Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 115
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023880

RESUMO

Usutu virus (USUV) is a neurotropic flavivirus closely related to West Nile virus (WNV). Its enzootic cycle mainly involves mosquitoes and birds. Human infection can occur with occasional, but sometimes severe, neurological complications. Since its emergence and spread in Europe over the last two decades, USUV has been linked to significant avian outbreaks, especially among Passeriformes, including European blackbirds (Turdus merula). Strikingly, no in vivo avian model exists so far to study this arbovirus. The domestic canary (Serinus canaria) is a passerine, which is considered as a highly susceptible model of infection by WNV. Here, we experimentally challenged domestic canaries with two different doses of USUV. All inoculated birds presented detectable amounts of viral RNA in the blood and RNA shedding via feathers and droppings during the early stages of the infection, as determined by RT-qPCR. Mortality occurred in both infected groups (1/5 and 2/5, respectively) and was not necessarily correlated to a pure neurological disease. Subsequent analyses of samples from dead birds showed histopathological changes and virus tropism mimicking those reported in naturally infected birds. A robust seroconversion followed the infection in almost all the surviving canaries. Altogether, these results demonstrate that domestic canaries constitute an interesting experimental model for the study of USUV pathogenesis and transmission.

3.
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108484, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902482

RESUMO

Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) is an emerging morbillivirus first described in cats less than a decade ago. FeMV has been associated with chronic kidney disease of cats characterized by tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), although this aspect is still controversial and not demonstrated with certainty. To investigate FeMV prevalence and genomic characteristics, an epidemiological survey was conducted in a total number of 127 household cats originating from two Italian regions, Abruzzi and Emilia-Romagna. A total number of 69 cats originating from three feline colonies were also enrolled for the study. Correlation with TIN was investigated by employing a total number of 35 carcasses. Prevalence of FeMV RNA was higher in urine samples collected from cats of colonies (P = 31.8%, CI 95% 22.1-43.6) compared to household cats (P = 8.66%, CI 95% 4.9-14.9) and in young and middle-aged cats while prevalence of FeMV Abs was higher in old cats. Sequences obtained straight from infected biological samples, either partial or complete, cluster into two clades within FeMV genotype 1, distantly related to FeMV genotype 2. Immunohistochemistry analysis of kidney sections of FeMV RNA positive cats revealed immunoreactivity within epithelial cells of renal tubuli and inflammatory cells. However, statistically significant association between FeMV and renal damages, including TIN, was not demonstrated (p= 0.0695, Fisher exact test). By virus histochemistry performed with FeMV-negative feline tissues and a FeMV isolate, tropism for different cellular types such as inflammatory cells residing in blood vessels of kidney and brain, airway epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and to a lesser extent, the central nervous system, was demonstrated. Additional studies are warranted in order to establish viral tropism and immune response during the early phases of infection and to disentangle the role of FeMV in co-infection processes.

4.
Acta Trop ; 202: 105223, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647898

RESUMO

Tunisia has experienced various West Nile disease outbreaks. Notwithstanding the serological and molecular confirmations in humans, horses and birds, the human surveillance system can still be improved. Three sentinel chicken flocks were placed in different Tunisian endemic regions and followed up from September 2016 to January 2017. A total of 422 sera from Sejnene (north of Tunisia), 392 from Moknine (east coast of Tunisia) and 386 from Tozeur (south of Tunisia) were tested for West Nile-specific antibodies and viral RNA. The WNV elisa positive rate in sentinel chickens in Sejnene was 10.7% (95% CI: 5.08-21.52). No positive samples were detected in Moknine. In Tozeur, the overall serological elisa positive rate during the study period was 9.8% (95% CI:4.35-21.03). West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in two chickens in Sejnene.Phylogenetic analysis of one of the detected partial NS3 gene sequences showed that recent Tunisian WNV strain belong to WNV lineage 1 and is closely related to Italian strains detected in mosquitoes in 2016 and in a sparrow hawk in 2017. This report showed the circulation, first molecular detection and sequencing of WNV lineage 1 in chickens in the north of Tunisia and highlights the use of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic area.

5.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 51(1): 234-249, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fiber tracking with diffusion-weighted MRI has become an essential tool for estimating in vivo brain white matter architecture. Fiber tracking results are sensitive to the choice of processing method and tracking criteria. PURPOSE: To assess the variability for an algorithm in group studies reproducibility is of critical context. However, reproducibility does not assess the validity of the brain connections. Phantom studies provide concrete quantitative comparisons of methods relative to absolute ground truths, yet do no capture variabilities because of in vivo physiological factors. The ISMRM 2017 TraCED challenge was created to fulfill the gap. STUDY TYPE: A systematic review of algorithms and tract reproducibility studies. SUBJECTS: Single healthy volunteers. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0T, two different scanners by the same manufacturer. The multishell acquisition included b-values of 1000, 2000, and 3000 s/mm2 with 20, 45, and 64 diffusion gradient directions per shell, respectively. ASSESSMENT: Nine international groups submitted 46 tractography algorithm entries each consisting 16 tracts per scan. The algorithms were assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC) and the Dice similarity measure. STATISTICAL TESTS: Containment analysis was performed to assess if the submitted algorithms had containment within tracts of larger volume submissions. This also serves the purpose to detect if spurious submissions had been made. RESULTS: The top five submissions had high ICC and Dice >0.88. Reproducibility was high within the top five submissions when assessed across sessions or across scanners: 0.87-0.97. Containment analysis shows that the top five submissions are contained within larger volume submissions. From the total of 16 tracts as an outcome relatively the number of tracts with high, moderate, and low reproducibility were 8, 4, and 4. DATA CONCLUSION: The different methods clearly result in fundamentally different tract structures at the more conservative specificity choices. Data and challenge infrastructure remain available for continued analysis and provide a platform for comparison. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5 Technical Efficacy Stage: 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;51:234-249.

6.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614799

RESUMO

The distribution of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Europe can be represented by two distinct and interconnected epidemiological systems (episystems), each characterized by different ecological characteristics and vector species. This study investigated the vector competence of Italian populations of Culicoides imicola and Culicoides obsoletus/scoticus to some representative BTV strains after artificial oral infection. The BTV strains were selected according to their ability to spread to one or both episystems and included BTV-4 ITA, responsible of the recent Italian and French BTV-4 outbreaks; the BTV-2 strain which caused the first BTV incursion in Italy, Corsica, and Balearic Islands; BTV-4 MOR, responsible for the epidemic in Morocco; and BTV-8, the strain which spread through Europe between 2006 and 2008. Blood-soaked cotton pledgets and Hemotek membrane feeder using Parafilm® membrane were used to artificially feed midges. For each population/strain, recovery rates (positive/tested heads) were evaluated using serogroup- and serotype-specific RT-PCR. The trial demonstrated that, except for the Abruzzo population of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus, which was refractory to BTV-4 MOR infection, all the investigated Culicoides populations are susceptible to the selected BTV strains and that, if prompt vaccination programs and restriction measures had not been implemented, BTV-2 and BTV-4 MOR could have spread all over Europe.

7.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101272, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481344

RESUMO

The continuous flow of billions of birds between Africa and Europe creates an "ecological bridge" between physically remote areas. Migratory birds fly south from their breeding grounds during late summer/fall and fly back in spring. These movements regulate the spread of internal and external parasites, as well as pathogens of potential public health concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible introduction of exotic tick species and tick-borne pathogens into Europe via migratory birds. At the bird observatory of Ventotene island (Italy), 443 feeding ticks were collected from 249 birds captured and ringed during their northbound migration in spring 2013. Each tick was identified by morphological and molecular methods and then tested for bacterial and viral pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Coxiella burnetii, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Flavivirus. Morphological and molecular identification confirmed Hyalomma rufipes as the most abundant species among the collected arthropods (366/443; 82.6%) followed by Hyalomma marginatum (10/433; 2.3%). Rickettsia aeschlimannii was identified in 158 ticks, while one engorged Amblyomma variegatum nymph was infected with Rickettsia africae. The other bacteria were not detected in any specimen. Among viruses, RNA belonging to West Nile virus and other Flavivirus were detected whereas all ticks were negative for CCHFV RNA. These results confirm how migratory birds play a role in carrying Rickettsia-infected ticks, as well as viruses of zoonotic importance, from Africa into Europe. To what extent tick species are capable of establishing a permanent population once introduced in naïve areas, is far from defined and deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Aves , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Aves/virologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Itália , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais
8.
Vet Ital ; 55(2): 131-141, 2019 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274174

RESUMO

In order to study the capability of a Bluetongue virus serotype 2 (BTV­2) field isolate to cross the placental barrier, 2 groups of 5 pregnant ewes were infected with a field BTV­2 Italian strain (Group A) or with the same strain passaged once in Culicoides cells (Kc) (Group B). Following infection, EDTA­blood and serum samples were collected weekly and tested for the presence of BTV RNA/infectious virus and anti­BTV­2 antibodies, respectively. At lambing, precolostral EDTA­blood and serum samples were collected from lambs and tested as before. The lambs were then sampled as scheduled for the dams. All sheep seroconverted on day 12 post­infection (pi) and remained seropositive throughout the sampling period (day 68 pi). BTV was isolated from day 7 pi to day 14 pi in animals of Group A and from day 5 pi to day 12 pi in animals of Group B. None of the 14 lambs born had pre­colostral antibodies. Three lambs born from two ewes of Group B were viraemic at birth and in one lamb infectious virus was isolated from blood up to 11 days of age. This study proved for the first time that a single passage of BTV­2 field strain in Kc cells is able to give to BTV the ability to cross the placenta barrier and infect foetal tissues.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/fisiologia , Bluetongue/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Placenta/virologia , Animais , Bluetongue/virologia , Linhagem Celular/virologia , Ceratopogonidae , Feminino , Itália , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Sorogrupo , Carneiro Doméstico
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 234: 119-127, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213267

RESUMO

Ex vivo organ cultures (EVOCs) are extensively used to study the cellular tropism and infectivity of different pathogens. In this study, we used ovine and porcine respiratory EVOCs to investigate the replication kinetics and cellular tropism of selected emerging reoviruses namely Pteropine orthoreovirus, an emerging bat-borne zoonotic respiratory virus, and atypical Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes which, unlike classical serotypes, do not cause Bluetongue, a major OIE-listed disease of ruminants. BTV failed to replicate in ovine EVOCs. Instead, PRV showed slight replication in porcine lower respiratory EVOCs and a more sustained replication in all ovine respiratory tissues. By confocal laser scanning microscopy, PRV was demonstrated to infect bronchiolar and type I pneumocytes of ovine tissues. Overall, respiratory EVOCs from different animal species, eventually obtained at slaughterhouse, are a useful tool for testing and preliminarily characterize novel and emerging viruses addressing the essential in vivo animal work. Further experiments are, indeed, warranted in order to characterize the pathogenesis and transmission of these emerging reoviruses.


Assuntos
Orthoreovirus/fisiologia , Tropismo Viral , Replicação Viral , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/virologia , Animais , Vírus Bluetongue/fisiologia , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/virologia , Cinética , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Ovinos , Suínos
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 1946-1957, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067011

RESUMO

In 2018, Croatia reported the largest outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infections as well as the re-occurrence of human Usutu virus (USUV) infections. For the first time, fatal WNV and USUV infections were detected in wild birds. We analysed epidemiological characteristics and molecular epidemiology of WNV and USUV infections detected during 2018 transmission season. From April to November, 178 patients with neuroinvasive disease and 68 patients with febrile disease were tested for WNV and USUV. Viral RNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine samples using a real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were tested by nested RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. IgM/IgG antibodies were detected in serum/CSF samples using ELISA with confirmation of cross-reactive samples by virus neutralization test (VNT). WNV neuroinvasive disease was confirmed in 54 and WNV fever in seven patients from 10 continental Croatian counties. Areas affected in 2018 were those in which cases occurred in previous seasons, while in three areas human cases were reported for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of six strains from patients residing in different geographic areas showed circulation of WNV lineage 2. In three patients, neuroinvasive USUV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR or VNT. Sequence analysis of one detected strain revealed USUV Europe 2 lineage. During the same period, a total of 2,574 horse and 1,069 poultry serum samples were tested for WNV antibodies using ELISA. Acute asymptomatic WNV infection (IgM antibodies) was documented in 20/0.7% horses. WNV IgG antibodies were found in 307/11.9% horses and in 125/12.7% poultry. WNV RNA was detected in two goshawks and USUV RNA was detected in one blackbird from north-western Croatia. In the Zagreb area, 3,670 female mosquitoes were collected. One Culex pipiens pool collected in July tested positive for USUV RNA. Our results highlight the importance of continuous multidisciplinary 'One health' surveillance of these emerging arboviruses.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Perus , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Croácia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Saúde Única , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Virol Methods ; 269: 64-69, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951789

RESUMO

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a segmented double-stranded RNA virus, existing in multiple serotypes, belonging to the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae. BTV causes Bluetongue (BT), a major OIE-listed disease of ruminants. Identification of BTV serotype is accomplished using multiple typing assays and tends to be executed based on the known epidemiological situation within a given country. Samples containing multiple serotypes, particularly those containing novel introductions, may therefore be missed. The aim of this work was to optimize the nCounter® Analysis System Microarray platform (NanoString technologies), that would simultaneously identify all BTV serotypes and co-infections in analyzed samples. Probes were designed according to all Seg-2 sequences, coding for VP2 proteins which determine serotype specificity, available on line. A specific BTV CodeSet of probes was optimized. Experiments were performed with 30 BTV isolates and with 46 field samples previously shown to be infected with BTV by classical molecular assays. All BTV isolates were correctly identified and the expected BTV serotype was recognized in 35 field samples with CT values between 22.0-33.0. In turn, it was unable to identify 11 samples with CT values between 29.0-38.0. Although specificity of the assay needs to be further investigated against a larger panel of BTVs collected worldwide, RNA loads, which are normally detected in blood samples during the acute phase of infection, are within the range of CT values detectable by the BTV CodeSet. We propose the NanoString RNA microarray as a first-line molecular diagnostic tool for identification and typing of BTV. Once identification of the index cases is performed, diagnosis of the following samples may be performed by specific, more sensitive and cheaper PCR-based tools.

12.
Vet Ital ; 55(1): 73-79, 2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951184

RESUMO

To evaluate the immunological response following vaccination, 40 WNV serologically negative horses were selected and divided in two groups of 20 animals. One group was vaccinated (booster after 28 days) with a whole inactivated viral strain and the second group with a live recombinant canarypox virus expressing the genes coding for the WNV preM/E viral proteins. IgM, IgG and neutralizing antibodies were monitored by class specific ELISAs and serum neutralization assay for 360 days. In both groups, IgM antibodies were first detected 7 days post vaccination (dpv). However, in the group vaccinated with inactivated vaccine, IgM antibodies were detected until day 42 pv, whereas in the group vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine, they were detected up to day 52 pv. A similar (P > 0.05) proportion of horses showed IgM antibodies after vaccination with either recombinant [30%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 14.59%-52.18%] or inactivated (32%; 95% CI: 15.39-54.28%) vaccine. Both vaccines induced in vaccinated horses a detectable IgG antibody response starting from day 7 pv and lasting till the end of the trial. Analogously, both products elicited WNV specific neutralizing antibodies. The response induced by the live canarypox virus-vectored vaccine was higher (mean titres 1:298 vs 1:18.9) and lasted longer than did that induced by the killed-virus vaccines. In fact, one year after the vaccination, neutralizing antibodies were still detectable in the horses which received the canarypox virus-based vaccine but not in the group vaccinated with the killed product. The use of vaccines is a valuable tool to prevent WNV disease in horses and the availability of different products facilitates the control of the disease in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vacinas contra o Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Animais , Cavalos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia
13.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 13: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853896

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment affects about 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. The default mode network (DMN) has been linked with cognition, but in MS its role is still poorly understood. Moreover, within an extended DMN network including the cerebellum (CBL-DMN), the contribution of cortico-cerebellar connectivity to MS cognitive performance remains unexplored. The present study investigated associations of DMN and CBL-DMN structural connectivity with cognitive processing speed in MS, in both cognitively impaired (CIMS) and cognitively preserved (CPMS) MS patients. 68 MS patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs) completed a symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) and had 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that included a diffusion weighted imaging protocol. DMN and CBL-DMN tracts were reconstructed with probabilistic tractography. These networks (DMN and CBL-DMN) and the cortico-cerebellar tracts alone were modeled using a graph theoretical approach with fractional anisotropy (FA) as the weighting factor. Brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) was also calculated. In CIMS SDMT scores strongly correlated with the FA-weighted global efficiency (GE) of the network [GE(CBL-DMN): ρ = 0.87, R 2 = 0.76, p < 0.001; GE(DMN): ρ = 0.82, R 2 = 0.67, p < 0.001; GE(CBL): ρ = 0.80, R 2 = 0.64, p < 0.001]. In CPMS the correlation between these measures was significantly lower [GE(CBL-DMN): ρ = 0.51, R 2 = 0.26, p < 0.001; GE(DMN): ρ = 0.48, R 2 = 0.23, p = 0.001; GE(CBL): ρ = 0.52, R 2 = 0.27, p < 0.001] and SDMT scores correlated most with BPF (ρ = 0.57, R 2 = 0.33, p < 0.001). In a multivariable regression model where SDMT was the independent variable, FA-weighted GE was the only significant explanatory variable in CIMS, while in CPMS BPF and expanded disability status scale were significant. No significant correlation was found in HC between SDMT scores, MRI or network measures. DMN structural GE is related to cognitive performance in MS, and results of CBL-DMN suggest that the cerebellum structural connectivity to the DMN plays an important role in information processing speed decline.

14.
Curr Opin Virol ; 34: 56-62, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654271

RESUMO

Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) are globally re-emerging diseases of domestic and wild ruminants, respectively caused by BT virus (BTV) and EHD virus. Both viruses are transmitted by hematophagous midges; however, newly recognized BTV serotypes may be transmitted horizontally without requirement for any biological vector. The global range of these viruses and/or their associated diseases have changed remarkably in recent years, most notably with the invasion of Europe by multiple serotypes of BTV since 1998. Although not zoonoses, the unanticipated emergence of BT and EHD in several different areas of the world provides a uniquely sobering and unambiguous reminder of the potential consequences of climate change on the distribution and severity of vector-borne diseases. Recent experiences with these viruses have also emphasized the need for effective, DIVA-compatible vaccines to combat anticipated future incursions, as existing vaccines have serious inherent deficiencies.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/patogenicidade , Bluetongue/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/patogenicidade , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , /veterinária , Animais , Bluetongue/transmissão , Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Ceratopogonidae/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/transmissão , Ruminantes , Ovinos , /virologia
15.
Cereb Cortex ; 29(3): 1351-1368, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615116

RESUMO

Action observation (AO) is crucial for motor planning, imitation learning, and social interaction, but it is not clear whether and how an action execution-observation network (AEON) processes the effort of others engaged in performing actions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used a "squeeze ball" task involving different grip forces to investigate whether AEON activation showed similar patterns when executing the task or observing others performing it. Both in action execution, AE (subjects performed the visuomotor task) and action observation, AO (subjects watched a video of the task being performed by someone else), the fMRI signal was detected in cerebral and cerebellar regions. These responses showed various relationships with force mapping onto specific areas of the sensorimotor and cognitive systems. Conjunction analysis of AE and AO was repeated for the "0th" order and linear and nonlinear responses, and revealed multiple AEON nodes remapping the detection of actions, and also effort, of another person onto the observer's own cerebrocerebellar system. This result implies that the AEON exploits the cerebellum, which is known to process sensorimotor predictions and simulations, performing an internal assessment of forces and integrating information into high-level schemes, providing a crucial substrate for action imitation.

16.
Vet Med Sci ; 5(1): 79-86, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468305

RESUMO

The epidemiological patterns of Bluetongue (BT) in North Africa and Mediterranean Basin (MB) dramatically changed by emergence of subsequent episodes of novel bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes with highly pathogenic indexes and socio-economic impacts. The objective of the study was to investigate the sero-prevalence and serotype distribution of BTV in Libya. During 2015-2016, a total of 826 serum samples were collected from domestic ruminants in Libya. All sera were assayed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (c-ELISA). C-Elisa-positive samples (43.3%; 173/400) were further analyzed by virus neutralization assay to identify BTV serotypes and determine the antibody titre of positive samples. An overall BTV sero-prevalence was 48.4% (95% CI: 45.0%-51.8%). Neutralizing antibodies were detected against the following BTV serotypes namely: BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-3, BTV-4, BTV-9 and BTV-26. While BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-4 and BTV-9 circulation was unsurprising as they have been responsible of the last year outbreaks in Northern African Countries, the detection of BTV-3 and BTV-26 was definitely new and concerning for the animal health of the countries facing the Mediterranean Basin. It is crucial that European and Northern African authorities collaborate in organizing common surveillance programmes to early detect novel strains or emerging serotypes in order to set up proper preventive measures, and, in case, develop specific vaccines and plan coordinated vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/classificação , Bluetongue/virologia , Animais , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Líbia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Ovinos
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 68: 91-97, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517880

RESUMO

Here we report studies of the antigenic relationship of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), two zoonotic flaviviruses from Italy, together with a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain and compared them with their genetic relationship using the immunodominant viral E protein. Thirty-nine isolates and reference strains were inactivated and used to immunize rabbits to produce hyper immune sera. Serum samples were tested by neutralization against all isolates and results visualized by generating antigenic map. Strains of WNV, USUV, and JEV grouped in separate clusters on the antigenic map. JEV was closer antigenically to USUV (mean of 3.5 Antigenic Unit, AU, equivalent to a 2-fold change in antibody titer) than to WNV strains (mean of 6 AU). A linear regression model predicted, on average, one unit of antigenic change, equivalent to a 2-fold change in antibody titer, for every 22 amino acid substitutions in the E protein ectodomain. Overall, antigenic map was demonstrated to be robust and consistent with phylogeny of the E protein. Indeed, the map provided a reliable means of visualizing and quantifying the relationship between these flaviviruses. Further antigenic analyses employing representative strains of extant serocomplexes are currently underway. This will provide a more in deep knowledge of antigenic relationships between flaviviruses.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/imunologia , Flavivirus/imunologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/genética , Flavivirus/classificação , Flavivirus/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Testes Sorológicos , Zoonoses/virologia
18.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 12: 331, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327590

RESUMO

While task-dependent responses of specific brain areas during cognitive tasks are well established, much less is known about the changes occurring in resting state networks (RSNs) in relation to continuous cognitive processing. In particular, the functional involvement of cerebro-cerebellar loops connecting the posterior cerebellum to associative cortices, remains unclear. In this study, 22 healthy volunteers underwent a multi-session functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol composed of four consecutive 8-min resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans. After a first control scan, participants listened to a narrated story for the entire duration of the second rs-fMRI scan; two further rs-fMRI scans followed the end of story listening. The story plot was purposely designed to stimulate specific cognitive processes that are known to involve the cerebro-cerebellar loops. Almost all of the identified 15 RSNs showed changes in functional connectivity (FC) during and for several minutes after the story. The FC changes mainly occurred in the frontal and prefrontal cortices and in the posterior cerebellum, especially in Crus I-II and lobule VI. The FC changes occurred in cerebellar clusters belonging to different RSNs, including the cerebellar network (CBLN), sensory networks (lateral visual network, LVN; medial visual network, MVN) and cognitive networks (default mode network, DMN; executive control network, ECN; right and left ventral attention networks, RVAN and LVAN; salience network, SN; language network, LN; and working memory network, WMN). Interestingly, a k-means analysis of FC changes revealed clustering of FCN, ECN, and WMN, which are all involved in working memory functions, CBLN, DMN, and SN, which play a key-role in attention switching, and RSNs involved in visual imagery. These results show that the cerebellum is deeply entrained in well-structured network clusters, which reflect multiple aspects of cognitive processing, during and beyond the conclusion of auditory stimulation.

19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 51(5): 591-595, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been shown to persist for up to 500 days in certain patients. To evaluate the usefulness of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity assessment in the diagnosis of WNV infection, we analyzed 54 WNV IgM- and/or IgG-positive serum samples from 39 patients with neuroinvasive disease and 15 asymptomatic cases tested during a seroprevalence investigation. METHODS: Serological tests (WNV IgM/IgG antibody detection, IgG avidity) were performed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: WNV IgM antibodies were detected in 47 (87%) samples. Acute/recent WNV infection was confirmed based on low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 44 IgM-positive samples (93.6%). In three IgM-positive samples (6.4%), high IgG AIs were detected, thus indicating persisting IgM antibodies from previous infections. All IgM-negative samples showed high AIs. Patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease tested within 30 days showed low AIs. In six patients tested 34-50 days after disease onset, AI was borderline (42%-60%), suggesting earlier WNV IgG maturation. Samples with the highest IgM values were associated with the lowest AIs (Spearman's rho coefficient -0.767, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that IgG avidity differentiates current/recent WNV infection from persistent IgM seropositivity from the previous WNV transmission season both in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease and in asymptomatic persons. A strong negative correlation between IgM antibody levels and AI indicates that in cases with very high IgM levels, determination of IgG avidity may not be necessary. As many patients showed rapid avidity maturation, low IgG avidity is indicative of WNV infection within the previous month.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/diagnóstico , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Estações do Ano
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 591-595, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-957467

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been shown to persist for up to 500 days in certain patients. To evaluate the usefulness of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity assessment in the diagnosis of WNV infection, we analyzed 54 WNV IgM- and/or IgG-positive serum samples from 39 patients with neuroinvasive disease and 15 asymptomatic cases tested during a seroprevalence investigation. METHODS Serological tests (WNV IgM/IgG antibody detection, IgG avidity) were performed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS WNV IgM antibodies were detected in 47 (87%) samples. Acute/recent WNV infection was confirmed based on low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 44 IgM-positive samples (93.6%). In three IgM-positive samples (6.4%), high IgG AIs were detected, thus indicating persisting IgM antibodies from previous infections. All IgM-negative samples showed high AIs. Patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease tested within 30 days showed low AIs. In six patients tested 34-50 days after disease onset, AI was borderline (42%-60%), suggesting earlier WNV IgG maturation. Samples with the highest IgM values were associated with the lowest AIs (Spearman's rho coefficient -0.767, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that IgG avidity differentiates current/recent WNV infection from persistent IgM seropositivity from the previous WNV transmission season both in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease and in asymptomatic persons. A strong negative correlation between IgM antibody levels and AI indicates that in cases with very high IgM levels, determination of IgG avidity may not be necessary. As many patients showed rapid avidity maturation, low IgG avidity is indicative of WNV infection within the previous month.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA