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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149921, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482135

RESUMO

Plastic pollution poses a global threat to aquatic organisms, yet its effect on many species remains poorly documented and understood. This study addresses the impact caused by different sizes of polyethylene (PE) plastics on the common carp and evaluates their multi-biomarkers response. We investigated the histological structure and measurement of biochemical alterations, antioxidant enzymes, immunological responses, and fluctuations in blood profiles of the organisms after 15 days of exposure to a concentration of 100 mg/L of nano- (NPs), micro- (MPs) and macroplastics (MaPs). The fish health status was altered in the sole presence of PE particles. All biomarkers changed after exposure compared to the control group, with larger changes being observed with the decreasing size of particles (NPs > MPs > MaPs) compared to their absence. A synergistic effect resulting from the individual impact of plastics penetration in the circulatory system, bursting biochemical responses, and lesions in tissues, might explain the more considerable impact of NPs compared to MPs and/or MaPs.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 242: 106021, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856461

RESUMO

The water flea Daphnia magna is a small freshwater planktonic animal in the Cladocera. In this study, we assembled the genome of the D. magna NIES strain, which is widely used for gene targeting but has no reported genome. We used the long-read sequenced data of the Oxford nanopore sequencing tool for assembly. Using 3,231 genetic markers, the draft genome of the D. magna NIES strain was built into ten linkage groups (LGs) with 483 unanchored contigs, comprising a genome size of 173.47 Mb. The N50 value of the genome was 12.54 Mb and the benchmarking universal single-copy ortholog value was 98.8%. Repeat elements in the D. magna NIES genome were 40.8%, which was larger than other Daphnia spp. In the D. magna NIES genome, 15,684 genes were functionally annotated. To assess the genome of the D. magna NIES strain for CRISPR/Cas9 gene targeting, we selected glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (GST-O2), which is an important gene for the biotransformation of arsenic in aquatic organisms, and targeted it with an efficient make-up (25.0%) of mutant lines. In addition, we measured reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymatic activity between wild type and a mutant of the GST-O2 targeted D. magna NIES strain in response to arsenic. In this study, we present the genome of the D. magna NIES strain using GST-O2 as an example of gene targeting, which will contribute to the construction of deletion mutants by CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617222

RESUMO

The effects of Harness® toxicity on fish health are little known. So, current work aimed to study the impact of sub-lethal doses of Harness® (an acetochlor-based herbicide) on the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and also investigated the potential role of lycopene (LYCO) administration in alleviating Harness® negative effects. Fish were divided into five groups in triplicates as follows: group 1 (control) received no treatment, group 2 was exposed to 10 µm Harness®/L, group 3 was orally administered 10 mg LYCO/kg body weight and exposed to 10 µm Harness®/L, group 4 was exposed to 100 µm Harness®/L, and group 5 was orally administered 10 mg LYCO/kg body weight and exposed to 100 µm Harness®/L for 2 weeks. Some hemato-biochemical parameters, genotoxicity, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of this period. Sub-lethal doses of Harness® altered the shape of erythrocytes in contrast to the control sample. Also, hematological parameters of exposed fish exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the values of red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets (PL), as well as an insignificant (P > 0.05) drop in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Harness® was also found to cause genotoxicity as well as histopathological alterations. LYCO administration decreased hemato-biochemical changes and returned them to near-normal levels. The findings showed that LYCO administration (10 mg LYCO/kg body weight) decreased Harness® toxicity in C. gariepinus and alleviated its destructive effects.

4.
Front Physiol ; 12: 742922, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650449

RESUMO

This study aims to assess the impact of microplastics (MPs) on erythrocytes using eryptosis (apoptosis) and an erythron profile (poikilocytosis and nuclear abnormalities), considered to be novel biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In this study, four groups of fish were used: The first was the control group. In the second group, 1 mg/L of MPs was introduced to the samples. The third group was exposed to 10 mg/L of MPs. Finally, the fourth group was exposed to 100 mg/L of MPs for 15 days, following 15 days of recovery. The fish treated with MPs experienced an immense rise in the eryptosis percentage, poikilocytosis, and nuclear abnormalities of red blood cells (RBCs) compared with the control group in a concentration-dependent manner. Poikilocytosis of MP-exposed groups included sickle cell shape, schistocyte, elliptocyte, acanthocyte, and other shapes. Nuclear abnormalities of the MPs-exposed groups included micronuclei, binucleated erythrocytes, notched, lobed, blebbed, and hemolyzed nuclei. After the recovery period, a greater percentage of eryptosis, poikilocytotic cells, and nuclear abnormalities in RBCs were still evident in the groups exposed to MPs when crosschecked with the control group. The results show concerning facts regarding the toxicity of MPs in tilapia.

5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 173(Pt A): 112966, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563956

RESUMO

This study records the extent of microplastics (MPs) in the surface water, sediments, and fishes of the Mediterranean and Red seas in Egypt. In sediment and water samples, the Ras Gharib station in the Red sea and Damietta and Port Said stations in the Mediterranean sea exhibited the highest microplastic abundance, while the lowest concentration was found in the Ain Sukhna station in the Red Sea and Marsa Matruh station in the Mediterranean sea. Rayon and polyethylene terephthalate were the most frequently found polymers in fishes. The results highlighted the abundant existence of microplastics in sediments, water, and fishes of the Mediterranean and Red seas, thereby improving our understanding of the environmental risks posed by microplastics to fisheries and marine ecosystems and the need for measures to diminish the flux of plastics to the marine settings.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517132

RESUMO

Despite extensive research on the toxic effects of microplastics (MPs), there is no obtainable data on the use of phytobioremediation against MPs toxicity in fish. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of lycopene, citric acid, and chlorella against the toxic effects of MPs in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using hematology, biochemical, antioxidants, erythron profiles (poikilocytosis and nuclear abnormalities) and the accumulation of MPs in tissues as biomarkers. Five groups of fish received: normal diet (control); MPs (500 mg/kg diet) (Group 2); MPs (500 mg/kg diet) + lycopene (500 mg/kg diet) (Group 3); MPs (500 mg/kg diet) + citric acid (30 g/kg diet) (Group 4); and MPs (500 mg/kg diet) + chlorella (50 g/kg diet) (Group 5) for 15 days. Group 2 had significantly higher amounts of MPs in the stomach, gills, and feces, electrolyte imbalances (HCO3, Fe, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Cl-, and anion gap, hematobiochemical alterations, and decreases in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and glutathione S-transferases compared to the control group. Additionally, Group 2 had significant increase in the percentage of poikilocytosis, and nuclear abnormalities in RBC's compared to the control group. The co-treatment of MPs-exposed fish with lycopene, citric acid, and chlorella-supplemented diets ameliorated the hematological, biochemical, and erythron profile alterations, but only slightly enhanced the antioxidant activity. Overall, lycopene, citric acid, and chlorella can be recommended as a feed supplement to improve hematobiochemical alterations and oxidative damage induced by MPs toxicity in the African catfish (C. gariepinus).

7.
Front Physiol ; 12: 683669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295262

RESUMO

The current study aims at evaluating the toxicity of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a pharmaceutical residue in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and the protective role of Spirulina platensis (SP). Four groups were used in this study: (1) a control group, (2) a group exposed to 3.16 mg/l of HCQ, (3) a group exposed to 3.16 mg/l of HCQ + 10 mg/l of SP, and (4) a group exposed to 3.16 mg/l of HCQ + 20 mg/l of SP for 15 days of exposure. The HCQ-treated group showed a significant decline in the hematological indices and glucose, total protein, and antioxidant levels in relation to the control group, whereas the HCQ-treated group showed a significant increase in the levels of creatinine, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as the percentage of poikilocytosis and nuclear abnormalities of RBCs in relation to the control group. The histopathological evaluation of the liver indicated dilation of the central vein, vacuolization, degeneration of hepatocytes and pyknotic nuclei, as well as reduction of glomeruli, dilation of Bowman's space, and degeneration of renal tubules in the kidney of the HCQ-treated group. Spirulina platensis (SP) rendered the hematological and biochemical indexes as well as antioxidant levels and the histological architecture to normal status in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, the current study recommends the use of SP to remedy the toxic effects of HCQ.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279784

RESUMO

This study examines the potential defending effects of the diatom, Amphora coffeaeformis, as a feed additive versus the deleterious effects (mainly on gonads) caused by microplastics (MPs) in Nile tilapia, Oreochromes niloticus. Groups of male tilapia were pre-fed diets with four different supplementation levels of A. coffeaeformis (0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5%) for 70 days, then exposed to 10 mg/L MPs for 15 days. Thereafter, samples were taken from the four experimental groups and the control fish group, for evaluating blood picture, erythrocytes alterations, biochemical parameters, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SDO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). In addition, male reproductive performance was assessed by quantifying the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T), also testicular sections and GSI% were also assessed. The results showed that the number of leucocytes were significantly (p < 0.05) higher, but the number of red blood cells (RBCs), the level of Hemoglobin (Hb), the percentage of Hematocrit (Ht), the number of platelets, and the eosinophil percentages were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) when fish exposed to MPs. Biochemical parameters (ALP, glucose, uric acid, albumin, and A/G ratio) were significantly increased after MP exposure compared with the control group. Furthermore, MPs induced a significant decline in both serum LH and T levels. Testicular, histological, degenerative changes and testis-ova were found in the MP-exposed fish. Thus, A. coffeaeformis supplementation displayed ameliorative properties that detoxified the negative effects of MPs. This study provides a better understanding of the reproductive injuries caused by MPs exposure and evidence for the use of A. coffeaeformis as a natural remedy in freshwater tilapia.

9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(23): 30046-30057, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580857

RESUMO

Copper has toxic effects in fish, whereas the cyanobacterium Spirulina reportedly has protective effects against metal toxicity in various animal species. The current study, therefore, aimed to investigate the prophylactic role of Spirulina platensis against the effects of copper sulfate (CuSO4) and copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Biochemical, antioxidant, erthyron profile and histopathological endpoints were assessed after for 15 days of exposure in five separate treatment groups: (1) fish pre-fed the normal diet (control), (2) fish pre-fed the normal diet and exposed to 15 mg/L of CuSO4, (3) fish pre-fed the normal diet augmented with 0.25% Spirulina and exposed to 15 mg/L of CuSO4, (4) fish pre-fed the normal diet and exposed to 15 mg/L of CuO-NPs, and (5) fish pre-fed the normal diet augmented with 0.25% Spirulina and exposed to 15 mg/L CuO-NPs. Exposure to CuSO4 or CuO-NPs significantly increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in fish, as well as serum total protein, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations. In contrast, most hematological indices in fish significantly decreased after CuSO4 or CuO-NPs exposure. Moreover, CuSO4 and CuO-NPs caused a significant increase in the percentage of poikilocytosis and nuclear abnormalities of red blood cells, as well as histopathological changes in the brain, liver, intestine, and kidneys. Importantly, Spirulina supplementation mitigated against physiological disruption caused by CuSO4 or CuO-NPs.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Nanopartículas , Spirulina , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cobre , Sulfato de Cobre , Óxidos
10.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127379, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590174

RESUMO

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is a nephrotoxic substance that is highly prevalent in aquatic environments. Nigella sativa seed (NSS) has many biological activities and is widely used throughout the world as a medicinal product. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of NSS on 4-NP-induced renal damage in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Thirty fish were divided into five equal groups: an untreated control group and four groups that were challenged with 4-NP at a dose of 0.1 mg L-1 of aquarium water and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% NSS, respectively, for 3 weeks. Histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural features of the kidney were then assessed as biomarkers for renal tissue damage. Our results confirmed that 4-NP was a potent cytotoxic agent for the kidney tissue and induced renal damage, with 4-NP-intoxicated fish showing necrosis in the epithelial cells of the renal corpuscles, renal proximal convoluted tubules, and intertubular hematopoietic tissue, as well as loss of or a decrease in microvilli, a decrease in mitochondria, and an increase in the lysosomes in the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. The kidneys of 4-NP-intoxicated fish also showed increased numbers of Perls' Prussian blue-positive melanomacrophage centers and intraepithelial T-lymphocytes in the proximal convoluted tubules and plasma cells. The administration of NSS to 4-NP-challenged fish significantly minimized the cytotoxic effect of 4-NP, maintaining the normal kidney structure, with concentrations of 2.5% and 5% of feed being most effective for protecting the kidney against 4-NP-induced renal damage.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Nigella sativa , Fenóis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 167: 104600, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527444

RESUMO

The current work intended to inspect the hepato-nephrotoxicity of gibberellic acid (GA3) in juvenile of Oreochromis niloticus as well as the possibility of restoration after dietary addition of different concentrations of Spirulina platensis (SP). Fishes were evenly assorted into five groups: Group I assigned as control, Group II fed on basal diet and exposed to 150 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA3). The 3rd, 4th, and 5th groups exposed to150 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA3) and previously fed for two months on SP supplemented diets at levels of 5, 20, and 100 g/kg, respectively. Fish serum were utilized to check glucose, total protein, hepatic and renal functions, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants activities (superoxide dismautase; SOD, catalase; CAT, and total antioxidant capacity; TAC) as well as histopathological alterations in liver and kidney. The results showed that creatinine, uric acid, liver enzymes, glucose, total protein, SOD, and CAT were significantly elevated in GA3-treated group. Liver of GA3-treated fish manifested some histopathological changes (hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and apoptotic cells with pyknotic nuclei, necrosis, dilated blood sinusoids, and lymphocytic aggregation around the central veins). Kidney of GA3-exposed fish revealed edema of the epithelium lining of some renal tubules and some showed vacuolar degeneration and dissociation. Hypertrophy in the glomerulus was observed with dilated blood capillaries. SP supplementation restored these biochemical, antioxidants, and histological changes near to control levels. This improvement was higher with 100 g/kg SP showing concentration dependency. According to this study we can conclude that SP supplementation can improve the hepato- and nephrotoxicity caused by GA3 exposure indicating its role as potent antioxidant food additive.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Spirulina , Animais , Antioxidantes , Giberelinas , Fígado , Estresse Oxidativo
12.
Tissue Cell ; 63: 101316, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223945

RESUMO

Although, the Red sea is highly rich with fish fauna but still the information known is so limited for the researchers especially about the fish physiology baselines. So, in the present study we investigated the heamto-biochemical parameters and cell characterization of two fish having the same feeding habitats. Fish specimens of Red Sea goatfish (Parupeneus forsskali) and Klunzinger's wrasse (Thalassoma klunzingeri) were captured from Hurghada, Egypt. Haematological and biochemical analysis as well as blood cells characterization were performed. The morphological and cytochemical aspects of peripheral blood cells of the two species were studied by light microscopy. Thalassoma klunzingeri showed lower Hct and Hb values and RBCs count. Fusiform to spindle shape thrombocytes were found only in the blood of Parupeneus forsskali while spiked thrombocytes were found only in the blood of Thalassoma klunzingeri. This investigation may be helpful as a tool to monitor the health status of the two species and will be used as biomarkers for clinical pathology.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Peixes/sangue , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Perciformes/sangue , Animais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Peixes/fisiologia , Oceano Índico , Perciformes/fisiologia
13.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 78: 103383, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305673

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals residue was detected in the water bodies as a consequence of the incomplete treatment. Recently, the side impacts of that residue on aquatic creatures have received a considerable attention. However, there is insufficient information about the effect of the most consumed narcotic drug (tramadol) on fish as an aquatic model. Thus, this study aims at investigating the poikilocytosis and tissue damage in Oreochromis niloticus after the exposure to 100 and 200 mg/L of tramadol hydrochloride. Three groups of fish were used; one as a control group, and the other two groups were exposed to 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L of tramadol hydrochloride respectively for 25 days. Exposure to tramadol caused a significant increase in the percentage of poikilocytosis compared to the control group. Poikilocytosis included tear-drop cell, spindle-shaped cell, sickle cell, schistocyte, blebbed cell, acanthocyte, eccentric nucleus, amoebocyte, dividing cell, and crenated cell. Moreover, liver tissue in fish exposed to tramadol showed degeneration and vacuolization of hepatocytes and atrophy of pancreatic acini as signs of histopathological alterations. Histopathological changes of brain showed severe gliosis, dark neurons, and vacuolization in fish exposed to tramadol compared to control fish. Gills tissue showed erosion, epithelial lifting, and secondary lamellae shrinking in fish exposed to tramadol compared to control fish. In conclusion, tramadol induced histopathological changes in liver, brain, and gills of Oreochromis niloticus as well as poikilocytosis were indicated clearly. Therefore, tramadol leakage to waters should be avoided to preserve aquatic creatures.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Tramadol/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(13): 14581-14588, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048193

RESUMO

Recently, research on the biological effects of microplastics (MPs) has grown exponentially. However, effects of MPs on freshwater fishes and the mechanisms of the biological effects of MPs were limited. So, the purpose of the current study was to clarify the effects of microplastics on oxidative stress response, DNA fragmentation, and proteinogram of the early juvenile stage of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The fishes were assigned into four groups: one control, three MPs-exposed groups as 1 mg/L of MPs, 10 mg/L of MPs, and 100 mg/L of MPs respectively for 15 days and 15 days of recovery. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, total peroxides, and oxidative stress index (OSI), as well as lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, increased in groups exposed to MPs compared to the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the activity of total antioxidant capacity decreased in groups exposed to MPs compared to the control group in a dose-dependent manner. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins revealed alteration in the proteinogram in the MPs-exposed groups compared to control. After the recovery period, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, total peroxides, total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and the electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins returned to normal levels in 1 mg/L of MPs-exposed group. Combined with our previous work, these results suggest that MPs cause the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alters the antioxidants parameters, resulting in oxidative stress and DNA damage. The present study fosters a better understanding of the toxic effects of MPs on Tilapia as a freshwater model. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Animais , Antioxidantes , Catalase , Fígado , Microplásticos , Estresse Oxidativo , Plásticos
15.
Toxicol Rep ; 7: 133-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956514

RESUMO

The current study investigates the hepatotoxic effects of two acute doses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on African catfish (Clarias garepinus) using biochemical, histopathological, and histochemical changes and the determination of silver in liver tissue as biomarkers. AgNPs-induced impacts were recorded in some of these characteristics based on their size (20 and 40 nm) and their concentration (10 and 100 µg/L). Concentrations of liver enzymes (Aspartic aminotransferase; AST, Alanine aminotransferase; ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total lipids (Tl), Glucose (Glu) and Ag-concentration in liver tissue exhibited a significant increase under stress in all exposed groups compared to the control group. The total proteins (Tp), albumin (Al), and globulin (Gl) concentrations exhibited significantly decrease in all treated groups compared to the control group. At tissue and cell levels, histopathological changes were observed. These changes include proliferation of hepatocytes, infiltrations of inflammatory cells, pyknotic nuclei, cytoplasmic vaculation, melanomacrophages aggregation, dilation in the blood vessel, hepatic necrosis, rupture of the wall of the central vein, and apoptotic cells in the liver of AgNPs-exposed fish. As well as the depletion of glycogen content in the liver (feeble magenta coloration) was observed. The size and number of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) in liver tissue showed highly significant difference in all exposed groups compared to the control group. Recovery period for 15 days led to improved most alterations in the biochemical, histopathological, and histochemical parameters induced by AgNPs and AgNO3. In conclusion, one can assume liver sensitivity of C. garepinus for AgNPs and the recovery period is a must.

16.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 19(2): 261-273, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994581

RESUMO

Ultraviolet radiation is an ecological factor that directly affects terrestrial organisms through suppression of immunity or damage to internal organs. The present study assessed the effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation on the kidneys of both wild-type (WT) and p53-deficient medaka (Oryzias latipes) and evaluated which strain was more resistant to the effects of UVA. Fish were divided into four groups: control group 1 (Cwt and Cp53), kept for 3 days without UVA exposure; group 2 (1wt and 1p53), fish exposed daily to UVA for 1 h day-1 for 3 days; group 3 (2wt and 2p53), fish exposed daily to UVA for 2 h day-1 for 3 days; and group 4 (3wt and 3p53), fish exposed daily to UVA for 3 h day-1 for 3 days. Samples of tissues were obtained 24 h after UVA exposure. The most obvious histopathological changes induced by UVA radiation in kidney tissues of both strains of medaka (WT and p53-deficient) were high levels of vacuolation of tubular cells followed by necrosis. The tubular segments lost their normal shape which appeared like a network structure and their cells with clear cytoplasm. Necrosis of lymphoid tissues and spots of brown pigmentation (possibly melanomacrophages) were sporadically seen in interstitial lymphoid tissues, while shrinkage of glomeruli, diminution of periodic acid-Schiff staining, and increased amount of collagenous fibers were observed. Our results confirmed the harmful effects of UVA radiation on kidney tissues of both WT and p53-deficient medaka. However, WT medaka was affected more than p53-deficient medaka.


Assuntos
Rim/efeitos da radiação , Oryzias/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Feminino , Rim/patologia , Necrose , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(16): 18966-18971, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144013

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the genotoxicity in erythrocytes induced after exposure of medaka (Oryzias latipes) to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). Adult female medaka fish were exposed to 4-NP at three sublethal concentrations for 15 days to compare their sensitivity with that of catfish as an aquatic model. Comet assay and γ-H2AX were used as biomarkers to detect DNA damage in erythrocytes. Exposure to 4-NP resulted in an increase in the tail moment in a dose-dependent manner. The highest level of DNA damage was recorded after exposure to 100 µg/l 4-NP. The number of foci was increased after exposure to 4-NP, indicating damage to DNA. The present results confirmed the high level of morphological alterations and apoptosis of erythrocytes detected in the first part of this study. 4-NP induced genotoxic effects in medaka, which were found to be more sensitive than catfish after exposure to 4-nonylphenol. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Oryzias , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Fenóis
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(3): 3541, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865560

RESUMO

The correct presentation of Table 2 is shown in this paper.

19.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(6): 1895-1905, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399920

RESUMO

The present study investigates the nephrotoxic effects of two acute doses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, using biochemical, histochemical, and histopathological changes as biomarkers. AgNP-induced impacts were recorded in some of these characteristics on the bases of their size (20 and 40 nm) and concentration (10 and 100 µg/L) but no significant interaction between size and concentration. AgNO3 had low significant adverse effects on some parameters in comparison with those impacts of AgNPs. The concentrations of creatinine and uric acid exhibited different significant variations under stress in all exposed groups compared with those in the control group. On the tissue and cell levels, histopathological changes were observed. These changes include hypertrophies of glomeruli, proliferation in the haemopoietic tissue, dissociation in renal tubules, shrinkage of glomerulus, hydropic degeneration, dilatation of renal tubules, aggregation of melanomacrophages, rupture of Bowman's capsule, and the glomerular tuft and dilatation of Bowman's space. In more severe cases, the degenerative process leads to tissue necrosis in the kidney of AgNP-exposed fish as well as carbohydrate depletion; a faint coloration was also observed in the brush borders and basement membrane with a large amount of connective tissue fibers around the blood vessels and the renal tubules. Recovery period for 15 days led to improvement of most of the alterations in biochemical, histopathological, and histochemical parameters induced by AgNPs and AgNO3. In conclusion, one can postulate on the sensitivity of the kidney of C. gariepinus to AgNPs and recovery strategy is a must.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Creatinina/análise , Rim/patologia , Nitrato de Prata/toxicidade , Ácido Úrico/análise
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 30857-30865, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446602

RESUMO

Recently, the residues of some common and widely used herbicides (acetochlor, bispyribac-sodium, bentazon, bensulfuron-methyl, halosulfuron-methyl, and quinclorac) were detected in the surface water, soil, sediments, and fish tissues as the agricultural drainage problems. In this study, juveniles of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these herbicides as 2.625, 0.800, 36.00, 2.50, 1.275, and 11.250 mg/l for acetochlor, bispyribac-sodium, bentazon, bensulfuron-methyl, halosulfuron-methyl, and quinclorac respectively for 96 h. Some hemato-biochemical parameters were evaluated. In comparison with the control group, sub-lethal concentrations of all tested herbicides induced alterations in the shape of erythrocytes. Also, in all tested herbicides, hematological parameters of exposed fish exhibited a significant decrease in red blood cell count except bentazon. However, all tested herbicides showed an insignificant reduction in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and total white blood cells except bensulfuron-methyl. For biochemical parameters, most tested herbicides induced a significant increase in levels of cholesterol, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total plasma protein (only with acetochlor), urea, and creatinine (except bentazon and halosulfuron-methyl that exhibited non-significant decrease in creatinine level) compared with the control. In conclusion, the fish blood profiles can be used as good biomarkers for laboratory study to assess the toxicity of the tested rice herbicides at a sub-acute level especially acetochlor on O. niloticus. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Ecotoxicologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Peixes/sangue , Herbicidas/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem
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