at least once, with prevalence significantly higher in men. A reduction of the level of viral RNA in the first swab per each positive patient collected over time was also observed. Moreover, 81 patients had at least one positive sample and two final negative tests: positivity in swabs lasted from 14 to 63 days, with a median value of 30 days. This shows the potential for the virus to coexist with patients for a long time, although we highlighted intermittent positivity in several cases. The evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological situation and knowledge on viral shedding should be closely monitored, to interpret the findings correctly and adjust accordingly the surveillance activities.

12.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717784

RESUMO

Camelpox is a viral contagious disease of Old-World camelids sustained by Camelpox virus (CMLV). The disease is characterized by mild, local skin or severe systemic infections and may have a major economic impact due to significant losses in terms of morbidity and mortality, weight loss, and low milk yield. Prevention of camelpox is performed by vaccination. In this study, we investigated the composition of a CMLV-based, live-attenuated commercial vaccine using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The results of this analysis revealed genomic sequences of Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA).

13.
Vet World ; 13(5): 1005-1009, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636601

RESUMO

Background and Aim: African horse sickness (AHS) is a non-contagious viral disease of horses and other equids caused by an arbovirus belonging to the Reoviridae family and genus Orbivirus. AHS is an endemic disease that is responsible for the death of a high number of horses every year in Namibia. At present, there is no information on the prevalence and distribution of AHS virus (AHSV) serotypes in the different regions of Namibia. Therefore, this survey aimed to fill this knowledge gap by investigating the AHSV seroprevalence in Namibian donkeys. Materials and Methods: A total of 260 blood samples (20 samples for each region) were randomly collected from donkeys aged between 3 and 5 years. Sera were screened for AHSV-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies using acommercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and samples positive to AHSV antibodies were further tested by serum neutralization (SN) assay to evaluate the AHSV serotype-specific immune response. Results: Seroprevalence of antibodies against AHSV in Namibian donkeys was 63.5%. The AHSV prevalence was significantly higher in the northern region (64%) than in the southern region (36%). A significantly (p<0.05) higher number of donkeys had antibodies against AHSV-6 (37.8%) and AHSV-9 (37.8%). The AHSV-2, AHSV-6, and AHSV-9 prevalence were higher (p<0.05) in the northern regions compared to the southern regions. None of the donkeys in this study, however, tested positive for AHSV-8. Conclusion: Results of the current study indicate that all AHSV serotypes have either circulated previously or are circulating in Namibia except for AHSV-8. In particular, AHSV-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -9 serotypes have circulated or are circulating in the northern region of Namibia, while AHSV-1, -4, -5, -6, -7, and -9 have infected donkeys in the south. AHSV-9 and AHSV-6 were the most prevalent serotypes detected in donkeys in this study. SN results showed that several donkeys from Kavango East, Kavango West, and Ohangwena regions had been exposed to multiple serotypes, indicating the possibility of cocirculation of several strains in Namibia.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(5)2020 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397661

RESUMO

Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) is a newly discovered paramyxovirus infecting domestic cats and its role in the pathogenesis of feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been suggested, however not confirmed. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the renal damage associated with FeMV infection in cats. In this retrospective study, clinical and clinicopathological data were compared among 14 FeMV naturally infected, 21 CKD and 22 healthy cats. FeMV positive cats had serum chemistry analytes and main urine chemistry results similar to the healthy subjects. FeMV positive cats had significantly decreased urine specific gravity (median 1054, range 1022-1065) and urine creatinine (median 227.23 mg/dL, range 83.02-489.75) when compared with healthy cats (median 1067, range 1040-1080, P < 0.001; median 406.50 mg/dL, range 195.32-575.58; P < 0.001, respectively). Urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) results of FeMV and CKD were not different (median 0.20, range 0.08-1.03; median 0.23, range 0.10-0.80, respectively), however UPC results were significantly increased in both groups, if compared with healthy cats (median 0.1, range 0.04-0.250, P < 0.01). Based on clinical data, serum creatinine concentration, urine specific gravity and UPC results, CKD was suspected by clinicians in 3/14 FeMV cats. Urine protein sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in 10/13 (77%) FeMV cats indicated a tubular pattern, with a decrease of uromodulin and an increase in the number and intensity of low molecular weight proteins. FeMV infection can be associated with different grades of renal dysfunction ranging from mild tubular proteinuria with less concentrated urine to azotemia in cats younger than those typically affected by CKD.

15.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408481

RESUMO

Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, closely related to the West Nile virus (WNV). Similar to WNV, USUV may cause infections in humans, with occasional, but sometimes severe, neurological complications. Further, USUV can be highly pathogenic in wild and captive birds and its circulation in Europe has given rise to substantial avian death. Adequate study models of this virus are still lacking but are critically needed to understand its pathogenesis and virulence spectrum. The chicken embryo is a low-cost, easy-to-manipulate and ethically acceptable model that closely reflects mammalian fetal development and allows immune response investigations, drug screening, and high-throughput virus production for vaccine development. While former studies suggested that this model was refractory to USUV infection, we unexpectedly found that high doses of four phylogenetically distinct USUV strains caused embryonic lethality. By employing immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we demonstrated that USUV was widely distributed in embryonic tissues, including the brain, retina, and feather follicles. We then successfully developed a primary cell line from the chorioallantoic membrane that was permissive to the virus without the need for viral adaptation. We believe the future use of these models would foster a significant understanding of USUV-induced neuropathogenesis and immune response and allow the future development of drugs and vaccines against USUV.

16.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373633

RESUMO

Bluetongue (BT) is a major Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-listed disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by several serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV), a virus with a segmented dsRNA genome belonging to the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus. BTV is transmitted through the bites of Culicoides midges. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for quantification of BTV Seg-10 by droplet digital RT-PCR (RTdd-PCR), using nucleic acids purified from complex matrices such as blood, tissues, and midges, that notoriously contain strong PCR inhibitors. First, RTdd-PCR was optimized by using RNAs purified from serially 10-fold dilutions of a BTV-1 isolate (105.43TCID50/ml up to 10-0.57 TCID50/ml) and from the same dilutions spiked into fresh ovine EDTA-blood and spleen homogenate. The method showed a good degree of linearity (R 2 ≥ 0.995). The limit of detection (LoD) and the limit of quantification (LoQ) established were 10-0.67TCID50/ml (0.72 copies/µl) and 100.03TCID50/ml (3.05 copies/µl) of BTV-1, respectively. Second, the newly developed test was compared, using the same set of biological samples, to the quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) detecting Seg-10 assay widely used for the molecular diagnosis of BTV from field samples. Results showed a difference mean of 0.30 log between the two assays with these samples (p < 0.05). Anyway, the analysis of correlation demonstrated that both assays provided similar measurements with a very close agreement between the systems.

17.
PLoS Biol ; 18(4): e3000673, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343693

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying virus emergence are rarely well understood, making the appearance of outbreaks largely unpredictable. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), an arthropod-borne virus of ruminants, emerged in livestock in northern Europe in 2006, spreading to most European countries by 2009 and causing losses of billions of euros. Although the outbreak was successfully controlled through vaccination by early 2010, puzzlingly, a closely related BTV-8 strain re-emerged in France in 2015, triggering a second outbreak that is still ongoing. The origin of this virus and the mechanisms underlying its re-emergence are unknown. Here, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 164 whole BTV-8 genomes sampled throughout the two outbreaks. We demonstrate consistent clock-like virus evolution during both epizootics but found negligible evolutionary change between them. We estimate that the ancestor of the second outbreak dates from the height of the first outbreak in 2008. This implies that the virus had not been replicating for multiple years prior to its re-emergence in 2015. Given the absence of any known natural mechanism that could explain BTV-8 persistence over this long period without replication, we hypothesise that the second outbreak could have been initiated by accidental exposure of livestock to frozen material contaminated with virus from approximately 2008. Our work highlights new targets for pathogen surveillance programmes in livestock and illustrates the power of genomic epidemiology to identify pathways of infectious disease emergence.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/fisiologia , Bluetongue/virologia , Genoma Viral , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , França , Gado/virologia , Mutação , Filogenia
18.
One Health ; 10: 100135, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313828

RESUMO

The current pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV) called SARS-CoV-2 (species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus, genus Betacoronavirus, family Coronaviridae). In Italy, up to the 2nd of April 2020, overall 139,422 confirmed cases and 17,669 deaths have been notified, while 26,491 people have recovered. Besides the overloading of hospitals, another issue to face was the capacity to perform thousands of tests per day. In this perspective, to support the National Health Care System and to minimize the impact of this rapidly spreading virus, the Italian Ministry of Health involved the Istituti Zooprofilattici Sperimentali (IZSs), Veterinary Public Health Institutes, in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 by testing human samples. The Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise is currently testing more than 600 samples per day and performing whole genome sequencing from positive samples. Sequence analysis of these samples suggested that different viral variants may be circulating in Italy, and so in Abruzzo region. CoVs, and related diseases, are well known to veterinarians since decades. The experience that veterinarians operating within the Public Health system gained in the control and characterization of previous health issues of livestock and poultry including avian flu, bluetongue, foot and mouth disease, responsible for huge economic losses, is certainly of great help to minimize the impact of this global crisis.

19.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 112, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211429

RESUMO

In this paper, the results of the diagnostic activities on Bluetongue virus serotype 3 (BTV-3) conducted at Kimron Veterinary Institute (Beit Dagan, Israel) between 2013 and 2018 are reported. Bluetongue virus is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), a disease of ruminants, mostly transmitted by competent Culicoides species. In Israel, BTV-3 circulation was first detected in 2013 from a sheep showing classical BT clinical signs. It was also evidenced in 2016, and, since then, it has been regularly detected in Israeli livestock. Between 2013 and 2017, BTV-3 outbreaks were limited in sheep flocks located in the southern area only. In 2018, BTV-3 was instead found in the Israeli coastal area being one of the dominant BTV serotypes isolated from symptomatic sheep, cattle and goats. In Israeli sheep, BTV-3 was able to cause BT classical clinical manifestations and fatalities, while in cattle and goats infection ranged from asymptomatic forms to death cases, depending on either general welfare of the herds or on the occurrence of viral and bacterial co-infections. Three different BTV-3 strains were identified in Israel between 2013 and 2018: ISR-2019/13 isolated in 2013, ISR-2153/16 and ISR-2262/2/16 isolated in 2016. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of these strains showed more than 99% identity by segment (Seg) 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 sequences. In contrast, a wide range of diversity among these strains was exhibited in other viral gene segments, implying the occurrence of genome reassortment between these local circulating strains and those originating from Africa. The genome sequences of the BTV-3 isolated in 2017 and 2018 were most closely related to those of the ISR-2153/16 strain suggesting their common ancestor. Comparison of BTV-3 Israeli strains with those recently detected in the Mediterranean region uncovered high percentage identity (98.19-98.28%) only between Seg-2 of all Israeli strains and the BTV-3 Zarzis/TUN2016 strain. A 98.93% identity was also observed between Seg-4 sequences of ISR-2019/13 and the BTV-3 Zarzis/TUN2016 strain. This study demonstrated that BTV-3 has been circulating in the Mediterranean region at least since 2013, but, unlike the other Mediterranean strains, Israeli BTV-3 were able to cause clinical signs also in cattle.

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