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1.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(3): 649-658, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919166

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated development of edema in patients receiving PI3K/mTOR/CDK4/6 targeted therapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC). METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 160 patients receiving targeted therapy with PI3K/mTOR/CDK4/6 inhibitors to treat MBC (n = 160; 185 treatment occurrences). Clinicopathologic data, treatment details, and edema incidence were recorded. RESULTS: Edema incidence was 43.1% (69/160) overall and 25.6% (41/160) in the upper extremity ipsilateral to the treated breast. In 185 therapy regimens administered, 6.8% of patients on a PI3K inhibitor, 8.8% of patients on an mTOR inhibitor, and 9.2% of patients on a CDK4/6 inhibitor experienced new onset or worsened preexisting upper extremity edema. Further, 9.1% of patients on a PI3K inhibitor, 18.8% of patients on an mTOR inhibitor, and 10.5% of patients on a CDK4/6 inhibitor experienced new onset or worsened preexisting edema elsewhere in the body. Multivariate logistic regression showed that, beyond the established breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) risk factors [axillary lymph node dissection (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.69, p = 0.020), regional lymph node irradiation (OR 6.47, p < 0.001), and body-mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (OR 3.46, p = 0.006)], a relative decrease in serum albumin after 3 months of treatment increased risk of developing edema (OR 2.07, p = 0.062). Neither duration nor type of therapy were significant risk factors for edema. CONCLUSION: PI3K/mTOR/CDK4/6 inhibitors may influence the development of edema, which may cause or exacerbate progression of BCRL in patients with MBC. The varied incidence of edema between therapeutic regimens warrants vigilant monitoring of patients treated with these therapies, especially those at high risk of developing BCRL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Linfedema/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Cell ; 176(5): 967-981.e19, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739797

RESUMO

Tissue-resident lymphocytes play a key role in immune surveillance, but it remains unclear how these inherently stable cell populations respond to chronic inflammation. In the setting of celiac disease (CeD), where exposure to dietary antigen can be controlled, gluten-induced inflammation triggered a profound depletion of naturally occurring Vγ4+/Vδ1+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) with innate cytolytic properties and specificity for the butyrophilin-like (BTNL) molecules BTNL3/BTNL8. Creation of a new niche with reduced expression of BTNL8 and loss of Vγ4+/Vδ1+ IELs was accompanied by the expansion of gluten-sensitive, interferon-γ-producing Vδ1+ IELs bearing T cell receptors (TCRs) with a shared non-germline-encoded motif that failed to recognize BTNL3/BTNL8. Exclusion of dietary gluten restored BTNL8 expression but was insufficient to reconstitute the physiological Vγ4+/Vδ1+ subset among TCRγδ+ IELs. Collectively, these data show that chronic inflammation permanently reconfigures the tissue-resident TCRγδ+ IEL compartment in CeD. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Antígenos , Butirofilinas/metabolismo , Doença Celíaca/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Glutens/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo
3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 174(1): 179-185, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478787

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with Her2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab have higher rates of cardiotoxicity (CT). Left-breast radiation might increase the risk for CT from cardiac exposure to radiation. The goal of our study is to evaluate the contribution of radiotherapy (RT) in the development of CT in breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab. METHODS: Two hundred and two patients were treated with RT and trastuzumab from 2000 to 2014. The RT plans for left-side disease were recalled from archives. The heart, each chamber, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) were independently contoured. New dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated. Their serial left-ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) were studied. CT for left and right side were compared using Fisher's exact test. The DVH data were correlated with the predefined cardiac events using actuarial Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared to the right sided, the left-side cases showed statistically significant development of arrhythmia (14.2%) versus (< 1%) (p < 0.001). Cardiac ischemia was found in 10 patients in left and one patient in right side (p = 0.011). The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV), and LAD was significantly associated with decrease in LVEF by > 10% (p = 0.037, p = 0.023 and p = 0.049, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients treated for left-sided lesions, there were no significant differences in EF decline. However, there was a higher rate of ischemia and arrhythmia compared to those with right-sided disease. The EUD index of LV, RV, and LAD could be considered as a parameter to describe the risk of radiation-induced CT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órgãos em Risco , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos
4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(1): 62-70, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165125

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine when the risk of lymphedema is highest after treatment of breast cancer and which factors influence the time course of lymphedema development. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2005 and 2017, 2171 women (with 2266 at-risk arms) who received surgery for unilateral or bilateral breast cancer at our institution were enrolled. Perometry was used to objectively assess limb volume preoperatively, and lymphedema was defined as a ≥10% relative arm-volume increase arising >3 months postoperatively. Multivariable regression was used to uncover risk factors associated with lymphedema, the Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate lymphedema incidence, and the semiannual hazard rate of lymphedema was calculated. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 4 years, the overall estimated 5-year cumulative incidence of lymphedema was 13.7%. Significant factors associated with lymphedema on multivariable analysis were high preoperative body mass index, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and regional lymph node radiation (RLNR). Patients receiving ALND with RLNR experienced the highest 5-year rate of lymphedema (31.2%), followed by those receiving ALND without RLNR (24.6%) and sentinel lymph node biopsy with RLNR (12.2%). Overall, the risk of lymphedema peaked between 12 and 30 months postoperatively; however, the time course varied as a function of therapy received. Early-onset lymphedema (<12 months postoperatively) was associated with ALND (HR [hazard ratio], 4.75; P < .0001) but not with RLNR (HR, 1.21; P = .55). In contrast, late-onset lymphedema (>12 months postoperatively) was associated with RLNR (HR, 3.86; P = .0001) and, to a lesser extent, ALND (HR, 1.86; P = .029). The lymphedema risk peaked between 6 and 12 months in the ALND-without-RLNR group, between 18 and 24 months in the ALND-with-RLNR group, and between 36 and 48 months in the group receiving sentinel lymph node biopsy with RLNR. CONCLUSIONS: The time course for lymphedema development depends on the breast cancer treatment received. ALND is associated with early-onset lymphedema, and RLNR is associated with late-onset lymphedema. These results can influence clinical practice to guide lymphedema surveillance strategies and patient education.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Excisão de Linfonodo , Irradiação Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Gland Surg ; 7(4): 379-403, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175055

RESUMO

Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a negative sequela of breast cancer treatment, and well-established risk factors include axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and regional lymph node radiation (RLNR). BCRL affects approximately 1 in 5 patients treated for breast cancer, and it has a significant negative impact on patients' quality of life after breast cancer treatment, serving as a reminder of previous illness. This paper is a comprehensive review of the current evidence regarding BCRL risk factors, precautionary guidelines, prospective screening, early intervention, and surgical and non-surgical treatment techniques. Through establishing evidence-based BCRL risk factors, researchers and clinicians are better able to prevent, anticipate, and provide early intervention for BCRL. Clinicians can identify patients at high risk and utilize prospective screening programs, which incorporate objective measurements, patient reported outcome measures (PROM), and clinical examination, thereby creating opportunities for early intervention and, accordingly, improving BCRL prognosis. Innovative surgical techniques that minimize and/or prophylactically correct lymphatic disruption, such as axillary reverse mapping (ARM) and lymphatic-venous anastomoses (LVAs), are promising avenues for reducing BCRL incidence. Nonetheless, for those patients with BCRL who remain unresponsive to conservative methods like complete decongestive therapy (CDT), surgical treatment options aiming to reduce limb volume or restore lymphatic flow may prove to be palliative or corrective. It is only through a strong team-based approach that such a continuum of care can exist, and a multidisciplinary approach to BCRL screening, intervention, and research is therefore strongly encouraged.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(1): 83-91, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062571

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite increasing emphasis on screening and early intervention for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), there is marked heterogeneity in diagnostic methodology, including for volumetric measures. This retrospective study compared two volumetric modalities, perometry and simulated circumferential tape measurement (anatomic- and interval-based), for BCRL detection. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2017, 287 female patients with unilateral breast cancer were prospectively screened for BCRL by perometry and the relative volume change (RVC) formula. Circumferential measurement was performed by sampling at five anatomic landmark-based points or 4-cm intervals from pairs of perometer arm diameter measurements. Volumetric conversion was by a frustum model. The Bland-Altman method was used to compare segmental volume differences. Confusion matrix analysis was performed for each circumferential measurement technique against perometry. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 34.7 months over 4 postoperative visits. There was no difference in total arm volume comparing any of the circumferential measurement techniques to perometry. Landmark-based methods significantly underestimated upper arm volume (mean difference - 207 mL [- 336, - 78 mL]) and overestimated forearm volume (mean difference + 170 mL [+ 105, + 237 mL]). Landmark-based methods had greater sensitivity and specificity compared to 4-cm interval methods for detection of both RVC ≥ 10 and 5-10%. Landmark-based methods were comparable to perometry for detection of RVC ≥ 10%, but sensitivity was only 63.2-66.7% for RVC 5-10%. CONCLUSIONS: This hypothesis-generating study suggested the superiority of anatomic landmark-based circumferential tape measurement compared to interval-based methods, while generating questions about the underestimation of upper arm volume and overestimation of forearm volume of circumferential tape measurement compared to perometry.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braço/fisiopatologia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/etiologia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Phys Ther ; 98(6): 510-517, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361079

RESUMO

Background: There is little research on hand edema in the population at risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Objectives: Study aims included reporting potential importance of hand edema (HE) as a risk factor for progression of edema in patients treated for breast cancer at risk for BCRL, reporting risk factors for BCRL, and reporting treatment of HE. Design/Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 9 patients treated for breast cancer in Massachusetts General Hospital's lymphedema screening program who presented with isolated HE. Limb volumes via perometry, BCRL risk factors, and HE treatment are reported. Results: Edema was mostly isolated to the hand. Three patients had arm edema >5% on perometry; and 2 of these had edema outside the hand on clinical examination. Patients were at high risk of BCRL with an average of 2.9/5 known risk factors. Arm edema progressed to >10% in 2 high-risk patients. Treatment resulted in an average hand volume reduction of 10.2% via perometry and improvement upon clinical examination. Limitations: The small sample size and lack of validated measures of subjective data were limitations. Conclusions: In this cohort, patients with HE carried significant risk factors for BCRL. Two out of 9 (22%), both carrying ≥4/5 risk factors, progressed to edema >10%. Isolated HE may be a prognostic factor for edema progression in patients treated for breast cancer at risk for BCRL. Further research is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Edema/etiologia , Mãos , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Linfedema/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(35): 3934-3941, 2017 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976793

RESUMO

Purpose This study examined the lifestyle and clinical risk factors for lymphedema in a cohort of patients who underwent bilateral breast cancer surgery. Patients and Methods Between 2013 and 2016, 327 patients who underwent bilateral breast cancer surgery were prospectively screened for arm lymphedema as quantified by the weight-adjusted volume change (WAC) formula. Arm perometry and subjective data were collected preoperatively and at regular intervals postoperatively. At the time of each measurement, patients completed a risk assessment survey that reported the number of blood draws, injections, blood pressure readings, trauma to the at-risk arm, and number of flights since the previous measurement. Generalized estimating equations were applied to ascertain the association among arm volume changes, clinical factors, and risk exposures. Results The cohort comprised 327 patients and 654 at-risk arms, with a median postoperative follow-up that ranged from 6.1 to 68.2 months. Of the 654 arms, 83 developed lymphedema, defined as a WAC ≥ 10% relative to baseline. On multivariable analysis, none of the lifestyle risk factors examined through the risk assessment survey were significantly associated with increased WAC. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that having a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 at the time of breast cancer diagnosis ( P = .0404), having undergone axillary lymph node dissection ( P = .0464), and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy ( P = .0161) were significantly associated with increased arm volume. Conclusion Blood pressure readings, blood draws, injections, and number or duration of flights were not significantly associated with increases in arm volume in this cohort. These findings may help to guide patient education about lymphedema risk reduction strategies for those who undergo bilateral breast cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Linfedema/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Braço , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Mastectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco
11.
Curr Breast Cancer Rep ; 9(2): 111-121, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894513

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a chronic, adverse, and much feared complication of breast cancer treatment, which affects approximately 20% of patients following breast cancer treatment. BCRL has a tremendous impact on breast cancer survivors, including physical impairments and significant psychological consequences. The intent of this review is to discuss recent studies and analyses regarding the risk factors, diagnosis, prevention through early screening and intervention, and management of BCRL. RECENT FINDINGS: Highly-evidenced risk factors for BCRL include axillary lymph node dissection, lack of reconstruction, radiation to the lymph nodes, high BMI at diagnosis, weight fluctuations during and after treatment, subclinical edema within and beyond 3 months after surgery, and cellulitis in the at-risk arm. Avoidance of potential risk factors can serve as a method of prevention. Through establishing a screening program by which breast cancer patients are measured pre-operatively and at follow-ups, are objectively assessed through a weight-adjusted analysis, and are clinically assessed for signs and symptoms, BCRL can be tracked accurately and treated effectively. Management of BCRL is done by a trained professional, with research mounting towards the use of compression bandaging as a first line intervention against BCRL. Finally, exercise is safe for breast cancer patients with and without BCRL and does not incite or exacerbate symptoms of BCRL. SUMMARY: Recent research has shed light on BCRL risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and management. We hope that education on these aspects of BCRL will promote an informed, consistent approach and encourage additional research in this field to improve patient outcomes and quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

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