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1.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232941

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current study was to prospectively evaluate the association between passive smoking from a spouse and the risk of diabetes among never-smoking Japanese women. Passive smoking at a workplace (or public facilities) was assessed as a secondary measure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the Japan Public Health Center-based study (baseline: 1990 or 1993), we followed 25,391 never-smoking women aged 40 to 69 years old and without diabetes. Passive smoking was defined as having a husband who was a self-reported smoker, and the exposure at a workplace (or public facilities) was self-reported by women. The development of diabetes was identified in questionnaires administered at the 5-year and 10-year surveys. A pooled logistic regression model was used to assess the association between passive smoking and the development of diabetes with adjustment for age and possible confounders. RESULTS: Compared to women whose husband had never smoked, women whose husband smoked ≥ 40 cigarettes/day had a significantly higher odds of developing diabetes in an age-adjusted model but, which the association was attenuated in a multivariable model (odds ratio (OR)=1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96-1.87). There was a dose-response trend between a number of cigarettes smoked by a husband and the odds of developing diabetes. (p=0.02). Women reporting daily passive smoking at a workplace (or public facilities) had higher odds of developing diabetes than women reporting no such exposure (OR=1.23, 95%CI: 0.995-1.53). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a higher risk of diabetes among never-smoking Japanese women with higher exposure to passive smoking from a spouse.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5355, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210291

RESUMO

Although a meta-analysis previously suggested a positive relationship between diabetes and intraocular pressure (IOP), the interrelationships among diabetes, IOP, and other ocular biometric parameters remain unclear. The present study investigated the relationships of diabetes, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and serum glucose with IOP and ocular hypertension (IOP > 21 mmHg) in non-glaucomatous Japanese adults living in Chikusei City. Diabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes, the use of antidiabetic medication, or HbA1c levels ≥6.5%. Among 6,786 enrolled participants aged 40 years and above, 734 were classified as diabetic (10.8%). After adjusting for several confounders, the IOP values were significantly higher in participants with diabetes than in those without diabetes (14.4 ± 0.1 vs. 13.9 ± 0.1 mmHg, P < 0.001) and were also significantly increased in those with elevated HbA1c and serum glucose levels (both P < 0.001). Moreover, diabetes was significantly related to ocular hypertension (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.81; P < 0.05). The positive influence of diabetes with ocular hypertension was consistent even after adjustment for central corneal thickness. In conclusion, diabetes, elevated HbA1c, and increased serum glucose are significant contributing factors for elevated IOP.

4.
Heart ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tub bathing is considered to have a preventive effect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) by improving haemodynamic function. However, no prospective studies have investigated the long-term effects of tub bathing with regard to CVD risk. METHODS: A total of 30 076 participants aged 40-59 years with no history of CVD or cancer were followed up from 1990 to 2009. Participants were classified by bathing frequency: zero to two times/week, three to four times/week and almost every day. The HRs of incident CVD were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors and selected dietary factors. RESULTS: During 538 373 person-years of follow-up, we documented a total of 2097 incident cases of CVD, comprising 328 coronary heart diseases (CHDs) (275 myocardial infarctions and 53 sudden cardiac deaths) and 1769 strokes (991 cerebral infarctions, 510 intracerebral haemorrhages, 255 subarachnoid haemorrhages and 13 unclassified strokes). The multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for almost daily or every day versus zero to two times/week were 0.72 (0.62 to 0.84, trend p<0.001) for total CVD; 0.65 (0.45 to 0.94, trend p=0.065) for CHD; 0.74 (0.62 to 0.87, trend p=0.005) for total stroke; 0.77 (0.62 to 0.97, trend p=0.467) for cerebral infarction; and 0.54 (0.40 to 0.73, trend p<0.001) for intracerebral haemorrhage. No associations were observed between tub bathing frequency and risk of sudden cardiac death or subarachnoid haemorrhage. CONCLUSION: The frequency of tub bathing was inversely associated with the risk of CVD among middle-aged Japanese.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the poor prognosis and increasing incidence of pancreatic cancer highlight the need for prevention strategies, few lifestyle risk factors for pancreatic cancer have yet been identified. Soybeans contain various bioactive compounds. However, the association between soy food intake and pancreatic cancer risk remains unknown. METHODS: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) is a cohort study conducted in a general Japanese population. To determine the association of soy food intake and pancreatic cancer incidence, we analyzed 90,185 participants who responded to a questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, including dietary factors based on a food-frequency questionnaire in 1995-1998, using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 16.9 years, 577 cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. In the multivariate-adjusted model, total soy food intake was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for the highest versus lowest intake quartile: 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.92; P-trend = 0.007). Among soy foods, non-fermented soy food intake showed a statistically significant positive association with pancreatic cancer (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.09-1.81; P-trend = 0.008), whereas fermented soy food intake showed no association (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.73-1.26; P-trend = 0.982). CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of soy foods, particularly non-fermented soy foods, might increase pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: This study is the first to report an association between the intake of various soy foods and pancreatic cancer risk. Further studies are required to confirm our findings.

6.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009104

RESUMO

BackgroundShort and long sleep durations are associated with mortality outcomes. The association between sleep duration and mortality outcomes may differ according to sex and age.MethodsParticipants of the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC Study) were aged 40-69 years and had completed a detailed questionnaire on lifestyle factors. Sex- and age-stratified analyses on the association between habitual sleep duration and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer and other causes included 46,152 men and 53,708 women without a history of CVD or cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to determine hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals.ResultsMean follow-up time was 19.9 years for men and 21.0 years for women. In the multivariable sex-stratified models, and compared with 7 hours, some categories of sleep durations ≥ 8 hours were positively associated with mortality from all-causes, CVD, and other causes in men and women.The sex- and age-stratified analyses did not reveal any major differences in the association between sleep duration and mortality outcomes in groups younger and older than 50 years of age. The only exception was the significant interaction between sleep duration and age in women for mortality from other causes.ConclusionsSleep durations ≥8 hours are associated with mortality outcomes in men and women. Age may be an effect modifier for the association between sleep duration and mortality from other causes in women.

7.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 17, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to concerns of carcinogenicity, it is necessary to assess long-term acrylamide exposure in individuals. Whether the available methods of estimating acrylamide intake can indicate long-term exposure remains unknown. We examined variations in the estimated dietary acrylamide intake of the Japanese population. METHODS: The study included 240 participants aged 40-74 years who were a part of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT). Twelve-day dietary records (DRs) were collected over a one-year period, and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were collected twice during the year. Dietary acrylamide intake was estimated from an acrylamide content database. Within-individual variations and between-individual variations were calculated using the random effects model. A linear regression analysis was performed to identify foods with large between-individual variations. RESULTS: The ratios of within-individual variance to between-individual variation were 3.2 for men and 4.3 for women. Days of DRs required to estimate the usual individual intake within 20% of the true mean intake with 95% confidence were 60 days for men and 66 days for women. Coffee/cocoa, potato, and green tea contributed to between-individual variations, in that order, and seven foods contributed to 93% of the between-individual variation. CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the acrylamide intake using DRs requires an extended data collection period to estimate the intragroup ranking and habitual intake of individuals. Long-term exposure assessments should be based on methods with less potential for measurement errors, such as the use of biomarkers.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053666

RESUMO

Although their functional outcomes remain largely unknown, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) may interact with adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, to modify the risk of colorectal cancer. We conducted a prospective study of 375 colorectal cancer cases and 750 matched controls to examine the effects of SNPs in the FTO, either alone or in interaction with pre-diagnostic plasma adipokine levels. Using a conditional logistic regression model, we obtained odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer. Seven SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium demonstrated a similarly positive association with colorectal cancer, and most evidently for rs1558902, rs8050136, rs3751812, and rs9939609 (Ptrend = 0.02). Of interest, we observed a statistically significant interaction of rs8050136 with plasma total adiponectin levels (Pinteraction = 0.03). Compared to non-carriers in the lowest quintile of plasma total adiponectin, A allele carriers in the same quintile showed a considerably elevated risk of colorectal cancer, with a body mass index-adjusted OR of 2.54 (95% CI, 1.36-4.75). This investigation of the interaction between SNPs in the FTO and pre-diagnostic plasma adipokine levels has revealed the importance of both genetic and hormonal factors associated with adiposity in colorectal carcinogenesis.

9.
Prev Med ; 133: 106026, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057954

RESUMO

Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for cancer. The degree of risk is increased in subjects showing the flushing response, which is due to aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism. The attributable risk of alcohol drinking for cancer in Japan has not been sufficiently investigated with consideration of flushing response. We followed 78,825 Japanese in JPHC study cohort II. The association between alcohol consumption and cancer incidence was assessed according to self-reported flushing response using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer incidence was also estimated. During 1993-2013 (average follow-up, 16.8 years), 8486 incident cancers (included 4386 alcohol-related cancers) were reported. Half of men and 36% of women had flushing response. In men with flushing response, moderate or higher alcohol drinking increased the risk of alcohol-related cancers compared with non-drinkers (150-299 g/week, HR 1.63, 95% CI, 1.43-1.99; 300-449 g/week, HR 2.02 95% CI, 1.67-2.44; ≥450 g/week, HR 1.75, 95% CI, 1.39-2.21). When flushing response was considered in comparisons between non-drinkers and non-flushers, non-flushing heavy drinkers had a slightly higher PAF than flushers (all cancers: flushers, 2.0% and non-flushers, 2.2%; alcohol-related cancers: flushers, 3.8% and non-flushers, 5.8%). Although the risk of alcohol-related cancer in men with flushing response increased with increasing alcohol consumption, heavy drinkers were also at high risk regardless of flushing response. Considering the PAF of alcohol consumption on cancer, efforts to discourage heavy alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of alcohol-related cancers appear warranted regardless of flushing response.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 111(3): 974-984, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925977

RESUMO

Although occupational sitting time has been associated with adverse health outcomes and mortality, the association with cancer incidence remains unknown. This study investigated the association between occupational sitting time and risk of total and site-specific cancer in a Japanese population. We evaluated 33 307 participants aged 50-79 years who responded to a questionnaire in 2000-2003 in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and were followed until 2013. Participants were grouped by sitting time at work. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cancer incidence were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. During 10.2 years of follow-up, 3807 newly diagnosed cases of cancer were identified. Occupational sitting time was marginally associated with total cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 1.12 (95% CI, 0.99-1.26; P for trend = .071) in men, but not women. Among findings for cancers at specific sites, long occupational sitting time was associated with increased risk of pancreas cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.17-4.34; P for trend = .021) in men, and lung cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.80 (95% CI, 1.33-5.90; P for trend = .013) in women. Extended sitting time at work was associated with an increased risk of pancreas cancer in men and lung cancer in women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Postura Sentada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1197, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988393

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyoma is one of the most common gynaecologic benign tumours, but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. Six previous GWAS identified 33 genetic factors in total. Here, we performed a two-staged GWAS using 13,746 cases and 70,316 controls from the Japanese population, followed by a replication analysis using 3,483 cases and 4,795 controls. The analysis identified 9 significant loci, including a novel locus on 12q23.2 (rs17033114, P = 6.12 × 10-25 with an OR of 1.177 (1.141-1.213), LINC00485). Subgroup analysis indicated that 5 loci (3q26.2, 5p15.33, 10q24.33, 11p15.5, 13q14.11) exhibited a statistically significant effect among multiple leiomyomas, and 2 loci (3q26.2, 10q24.33) exhibited a significant effect among submucous leiomyomas. Pleiotropic analysis indicated that all 9 loci were associated with at least one proliferative disease, suggesting the role of these loci in the common neoplastic pathway. Furthermore, the risk T allele of rs2251795 (3q26.2) was associated with longer telomere length in both normal and tumour tissues. Our findings elucidated the significance of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma.

12.
BMJ ; 368: m34, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between several types of soy products and all cause and cause specific mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study, which includes 11 public health centre areas in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 92 915 participants (42 750 men and 50 165 women) aged 45 to 74 years. EXPOSURES: Intake of total soy products, fermented soy products (natto and miso), non-fermented soy products, and tofu from a five year survey questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality (cancer, total cardiovascular disease, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and injury) obtained from residential registries and death certificates. RESULTS: During 14.8 years of follow-up, 13 303 deaths were identified. In the multivariable adjusted models, intake of total soy products was not significantly associated with total mortality. Compared with the lowest fifth of total soy product intake, the hazard ratios in the highest fifth were 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.06, Ptrend=0.43) in men and 0.98 (0.89 to 1.08, Ptrend=0.46) in women. Intake of fermented soy products was inversely associated with all cause mortality in both sexes (highest versus lowest fifth: 0.90 (0.83 to 0.97), Ptrend=0.05 in men, and 0.89 (0.80 to 0.98), Ptrend=0.01 in women). Natto showed significant and inverse associations with total cardiovascular disease related mortality in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study a higher intake of fermented soy was associated with a lower risk of mortality. A significant association between intake of total soy products and all cause mortality was not, however, observed. The findings should be interpreted with caution because the significant association of fermented soy products might be attenuated by unadjusted residual confounding.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Mortalidade , Alimentos de Soja/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/mortalidade , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 779, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964909

RESUMO

The study subjects were residents of Chikusei city, Japan, aged 40 years or older who attended annual health check-up programs and participated in the JPHC-NEXT Eye Study which performed non-mydriatic fundus photography of both eyes. The relationship of glaucomatous fundus changes such as optic disc cupping (cup to disc ratio ≥ 0.7) and retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD) with the presence of epiretinal membrane (ERM) were examined cross-sectionally. A total of 1990 persons gave consent to participate in this study in 2013. The overall prevalence of ERM was 12.9%. Of these, 1755 had fundus photographs of sufficient quality and no history of intraocular surgery (mean age: 62.3 ± 10.0 years). After adjusting for age, sex and refractive error, NFLD was positively associated with the presence of ERM (odds ratio [OR]: 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 4.96; P = 0.010), but optic disc cupping was not (OR: 1.33; CI: 0.71, 2.48; P = 0.37). The results did not necessarily suggest an association between glaucoma and ERM, but indicated an association between NFLD and ERM.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An inverse association has been shown between dietary fiber intake and several noncommunicable diseases. However, evidence of this effect remains unclear in the Asian population. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between dietary fiber intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, as well as the association between fiber intake from dietary sources and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale population-based cohort study (Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study). A validated questionnaire with 138 food items was completed by 92,924 participants (42,754 men and 50,170 women) aged 45-74 y. Dietary fiber intake was calculated and divided into quintiles. HR and 95% CI of total and cause-specific mortality were reported. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 16.8 y, 19,400 deaths were identified. In multivariable adjusted models, total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intakes were inversely associated with all-cause mortality. The HRs of total mortality in the highest quintile of total fiber intake compared with the lowest quintile were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.82; Ptrend <0.0001) in men and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.89; Ptrend <0.0001) in women. Increased quintiles of dietary fiber intake were significantly associated with decreased mortality due to total cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, and injury in both men and women, whereas dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with cancer mortality in men but not women. Fiber from fruits, beans, and vegetables, but not from cereals, was inversely associated with total mortality. CONCLUSION: In this large-scale prospective study with a long follow-up period, dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality. Since intakes of dietary fiber, mainly from fruits, vegetables, and beans were associated with lower all-cause mortality, these food sources may be good options for people aiming to consume more fiber.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 95-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of meat and fish consumption on cancer risk has been well studied in humans. However, studies related to biliary tract cancer (BTC) are scarce. METHODS: We examined the association between meat and fish consumption and the risk of BTC in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: During 1995 and 1999, 43,177 men and 49,323 women ages 45 to 74 years were enrolled and followed up for 607,757.0 person-years (men) and 728,820.3 person-years (women) until 2012, during which time 217 male and 162 female BTC cases were identified. Higher total meat consumption was significantly associated with a decreased BTC risk in men (HR for the highest vs. lowest quartiles = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.98; P trend = 0.011) but not in women. Similar association was observed with red meat, but no association was observed with poultry. Fish was not associated with BTC risk. We further analyzed each BTC subtype to confirm the observed association with BTC. However, significant association with each BTC subtype was not observed, although a trend of decreased extrahepatic bile duct cancer risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: BTC risk was lower among men who consumed more meat, particularly red meat, in Japan. IMPACT: This is the first prospective study that evaluated the relationship between meat and BTC. This may provide important suggestions to elucidate the etiology of BTC.

16.
Ocul Surf ; 18(1): 56-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This population-based, cross-sectional study was performed to assess the influence of life-style modalities, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and visual display terminal (VDT) use, on the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: The study included a total of 102,582 participants aged 40-74 years, from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation, a large nationwide prospective ongoing Japanese cohort study. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship of total and leisure-time physical activity, duration of sedentary behaviors, and VDT use (hours/day) with DED. RESULTS: Among 47,346 men and 55,236 women, 25,234 (8315 males and 16,919 females) cases of DED were documented. Total physical activity was significantly related to decreased DED in both sexes; for the highest vs. lowest total physical activity quartiles, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for DED were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.97; Ptrend<0.03) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.86-0.95; Ptrend<0.001) for men and women, respectively. Conversely, prolonged sedentary behaviors and VDT use had significantly higher prevalence of DED in both sexes (Ptrend<0.001). Notably, the favorable effect of total physical activity on decreased DED in women was more prevalent with prolonged VDT use (≥2 h/day) (Pinteraction<0.01). In men, the duration of VDT use or sitting was a significant modifier of the inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and DED (Pinteraction<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Physical inactivity, prolonged sedentary behaviors, and use of VDT were related to increased susceptibility to DED among middle-aged to older Japanese adults.

17.
Ophthalmology ; 127(1): 107-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307828

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the association of retinal thickness with cognitive function in Japanese persons. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1293 Japanese persons aged 65 to 86 years who resided in the Saku area in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study participated in the eye and mental health screening. METHODS: Participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic assessment, including fundus photography, measurement of intraocular pressure, and determination of refraction status. We assessed the thickness of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL), and ganglion cell complex (GCC, which includes the retinal nerve fiber layer and GC-IPL), and the full thickness in the macula and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) using spectral-domain (SD) OCT. Cognitive tests consisted of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Memory Scale Revised logical memory I/II subtest, clock drawing test, and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. These were used to designate the participants in the following 3 groups: Normal, those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and those with dementia. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between retinal thickness and cognitive function after adjusting potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of retinal thickness with cognitive function. RESULTS: Among the 1293 potential subjects, 114 were excluded for a diagnosis of depression, 64 were excluded for retinal disease, and 140 were excluded for scanning errors or suboptimal OCT images. The remaining 975 participants (mean age, 73.2 years) were included in this analysis. Significant differences were found in the 3 groups in all layers and GCC thickness, but not in ppRNFL thickness. After adjusting for age, sex, educational status, and refraction, full macular thickness and GCC thickness were inversely associated with the presence of dementia, but ppRNFL thickness was not. Furthermore, GC-IPL, GCC, and full macular thicknesses were all associated with the presence of dementia in the inferior sectors. CONCLUSIONS: Macular thickness was associated with the presence of dementia, but ppRNFL was not. Our results suggest that OCT measurements of the macula could be superior to those of the ppRNFL in assessing neurodegenerative changes and a potentially useful diagnostic biomarker of cognitive function.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 420-426, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serologic testing of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody, together with testing of pepsinogen I and II, is now widely used to stratify groups at high risk of gastric cancer in Japan. Those with a negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer, especially "high-negative" (3-<10 U/mL), are speculated to have higher risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to evaluate the association between a high-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer and the long-term risk of gastric cancer in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) Cohort II. METHODS: The study population consisted of 19,106 Japanese men and women who were followed from 1993 to 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of gastric cancer for plasma anti-H. pylori IgG titers, together with the severity of atrophic gastritis by pepsinogen I and II levels. A total of 595 cases of gastric cancer occurred during an average of 18 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with those with a low-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer (≤3 U/mL), subjects with a high-negative titer (3-<10 U/mL) showed a significantly elevated risk of gastric cancer [HR = 2.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-4.89]. Among those with a high-negative titer, risk increase was observed under moderate or severe atrophic gastritis (HR = 18.73; 95% CI = 8.83-39.70). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that those with a high-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer and moderate and severe atrophic gastritis are at increased long-term risk of gastric cancer. IMPACT: Development of moderate or severe atrophic gastritis in subjects with high-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer is suggested to increase risk of gastric cancer.

19.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(1): 54-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Eating a variety of foods has been recommended in the dietary guidelines of many developed nations, as well as global dietary guidelines. We investigated the potential effect of dietary diversity on the risk of total mortality and major causes of mortality in a large-scale cohort study involving the Japanese population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: From 1995 to 2012, 79,904 participants (37,240 men and 42,664 women) aged 45 to 74 years, without histories of ischemic heart disease, stroke, or cancer were followed-up for a median of 14.9 years. We used 133 food and beverage items listed on a 5-year follow-up food frequency questionnaire, and the daily frequency of consumption for each item (excluding five alcoholic beverages) was counted. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to compare the highest and lowest quintiles. RESULTS: An inverse association was identified between total dietary diversity and mortality rates in women (highest quintile HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.92; p for trend = 0.002) but the same trend was not observed in men (highest quintile HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.10; p for trend = 0.266). In addition, fruit diversity was associated with lower mortality rates in men (highest quintile HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.95; p for trend = 0.006), whereas soy diversity was associated with lower mortality rates in women (highest quintile HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.00; p for trend = 0.004). With regard to men, meat and fish diversity were associated with higher mortality rates (highest quintiles of meat and fish diversity HR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.25] and 1.12 [95% CI: 1.02, 1.22], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that consuming a greater diversity of total foods and increasing the diversity of fruit and soy consumed have considerable public health implications.

20.
J Epidemiol ; 30(1): 37-45, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effects of Okinawan vegetable consumption on the risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease. This study aimed to examine associations of vegetable, fruit, and Okinawan vegetable consumption with risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease in the Japanese population of Okinawa. METHODS: The study design was a prospective cohort study. During 1995-1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered in two study areas to 16,498 participants aged 45-74 years. In 217,467 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2012, a total of 839 stroke cases and 197 coronary heart disease cases were identified. RESULTS: No statistically significant association between total Okinawan vegetable consumption and risk of stroke and coronary heart disease was obtained: the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest tertile of consumption were 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.93-1.29; P for trend = 0.289) in model 2. Total vegetable and fruit and specific Okinawan vegetable consumption were also not statistically significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that consumption of total vegetable and fruit, total Okinawan vegetables, and specific Okinawan vegetables in Japanese residents of Okinawa was not associated with risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease.

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