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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(4): e567-e579, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A quarter of a century ago, two global events-the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing-placed gender equality and reproductive health and rights at the centre of the development agenda. Progress towards these goals has been slower than hoped. We used survey data and national-level indicators of social determinants from 74 countries to examine change in satisfaction of contraceptive need from a contextual perspective. METHODS: We searched for individual-level data from repeated nationally representative surveys that included information on sexual and reproductive health, and created a single dataset by harmonising data from each survey to a standard data specification. We described the relative timings of sexual initiation, first union (cohabitation or marriage), and first birth and used logistic regression to show the change in prevalence of sexual activity, demand for contraception, and modern contraceptive use. We used linear regression to examine country-level associations between the gender development index and the expected length of time in education for women and the three outcomes: sexual activity, demand for contraception, and modern contraceptive use. We used principal component analysis to describe countries using a combination of social-structural and behavioural indicators and assessed how well the components explained country-level variation in the proportion of women using contraception with fractional logistic regression. FINDINGS: In 34 of the 74 countries examined, proportions of all women who were sexually active, not wanting to conceive, and not using a modern contraceptive method decreased over time. Proportions of women who had been sexually active in the past year changed over time in 43 countries, with increases in 30 countries; demand for contraception increased in 42 countries, and use of a modern method of contraception increased in 37 countries. Increases over time in met need for contraception were correlated with increases in gender equality and with women's time in education. Regression analysis on the principal components showed that country-level variation in met contraceptive need was largely explained by a single component that combined behavioural and social-contextual variables. INTERPRETATION: Progress towards satisfying demand for contraception should take account of the changing context in which it is practised. To remove the remaining barriers, policy responses-and therefore research priorities-could require a stronger focus on social-structural determinants and broader aspects of sexual health. FUNDING: UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226133, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856196

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Young people worldwide are often reticent to access family planning services from public health facilities: instead, they choose to get contraception from private, retail pharmacies. In Kenya, certain contraceptives are available in pharmacies: these include injectables, which can be dispensed but not administered, according national guidelines. However, Kenya struggles with enforcement of its pharmacy regulations and addressing illegal activity. Therefore, in this qualitative study, we assessed private pharmacies as an existing source of injectable contraception for young Kenyans (age 18-24), and investigated the perceived quality of service provision. METHODS: This study used: focus group discussions (6) with young community members; in-depth interviews (18) with youth who had purchased contraception from pharmacies; key informant interviews with pharmacy personnel and pharmacy stakeholders (25); and a mystery shopper (visiting 45 pharmacies). RESULTS: The study found that for injectable contraception, private pharmacies had expanded to service provision, and pharmacy personnel's roles had transcended formal or informal training previously received-young people could both purchase and be injected in many pharmacies. Pharmacies were perceived to lack consistent quality or strong regulation, resulting in young clients, pharmacy personnel, and regulators being concerned about illegal activity. Participants' suggestions to improve pharmacy service quality and regulation compliance focused on empowering consumers to demand quality service; strengthening regulatory mechanisms; expanding training opportunities to personnel in private pharmacies; and establishing a quality-based 'brand' for pharmacies. DISCUSSION: Kenya's recent commitments to universal health coverage and interest in revising pharmacy policy provide an opportunity to improve pharmacy quality. Multi-pronged initiatives with both public and private partners are needed to improve pharmacy practice, update and enforce regulations, and educate the public. Additionally, the advent of self-administrable injectables present a new possible role for pharmacies, and could offer young clients a clean, discreet place to self-inject, with pharmacy personnel serving as educators and dispensers.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulamentação Governamental , Farmacêuticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Injeções , Quênia , Masculino , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(6S): S3-S15, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761002

RESUMO

In the 25 years since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, significant progress has been made in adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights (ASRHR). Trend analysis of key ASRHR indicators at global, national, and subnational levels indicates that adolescent girls today are more likely to marry later, delay their first sexual experience, and delay their first childbirth, compared with 25 years ago; they are also more likely to use contraceptives. Despite overall progress, however, unequal progress in many ASRHR outcomes is evident both within and between countries, and in some locations, the state of adolescents' lives has worsened. Population growth in countries with some of the worst shortfalls in ASRHR mean that declining rates, of child marriage, for example, coexist with higher absolute numbers of girls affected, compared with 25 years ago. Emerging trends that warrant closer attention include increasing rates of ovarian and breast cancer among adolescent girls and sharp increases in the proportion of adolescents who are overweight or obese, which has long-term health implications.

5.
Confl Health ; 13: 43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636697

RESUMO

Objective: To conduct a comprehensive mapping of published indicators for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and outcomes in humanitarian settings. Methods: A systematic search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature published between January 2008 and May 2018 was conducted to identify all references describing indicator sets for M&E of SRH services and outcomes in humanitarian settings. The databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Global Health, as well as 85 websites of relevant organizations involved in humanitarian response were searched. Characteristics of identified indicator sets and data from individual indicators was extracted. Findings: Of 3278 records identified, 20 met the review's inclusion criteria and 9 existing indicator sets were identified. A total of 179 relevant indicators were included in the mapping, and removal of duplicates yielded 132 unique indicators. Twenty-seven percent fell within the maternal health domain, followed by the HIV/AIDS domain (26%) and the gender-based violence domain (23%). The distribution of indicators by type (process/output, outcome, impact) was balanced overall but varied substantially across domains. The most commonly used data collection platforms were facility-based systems or population-based surveys. Domains covered and indicator definitions were inconsistent across indicator sets. Conclusion: Results demonstrate the need to standardize data collection efforts for M&E of SRH services and outcomes in humanitarian settings and to critically appraise the extent to which different domains should be covered. A core list of indicators is essential for assessing response status over time as well as across countries.

6.
Trop Med Int Health ; 24(12): 1342-1368, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Over time, we have seen a major evolution of measurement initiatives, indicators and methods, such that today a wide range of maternal and perinatal indicators are monitored and new indicators are under development. Monitoring global progress in maternal and newborn health outcomes and development has been dominated in recent decades by efforts to set, measure and achieve global goals and targets: the Millennium Development Goals followed by the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper aims to review, reflect and learn on accelerated progress towards global goals and events, including universal health coverage, and better tracking of maternal and newborn health outcomes. METHODS: We searched for literature of key events and global initiatives over recent decades related to maternal and newborn health. The searches were conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus. RESULTS: This paper describes global key events and initiatives over recent decades showing how maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, and stillbirths, have been viewed, when they have achieved higher priority on the global agenda, and how they have been measured, monitored and reported. Despite substantial improvements, the enormous maternal and newborn health disparities that persist within and between countries indicate the urgent need to renew the focus on reducing inequities. CONCLUSION: The review has featured the long story of the progress in monitoring improving maternal and newborn health outcomes, but has also underlined current gaps and significant inequities. The many global initiatives described in this paper have highlighted the magnitude of the problems and have built the political momentum over the years for effectively addressing maternal and newborn health and well-being, with particular focus on improved measurement and monitoring.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028340, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272979

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rohingya diaspora are one of the most vulnerable groups seeking refuge in camps of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, arising an acute humanitarian crisis. More than half of the Rohingya refugees are women and adolescent girls requiring quality sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Minimum initial service package of SRH are being rendered in the refugee camps; however, WHO is aiming to provide integrated comprehensive SRH services to meet the unmet needs of this most vulnerable group. For sustainable and successful implementation of such comprehensive SRH service packages, a critical first step is to undertake a situation analysis and understand the current dimensions and capture the lessons learnt on their SRH-specific needs and implementation challenges. This situation analysis is pertinent in current humanitarian condition and will provide an overview of the needs, availability and delivery of SRH services for adolescent girls and women, barriers in accessing and providing those services in Rohingya refugee camps in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, and similar humanitarian contexts. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A concurrent mixed-methods design will be used in this study. A community-based household survey coupled with facility assessments as well as qualitative in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions will be conducted with community people of Rohingya refugee camps and relevant stakeholders providing SRH services to Rohingya population in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. Survey data will be analysed using univariate, bivariate and multivariable regression statistics. Descriptive analysis will be done for facility assessment and thematic analysis will be conducted with qualitative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval from Institutional Review Board of BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health (2018-017-IR) has been obtained. Findings from this research will be disseminated through presentations in local, national and international conferences, workshops, peer-reviewed publications, policy briefs and interactive project report.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With an estimated 27 million annual incidents of maternal morbidity globally, how they are manifested or experienced is diverse and shaped by societal, cultural and personal influences. Using qualitative research to examine a woman's perception of her pregnancy, its complications, and potential long-term impact on her life can inform public health approaches and complement and inform biomedical classifications of maternal morbidities, historically considered a neglected dimension of safe motherhood. As part of the WHO's Maternal Morbidity Working Group's efforts to define and measure maternal morbidity, we carried out a thematic analysis of the qualitative literature published between 1998 and 2017 on how women experience maternal morbidity in low and lower-middle income countries. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the 71 papers included in this study shows that women's status, their marital relationships, cultural attitudes towards fertility and social responses to infertility and pregnancy trauma are fundamental to determining how they will experience morbidity in the pregnancy and postpartum periods. We explore the physical, economic, psychological and social repercussions pregnancy can produce for women, and how resource disadvantage (systemic, financial and contextual) can exacerbate these problems. In addition to an analysis of ten themes that emerged across the different contexts, this paper presents which morbidities have received attention in different regions and the trends in researching morbidities over time. We observed an increase in qualitative research on this topic, generally undertaken through interviews and focus groups. Our analysis calls for the pursuit of high quality qualitative research that includes repeat interviews, participant observation and triangulation of sources to inform and fuel critical advocacy and programmatic work on maternal morbidities that addresses their prevention and management, as well as the underlying systemic problems for women's status in society.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Morbidade , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Pobreza , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Problemas Sociais
10.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211576, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The "percentage of births attended by a skilled birth attendant" (SBA) is an indicator that has been adopted by several global monitoring frameworks, including the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) agenda for regular monitoring as part of target 3.1 for reducing maternal mortality by 2030. However, accurate and consistent measurement is challenged by contextual differences between and within countries on the definition of SBA, including the education, training, competencies, and functions they are qualified to perform. This scoping review identifies and maps the health personnel considered SBA in low-to-middle-income-countries (LMIC). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A search was conducted inclusive to the years 2000 to 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, POPLINE and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus. Original primary source research conducted in LMIC that evaluated the skilled health personnel providing interventions during labour and childbirth were considered for inclusion. All studies reported disaggregated data of SBA cadres and were disaggregated by country. RESULTS: The search of electronic databases identified a total of 23,743 articles. Overall, 70 articles were included in the narrative synthesis. A total of 102 unique cadres names were identified from 36 LMIC countries. Of the cadres included, 16% represented doctors, 16% were nurses, and 15% were midwives. We found substantial heterogeneity between and within countries on the reported definition of SBA and the education, training, skills and competencies that they were able to perform. CONCLUSION: The uncertainty and diversity of reported qualifications and competency of SBA within and between countries requires attention in order to better ascertain strategic priorities for future health system planning, including training and education. These results can inform recommendations around improved coverage measurement and monitoring of SBA moving forward, allowing for more accurate, consistent, and timely data able to guide decisions and action around planning and implementation of maternal and newborn health programmes.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Parto Obstétrico , Humanos , Tocologia/educação
11.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204763, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of global-level monitoring initiatives have recommended indicators for tracking progress in maternal and newborn health. As a first step supporting the work of WHO's Mother and Newborn Information for Tracking Outcomes and Results (MoNITOR) Technical Advisory Group, we aimed to compile and synthesize recommended indicators in order to document the landscape of maternal and newborn measurement and monitoring. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of indicators proposed by global multi-stakeholder groups to suggest next steps to further support maternal and newborn measurement and monitoring. Indicators pertaining to pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum/postnatal and newborn care were extracted and included in the indicator compilation, together with key indicator metadata. We examined patterns and relationships across the compiled indicators. RESULTS: We identified 140 indicators linked to maternal and newborn health topics across the continuum of service provision. Fifty-five indicators relate to inputs and processes, 30 indicators relate to outputs, outcomes comprise 37 indicators in the database, and 18 impact indicators. A quarter of indicators proposed by global groups is either under development/discussion or is considered "aspirational", highlighting the currently evolving monitoring landscape. Although considerable efforts have been made to harmonize indicator recommendations, there are still relatively few indicators shared across key monitoring initiatives and some of those that are shared may have definitional variation. CONCLUSION: Rapid, wide-ranging work by a number of multi-stakeholder groups has resulted in a substantial number of indicators, many of which partially overlap and many are not supported with adequate documentation or guidance. The volume of indicators, coupled with the number of initiatives promoting different indicator lists, highlight the need for strengthened coordination and technical leadership to harmonize recommendations for improved measurement and monitoring of data related to maternal and newborn heath.


Assuntos
Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez
12.
Lancet ; 392(10155): 1341-1348, 2018 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322584

RESUMO

In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9-22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9-13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3-47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6-4·6) of births. The global and regional increases in CS use were driven both by an increasing proportion of births occurring in health facilities (accounting for 66·5% of the global increase) and increases in CS use within health facilities (33·5%), with considerable variation between regions. Based on the most recent data available for each country, 15% of births in 106 (63%) of 169 countries were by CS, whereas 47 (28%) countries showed CS use in less than 10% of births. National CS use varied from 0·6% in South Sudan to 58·1% in the Dominican Republic. Within-country disparities in CS use were also very large: CS use was almost five times more frequent in births in the richest versus the poorest quintiles in low-income and middle-income countries; markedly high CS use was observed among low obstetric risk births, especially among more educated women in, for example, Brazil and China; and CS use was 1·6 times more frequent in private facilities than in public facilities.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Equidade em Saúde , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199300, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 32 million women and girls of reproductive age living in emergency situations, all of whom require sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. This systematic review assessed the effect of SRH interventions, including the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) on a range of health outcomes from the onset of emergencies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE and PsychINFO databases from January 1, 1980 to April 10, 2017. This review was registered with the PROSPERO database with identifier number CRD42017082102. We found 29 studies meet the inclusion criteria. We found high quality evidence to support the effectiveness of specific SRH interventions, such as home visits and peer-led educational and counselling, training of lower-level health care providers, community health workers (CHWs) to promote SRH services, a three-tiered network of health workers providing reproductive and maternal health services, integration of HIV and SRH services, and men's discussion groups for reducing intimate partner violence. We found moderate quality evidence to support transport-based referral systems, community-based SRH education, CHW delivery of injectable contraceptives, wider literacy programmes, and birth preparedness interventions. No studies reported interventions related to fistulae, and only one study focused on abortion services. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increased attention to SRH in humanitarian crises, the sector has made little progress in advancing the evidence base for the effectiveness of SRH interventions, including the MISP, in crisis settings. A greater quantity and quality of more timely research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of delivering SRH interventions in a variety of humanitarian crises.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Saúde Global , Socorro em Desastres , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia
14.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 126, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young people face special challenges to accessing needed sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and support. With high penetration and access, mobile phones provide a new channel for reaching young people, but there is little evidence around the impact of digital interventions on improving health outcomes. The Adolescent/Youth Reproductive Mobile Access and Delivery Initiative for Love and Life Outcomes (ARMADILLO) study will assess the effect of an intervention providing SRH information to young people via text message on their mobile phones in Kenya and Peru. This protocol details an open, individually-randomized, three-arm trial lasting seven weeks to assess the effect of the ARMADILLO intervention on dispelling myths and misconceptions related to contraception. A secondary objective is to determine whether youth given access to SRH information via text message can accurately retain that information. METHODS: Following a household enumeration, one eligible youth per household will be randomly selected for participation and randomized by computer into one of the three arms. Intervention arm participants will receive access to ARMADILLO content, control participants will receive no information, and 'Arm 3' participant interactions will vary by site: in Kenya, they will be alerted to various SRH domains and encouraged to learn on their own; in Peru, they will receive key content from each domain with the option to learn more if they wish. Participants will complete multiple-choice questionnaires administered by data collectors at baseline (prior to randomization), at intervention-period end (after week seven), and eight weeks after timing out of the intervention period. DISCUSSION: Part of the Sustainable Development Goal commitment towards ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages includes a commitment to 'ensuring universal access to sexual health and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education'. If proven to be effective, interventions like ARMADILLO can bridge an important gap towards achieving universal access to SRH information and education for an otherwise difficult-to-reach group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was retrospectively registered with the ISRCTN Registry and assigned registration number ISRCTN85156148 on 29 May, 2018.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Telefone Celular , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Saúde Sexual , Mensagem de Texto , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Peru , Gravidez , Sexo Seguro , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 141 Suppl 1: 1-3, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851112
16.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 141 Suppl 1: 48-54, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare scores on the 36-item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 tool (WHODAS-36) for postpartum women across a continuum of morbidity and to validate the 12-item version (WHODAS-12). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the Brazilian retrospective cohort study on long-term repercussions of severe maternal morbidity. We determined mean, median, and percentile values for WHODAS-36 total score and for each domain, and percentile values for WHODAS-12 total score in postpartum women divided into three groups: "no," "nonsevere," and "severe" morbidities. RESULTS: The WHODAS-36 mean total scores were 11.58, 18.31, and 19.19, respectively for no, nonsevere, and severe morbidity. There was a dose-dependent effect on scores for each domain of WHODAS-36 according to the presence and severity of morbidity. The diagnostic validity of WHODAS-12 was determined by comparing it with WHODAS-36 as a "gold standard." The best cut-off point for diagnosing dysfunctionality was the 95th percentile. CONCLUSION: The upward trend of WHODAS-36 total mean value scores of women with no morbidity compared with those with morbidity along a severity continuum may reflect the impact of morbidity on postpartum functioning.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 141 Suppl 1: 39-47, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) 12-item tool against the 36-item version for measuring functioning and disability associated with pregnancy and the occurrence of maternal morbidity. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the Brazilian retrospective cohort study on long-term repercussions of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) among women who delivered at a tertiary facility (COMMAG study). We compared WHODAS-12 and WHODAS-36 scores of women with and without SMM using measures of central tendency and variability, tests for instruments' agreement (Bland-Altman plot), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Cronbach alpha coefficient for internal consistency. RESULTS: The COMMAG study enrolled 638 women up to 5 years postpartum. Although the median WHODAS-36 and -12 scores for all women were statistically different (13.04 and 11.76, respectively; P<0.001), there was a strong linear correlation between them. Furthermore, the mean difference and the differences in variance analyses demonstrated agreement of total scores between the two versions. CFA demonstrated how the WHODAS-12 questions are divided into six previously defined factors and Cronbach alpha showed good internal consistency. CONCLUSION: WHODAS-12 demonstrated agreement with WHODAS-36 for total score and was a good instrument for screening functioning and disability among postpartum women, with and without SMM.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Período Pós-Parto , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 141 Suppl 1: 61-68, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851114

RESUMO

The maternal health agenda is undergoing a paradigm shift from preventing maternal deaths to promoting women's health and wellness. A critical focus of this trajectory includes addressing maternal morbidity and the increasing burden of chronic and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among pregnant women. The WHO convened the Maternal Morbidity Working Group (MMWG) to improve the scientific basis for defining, measuring, and monitoring maternal morbidity. Based on the MMWG's work, we propose paradigms for conceptualizing maternal health and related interventions, and call for greater integration between maternal health and NCD programs. This integration can be synergistic, given the links between chronic conditions, morbidity in pregnancy, and long-term health. Pregnancy should be viewed as a window of opportunity into the current and future health of women, and offers critical entry points for women who may otherwise not seek or have access to care for chronic conditions. Maternal health services should move beyond the focus on emergency obstetric care, to a broader approach that encompasses preventive and early interventions, and integration with existing services. Health systems need to respond by prioritizing funding for developing integrated health programs, and workforce strengthening. The MMWG's efforts have highlighted the changing landscape of maternal health, and the need to expand the narrow focus of maternal health, moving beyond surviving to thriving.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Morbidade , Gravidez , Saúde da Mulher
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 141 Suppl 1: 10-19, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To field test a standardized instrument to measure nonsevere morbidity among antenatal and postpartum women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jamaica, Kenya, and Malawi (2015-2016). Women presenting for antenatal care (ANC) or postpartum care (PPC) were recruited if they were at least 28 weeks into pregnancy or 6 weeks after delivery. They were interviewed and examined by a doctor, midwife, or nurse. Data were collected and securely stored electronically on a WHO server. Diagnosed conditions were coded and summarized using ICD-MM. RESULTS: A total of 1490 women (750 ANC; 740 PPC) averaging 26 years of age participated. Most women (61.6% ANC, 79.1% PPC) were healthy (no diagnosed medical or obstetric conditions). Among ANC women with clinical diagnoses, 18.3% had direct (obstetric) conditions and 18.0% indirect (medical) problems. Prevalences among PPC women were lower (12.7% and 8.6%, respectively). When screening for factors in the expanded morbidity definition, 12.8% (ANC) and 11.0% (PPC) self-reported exposure to violence. CONCLUSION: Nonsevere conditions are distinct from the leading causes of maternal death and may vary across pregnancy and the puerperium. This effort to identify and measure nonsevere morbidity promotes a comprehensive understanding of morbidity, incorporating maternal self-reporting of exposure to violence, and mental health. Further validation is needed.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Período Pós-Parto , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica , Quênia , Malaui , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 141 Suppl 1: 55-60, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the scores of postpartum women using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 36-item tool (WHODAS-36), considering different morbidities. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort of women who delivered at a referral maternity in Brazil and were classified with and without severe maternal morbidity (SMM). WHODAS-36 was used to assess functioning in postpartum women. Percentile distribution of total WHODAS score was compared across three groups: Percentile (P)<10, 1090. Cases of SMM were categorized and WHODAS-36 score was assessed according to hypertension, hemorrhage, or other conditions. RESULTS: A total of 638 women were enrolled: 64 had mean scores below P<10 (1.09) and 66 were above P>90 (41.3). Of women scoring above P>90, those with morbidity had a higher mean score than those without (44.6% vs 36.8%, P=0.879). Women with higher WHODAS-36 scores presented more complications during pregnancy, especially hypertension (47.0% vs 37.5%, P=0.09). Mean scores among women with any complication were higher than those with no morbidity (19.0 vs 14.2, P=0.01). WHODAS-36 scores were higher among women with hypertensive complications (19.9 vs 16.0, P=0.004), but lower among those with hemorrhagic complications (13.8 vs 17.7, P=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Complications during pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium increase long-term WHODAS-36 scores, demonstrating a persistent impact on functioning among women, up to 5 years postpartum.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Brasil , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Morbidade , Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
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