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1.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects that may reduce the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in which organ dysfunction is mediated by severe inflammation. Large studies with diverse populations evaluating statin use and outcomes in COVID-19 are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from 10,541 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 through September 2020 at 104 US hospitals enrolled in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Registry to evaluate the associations between statin use and outcomes. Prior to admission, 42% of subjects (n = 4,449) used statins (7% on statins alone, 35% on statins plus anti-hypertensives). Death (or discharge to hospice) occurred in 2,212 subjects (21%). Outpatient use of statins, either alone or with anti-hypertensives, was associated with a reduced risk of death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.50-0.69), adjusting for demographic characteristics, insurance status, hospital site, and concurrent medications by logistic regression. In propensity-matched analyses, use of statins and/or anti-hypertensives was associated with a reduced risk of death among those with a history of CVD and/or hypertension (aOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.58-0.81). An observed 16% reduction in odds of death among those without CVD and/or hypertension was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients taking statins prior to hospitalization for COVID-19 had substantially lower odds of death, primarily among individuals with a history of CVD and/or hypertension. These observations support the continuation and aggressive initiation of statin and anti-hypertensive therapies among patients at risk for COVID-19, if these treatments are indicated based upon underlying medical conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , American Heart Association , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
2.
J Nucl Med ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893186

RESUMO

Background: Functional/molecular imaging characteristics of ischemic ventricular tachycardia (VT) substrate are incompletely understood. Objective: Compare regional 18F-FDG - PET tracer uptake with detailed electroanatomic maps (EAM) in a more extensive series of post-infarction VT patients to define metabolic properties of the VT substrate/successful ablation sites. Methods: 3D metabolic left ventricular (LV) reconstructions were created from perfusion-normalized 18F-FDG images in consecutive patients undergoing VT ablation. Metabolic defects were defined as severe (<50% uptake) or moderate (50-70% uptake) referenced to the maximal 17-segmental uptake. Color-coded PET scars reconstructions were co-registered with corresponding high-resolution 3D EAM. Results: All 56 patients had ischemic cardiomyopathy (EF=29±12%). Severe PET defect (<50%) was larger than EAM voltage scar (<0.5mV) with 63.0±48.4cm² vs. 13.8±33.1cm² (p<0.001). Similarly, moderate/severe PET defect ( ≤ 70%) was larger than areas with abnormal voltage (≤1.5mV) measuring 105.1±67.2cm² vs. 56.2±62.6cm² (p<0.001). Analysis of bipolar voltage (n = 23,389 mapping-points) showed decreased voltage among PET <50% (n = 10,364; 0.5±0.3mV) to PET 50-70% (n = 5,243; 1.5±0.9mV, p<0.01) with normal voltage among PET normal areas >70% (n = 7,782, 3.2±1.3mV, p<0.001). Eighty-eight percent of VT channel/exit sites (n = 44) were metabolically abnormal (PET <50%: 78%; PET 50-70%: 10%), while 12% (n = 6) were in metabolically normal areas (PET>70%). Metabolic channels (n = 26) existed in 45% (n = 25) of patients with average length/width of 17.6±12.5mm/10.3±4.2mm. Metabolic channels were oriented apex/base (86%) predominantly, harboring VT channel/exit sites in 31%. Metabolic Rapid Transition Areas (RTA: >50% change of 18F-FDG tracer uptake/15mm) were detected in 59% (n = 33) co-localizing to VT channels/exit sites (15%) or its proximity (85%, 12.8±8.5mm). Metabolism-voltage mismatches (MVM) with PET<50%/voltage>1.5mV) were seen in 21% (n = 12) harboring VT channel/exit sites in 41% of patients. Conclusion: Abnormal 18F-FDG uptake categories can be detected using incremental 3D step-up reconstructions. They predicted decreasing bipolar voltages and VT channel/exit sites in ~90%. Additionally, functional imaging allowed detecting novel molecular tissue characteristics within the ischemic VT substrate such as metabolic channels, RTA, and MVM demonstrating intra-substrate heterogeneity and providing possible targets for imaging-guided ablation.

3.
ASAIO J ; 67(4): 423-429, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769997

RESUMO

Significant residual mitral regurgitation (MR) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The effect of cannula position on improvement of preexisting MR has yet to be evaluated. Consecutive patients who underwent centrifugal LVAD implantation with >mild preoperative MR and without concomitant mitral repair were reviewed. Left ventricular assist device position was determined by the angle between actual and ideal inflow cannula on computed tomography. The magnitudes of angles (anterior and lateral angle) were added to form an LVAD position assessment (LVADpa). Mitral regurgitation was numerically classified, and improvement in MR was determined by difference in MR preoperatively to MR >1 month postoperatively with a median of 162 (interquartile range: 78-218) days. The primary analysis examined the relationship between LVADpa and postoperative MR. Forty-one patients were identified with >mild preoperative functional MR. Mean age was 51 ± 13 years with an ejection fraction of 16 ± 4%. Overall, MR improved from moderate-severe preoperatively to mild postoperatively (p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, higher LVADpa deviation was associated with greater postoperative MR (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, p = 0.005) and higher 1-month pulsatility index was associated with lower postoperative MR (OR = 0.47, p = 0.011). Inflow cannula position during centrifugal LVAD implantation is an important determinant of postoperative MR.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Adulto , Cânula , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Innovations (Phila) ; 15(3): 243-250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite improvement in outcomes after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation over the past 2 decades, high-risk recipients continue to have a prohibitive rate of morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that a less invasive approach to LVAD implantation would be associated with improved survival compared to a conventional approach in this high-risk cohort. METHODS: All consecutive LVAD recipients (2013 to 2017) that underwent centrifugal LVAD implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified as high-risk if INTERMACS 1 or required temporary VAD/venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prior to durable VAD implantation. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: left thoracotomy with hemi-sternotomy (LTHS) high-risk, conventional sternotomy (CS) high-risk, and non-high-risk. The primary outcome was 1-year survival. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients (LTHS high-risk: 11, CS high-risk: 12, non-high-risk: 34) were identified. Preoperative right ventricular failure scores, HeartMate-II mortality scores, and end-organ dysfunction were similar between the 2 high-risk groups. While operative time was similar between the 3 groups, cardiopulmonary bypass time was significantly shorter in the LTHS high-risk group compared to other groups. There was a trend toward decreased intensive care unit length of stay and ventilator time in LTHS high-risk compared to CS high-risk patients. Moreover, between these 2 groups, there was a significant decrease in temporary right VAD support (50% vs 0%, P = 0.014), and 1-year survival was significantly higher in the LTHS group (42% vs 91%, P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Less invasive LVAD implantation appears to be associated with improved survival compared to conventional LVAD implantation in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Toracotomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Implantação de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Implantação de Prótese/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esternotomia/efeitos adversos , Esternotomia/métodos , Esternotomia/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Toracotomia/efeitos adversos , Toracotomia/mortalidade
5.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 324, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) can be a sign of subclinical cardiac dysfunction even in patients with otherwise preserved ejection fraction (EF). Transmitral early filling velocity to early diastolic strain rate (E/SRe) is a novel measure of LV filling pressure, which is often affected early in cardiac disease. METHODS: A total of 110 ADPKD patients not on dialysis were included in this prospective study. All patients underwent an extensive echocardiographic examination including two-dimensional speckle tracking. GLS and strain rates were measured. The distribution of GLS and E/SRe was determined and patient characteristics were compared by median levels of GLS (- 17.8%) and E/SRe (91.4 cm). Twenty healthy participants were included as control group. RESULTS: There was a significantly worse GLS in the ADPKD patients (mean: - 17.8 ± 2.5%) compared to the healthy controls (mean: - 21.9 ± 1.9%), p < 0.001. The same was true for E/SRe (mean: 10.0 ± 0.3 cm) compared to the control group (mean: 6.5 ± 0.3 cm), p < 0.001. In simple logistic regression, male gender (OR: 4.74 [2.10-10.71], p < 0.001), fasting glucose (odds ratio (OR) 1.05 [1.01-1.10], p = 0.024), htTKV (OR: 1.07 [1.01-1.13], p = 0.013), HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.97 [0.94, 0.996], p = 0.025), triglycerides (OR: 1.01 [1.00-1.02], p = 0.039), hemoglobin (OR: 1.50 [1.11-2.04], p = 0.009), and ß-blocker use (OR: 1.07 [1.01, 1.13], p = 0.013) were all associated with higher GLS. After multivariate logistic regression with backward model selection, only male gender (OR: 5.78 [2.27-14.71], p < 0.001) and ß-blocker use (OR: 14.00 [1.60, 122.51], p = 0.017) remained significant. In simple logistic regression models, BMI (OR: 1.11 [1.02-1.20], p = 0.015), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03 [1.00-1.06], p = 0.027) and ß-blocker use (OR: 17.12 [2.15-136.20], p = 0.007) were associated with higher E/SRe - a novel measure of left ventricular filling pressure. After backward elimination, only ß-blocker use (OR: 17.22 [2.16, 137.14], p = 0.007) remained significant. CONCLUSION: Higher GLS and E/SRe are common in ADPKD patients, even in patients with preserved eGFR and normal left ventricular EF. GLS and E/SRe may aid in cardiovascular risk stratification in patients with ADPKD as they represent early markers of cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/sangue , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 29(4): 592-598, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Right ventricular (RV) failure after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation continues to be a morbid complication. In this study, we hypothesized that a less invasive approach to implantation would preserve RV function relative to a conventional sternotomy (CS) approach. METHODS: All patients (2013-2017) who underwent LVAD implantation were reviewed. Patients were stratified by surgical approach: less invasive left thoracotomy with hemi-sternotomy (LTHS) and CS. The primary outcome was severe RV failure. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients (LTHS: 37, CS: 46) were identified. The median Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) score was significantly worse in the LTHS compared to the CS cohort, and there was a trend towards higher RV failure scores and HeartMate II mortality scores. Preoperative RV dysfunction, in pulmonary artery pulsatility index and RV stroke work index were similar between the 2 groups. Though operative time did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, cardiopulmonary bypass time was significantly shorter in the LTHS group (61 vs 95 min, P < 0.001). The incidence of postoperative severe RV failure was significantly reduced in the LTHS group (16% vs 39%, P = 0.030), along with the need for temporary right ventricular assist device (3% vs 26%, P = 0.005). Improvement in RV function, along with a change in pulmonary artery pulsatility index, was significantly greater in the LTHS cohort. There was a trend towards improved Kaplan-Meier 1-year survival in the LTHS cohort (91% vs 56%, P = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, less invasive LVAD implantation appears to be associated with reduced postoperative RV failure, and equivalent or improved survival compared to conventional LVAD implantation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Esternotomia/efeitos adversos , Toracotomia/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Direita
7.
J Clin Invest ; 128(3): 1106-1124, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457790

RESUMO

Intake of hemoglobin by the hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 leads to a distinct alternative non-foam cell antiinflammatory macrophage phenotype that was previously considered atheroprotective. Here, we reveal an unexpected but important pathogenic role for these macrophages in atherosclerosis. Using human atherosclerotic samples, cultured cells, and a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of intraplaque hemorrhage on macrophage function with respect to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inflammation, and plaque progression. In human atherosclerotic lesions, CD163+ macrophages were associated with plaque progression, microvascularity, and a high level of HIF1α and VEGF-A expression. We observed irregular vascular endothelial cadherin in intraplaque microvessels surrounded by CD163+ macrophages. Within these cells, activation of HIF1α via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases promoted VEGF-mediated increases in intraplaque angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and inflammatory cell recruitment. CD163+ macrophages increased intraplaque endothelial VCAM expression and plaque inflammation. Subjects with homozygous minor alleles of the SNP rs7136716 had elevated microvessel density, increased expression of CD163 in ruptured coronary plaques, and a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in population cohorts. Thus, our findings highlight a nonlipid-driven mechanism by which alternative macrophages promote plaque angiogenesis, leakiness, inflammation, and progression via the CD163/HIF1α/VEGF-A pathway.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Neovascularização Patológica , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Permeabilidade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Transdução de Sinais
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