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1.
Neurobiol Dis ; 142: 104960, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522711

RESUMO

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a protein that is selectively expressed in neurons. Increased levels of NfL measured in either cerebrospinal fluid or blood is thought to be a biomarker of neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, there have been limited investigations relating NfL to the concurrent measures of white matter (WM) decline that it should reflect. White matter damage is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that serum levels of NfL would associate with WM lesion volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics cross-sectionally in 117 autosomal dominant mutation carriers (MC) compared to 84 non-carrier (NC) familial controls as well as in a subset (N = 41) of MC with longitudinal NfL and MRI data. In MC, elevated cross-sectional NfL was positively associated with WM hyperintensity lesion volume, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity and negatively with fractional anisotropy. Greater change in NfL levels in MC was associated with larger changes in fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity, all indicative of reduced WM integrity. There were no relationships with NfL in NC. Our results demonstrate that blood-based NfL levels reflect WM integrity and supports the view that blood levels of NfL are predictive of WM damage in the brain. This is a critical result in improving the interpretability of NfL as a marker of brain integrity, and for validating this emerging biomarker for future use in clinical and research settings across multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

2.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Variability exists in the disease trajectories of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We performed a genome-wide association study to examine rate of cognitive decline (ROD) in patients with AD. METHODS: We tested for interactions between genetic variants and time since diagnosis to predict the ROD of a composite cognitive score in 3946 AD cases and performed pathway analysis on the top genes. RESULTS: Suggestive associations (P < 1.0 × 10-6 ) were observed on chromosome 15 in DNA polymerase-γ (rs3176205, P = 1.11 × 10-7 ), chromosome 7 (rs60465337,P = 4.06 × 10-7 ) in contactin-associated protein-2, in RP11-384F7.1 on chromosome 3 (rs28853947, P = 5.93 × 10-7 ), family with sequence similarity 214 member-A on chromosome 15 (rs2899492, P = 5.94 × 10-7 ), and intergenic regions on chromosomes 16 (rs4949142, P = 4.02 × 10-7 ) and 4 (rs1304013, P = 7.73 × 10-7 ). Significant pathways involving neuronal development and function, apoptosis, memory, and inflammation were identified. DISCUSSION: Pathways related to AD, intelligence, and neurological function determine AD progression, while previously identified AD risk variants, including the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 and ε2 variants, do not have a major impact.

3.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568366

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic studies of Alzheimer disease have focused on the clinical or pathologic diagnosis as the primary outcome, but little is known about the genetic basis of the preclinical phase of the disease. Objective: To examine the underlying genetic basis for brain amyloidosis in the preclinical phase of Alzheimer disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the first stage of this genetic association study, a meta-analysis was conducted using genetic and imaging data acquired from 6 multicenter cohort studies of healthy older individuals between 1994 and 2019: the Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic Alzheimer Disease Study, the Berkeley Aging Cohort Study, the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, the Biomarkers of Cognitive Decline Among Normal Individuals cohort, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, and the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, which included Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. The second stage was designed to validate genetic observations using pathologic and clinical data from the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project. Participants older than 50 years with amyloid positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging data and DNA from the 6 cohorts were included. The largest cohort, the Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic Alzheimer Disease Study (n = 3154), was the PET screening cohort used for a secondary prevention trial designed to slow cognitive decline associated with brain amyloidosis. Six smaller, longitudinal cohort studies (n = 1160) provided additional amyloid PET imaging data with existing genetic data. The present study was conducted from March 29, 2019, to February 19, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: A genome-wide association study of PET imaging amyloid levels. Results: From the 4314 analyzed participants (age, 52-96 years; 2478 participants [57%] were women), a novel locus for amyloidosis was noted within RBFOX1 (ß = 0.61, P = 3 × 10-9) in addition to APOE. The RBFOX1 protein localized around plaques, and reduced expression of RBFOX1 was correlated with higher amyloid-ß burden (ß = -0.008, P = .002) and worse cognition (ß = 0.007, P = .006) during life in the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: RBFOX1 encodes a neuronal RNA-binding protein known to be expressed in neuronal tissues and may play a role in neuronal development. The findings of this study suggest that RBFOX1 is a novel locus that may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 84, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease impacting an estimated 44 million adults worldwide. The causal pathology of AD (accumulation of amyloid-beta and tau), precedes hallmark symptoms of dementia by more than a decade, necessitating development of early diagnostic markers of disease onset, particularly for new drugs that aim to modify disease processes. To evaluate differentially methylated positions (DMPs) as novel blood-based biomarkers of AD, we used a subset of 653 individuals with peripheral blood (PB) samples in the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) consortium. The selected cohort of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and age-matched healthy controls (CN) all had imaging, genetics, transcriptomics, cerebrospinal protein markers, and comprehensive clinical records, providing a rich resource of concurrent multi-omics and phenotypic information on a well-phenotyped subset of ADNI participants. RESULTS: In this manuscript, we report cross-diagnosis differential peripheral DNA methylation in a cohort of AD, MCI, and age-matched CN individuals with longitudinal DNA methylation measurements. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) were performed using a mixed model with repeated measures over time with a P value cutoff of 1 × 10-5 to test contrasts of pairwise differential peripheral methylation in AD vs CN, AD vs MCI, and MCI vs CN. The most highly significant differentially methylated loci also tracked with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. Differentially methylated loci were enriched near brain and neurodegeneration-related genes (e.g., BDNF, BIN1, APOC1) validated using the genotype tissue expression project portal (GTex). CONCLUSIONS: Our work shows that peripheral differential methylation between age-matched subjects with AD relative to healthy controls will provide opportunities to further investigate and validate differential methylation as a surrogate of disease. Given the inaccessibility of brain tissue, the PB-associated methylation marks may help identify the stage of disease and progression phenotype, information that would be central to bringing forward successful drugs for AD.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234748, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555747

RESUMO

Large-scale genome wide association studies (GWASs) have led to discovery of many genetic risk factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as APOE, TOMM40 and CLU. Despite the significant progress, it remains a major challenge to functionally validate these genetic findings and translate them into targetable mechanisms. Integration of multiple types of molecular data is increasingly used to address this problem. In this paper, we proposed a modularity-constrained Lasso model to jointly analyze the genotype, gene expression and protein expression data for discovery of functionally connected multi-omic biomarkers in AD. With a prior network capturing the functional relationship between SNPs, genes and proteins, the newly introduced penalty term maximizes the global modularity of the subnetwork involving selected markers and encourages the selection of multi-omic markers with dense functional connectivity, instead of individual markers. We applied this new model to the real data collected in the ROS/MAP cohort where the cognitive performance was used as disease quantitative trait. A functionally connected subnetwork involving 276 multi-omic biomarkers, including SNPs, genes and proteins, were identified to bear predictive power. Within this subnetwork, multiple trans-omic paths from SNPs to genes and then proteins were observed. This suggests that cognitive performance deterioration in AD patients can be potentially a result of genetic variations due to their cascade effect on the downstream transcriptome and proteome level.

6.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558014

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) are difficult to investigate, partly because diagnosis lags behind the insidious pathological processes. Therefore, identifying AD neuroimaging markers and their genetic modifiers may help study early mechanisms of neurodegeneration. We aimed to identify brain regions of the highest vulnerability to AD using a data-driven search in the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, n = 1,100 subjects), and further explored genetic variants affecting this critical brain trait using both ADNI and the younger UK Biobank cohort (n = 8,428 subjects). Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) identified the limbic system and its interconnecting white-matter as the most AD-vulnerable brain feature. Whole-genome analysis revealed a common variant in SHARPIN that was associated with this imaging feature (rs34173062, p = 2.1 × 10-10 ). This genetic association was validated in the UK Biobank, where it was correlated with entorhinal cortical thickness bilaterally (p = .002 left and p = 8.6 × 10-4 right), and with parental history of AD (p = 2.3 × 10-6 ). Our findings suggest that neuroanatomical variation in the limbic system and AD risk are associated with a novel variant in SHARPIN. The role of this postsynaptic density gene product in ß1-integrin adhesion is in line with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular signaling pathway and the recent genome-wide evidence.

7.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406914

RESUMO

With the development and decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing technologies, the study of the human microbiome has become a rapid expanding research field, which provides an unprecedented opportunity in various clinical applications such as drug response predictions and disease diagnosis. It is thus essential and desirable to build a prediction model for clinical outcomes based on microbiome data that usually consist of taxon abundance and a phylogenetic tree. Importantly, all microbial species are not uniformly distributed in the phylogenetic tree but tend to be clustered at different phylogenetic depths. Therefore, the phylogenetic tree represents a unique correlation structure of microbiome, which can be an important prior to improve the prediction performance. However, prediction methods that consider the phylogenetic tree in an efficient and rigorous way are under-developed. Here, we develop a novel deep learning prediction method MDeep (microbiome-based deep learning method) to predict both continuous and binary outcomes. Conceptually, MDeep designs convolutional layers to mimic taxonomic ranks with multiple convolutional filters on each convolutional layer to capture the phylogenetic correlation among microbial species in a local receptive field and maintain the correlation structure across different convolutional layers via feature mapping. Taken together, the convolutional layers with its built-in convolutional filters capture microbial signals at different taxonomic levels while encouraging local smoothing and preserving local connectivity induced by the phylogenetic tree. We use both simulation studies and real data applications to demonstrate that MDeep outperforms competing methods in both regression and binary classifications. Availability and Implementation: MDeep software is available at https://github.com/lichen-lab/MDeep Contact:chen61@iu.edu.

8.
Neurology ; 94(20): e2088-e2098, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of triglyceride (TG) principal component scores with Alzheimer disease (AD) and the amyloid, tau, neurodegeneration, and cerebrovascular disease (A/T/N/V) biomarkers for AD. METHODS: Serum levels of 84 TG species were measured with untargeted lipid profiling of 689 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort, including 190 cognitively normal older adults (CN), 339 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 160 with AD. Principal component analysis with factor rotation was used for dimension reduction of TG species. Differences in principal components between diagnostic groups and associations between principal components and AD biomarkers (including CSF, MRI and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET) were assessed with a generalized linear model approach. In both cases, the Bonferroni method of adjustment was used to correct for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: The 84 TGs yielded 9 principal components, 2 of which, consisting of long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing TGs (PUTGs), were significantly associated with MCI and AD. Lower levels of PUTGs were observed in MCI and AD compared to CN. PUTG principal component scores were also significantly associated with hippocampal volume and entorhinal cortical thickness. In participants carrying the APOE ε4 allele, these principal components were significantly associated with CSF ß-amyloid1-42 values and entorhinal cortical thickness. CONCLUSION: This study shows that PUTG component scores were significantly associated with diagnostic group and AD biomarkers, a finding that was more pronounced in APOE ε4 carriers. Replication in independent larger studies and longitudinal follow-up are warranted.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 75(3): 959-969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aberrant angiogenesis may play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease and related dementia. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between angiogenesis activity and evidence of neurodegeneration among older adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 49 older adults clinically characterized as cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, or early Alzheimer's disease. In addition to neuroimaging, we completed assays on peripheral blood, including: vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor, fibroblast growth factor, and amyloid-ß peptide 40. We used advanced polychromatic flow cytometry to phenotype circulating mononuclear cells to assess angiogenesis activity. RESULTS: Although we documented differences in cognitive performance, structural changes on neuroimaging, and burden of amyloid and tau on positron emission tomography, angiogenesis activity did not vary by group. Interestingly, VEGF levels were shown to be increased among subjects with mild cognitive impairment. In ANCOVA models controlling for age, sex, intracranial volume, and monocyte subpopulations, angiogenesis activity was correlated with increased white matter hyperintensities. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a significant association between angiogenesis activity and cerebrovascular disease. To better understand the potential of angiogenesis as an intervention target, longitudinal studies are needed.

10.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(Suppl 5): 53, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of death in the US and there is no validated drugs to stop, slow or prevent AD. Despite tremendous effort on biomarker discovery, existing findings are mostly individual biomarkers and provide limited insights into the transcriptomic decoupling underlying AD. We propose to explore the gene co-expression patterns in multiple AD stages, including cognitively normal (CN), early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI), late MCI and AD. METHODS: We modified traiditonal joint graphical lasso to model our asusmption that the co-expression networks in consecutive disease stages are largely similar with critical differences. In addition, we performed subsequent network comparison analysis for identification of stage specific transcriptomic decoupling. We focused our analysis on top AD-enriched pathways. RESULTS: We observed that 419 edges in CN, 420 edges in EMCI, 381 edges in LMCI and 250 edges in AD were frequently estimated with non zero weights. With modified JGL, the weight of all estimated edges in CN, EMCI and LMCI are zero. In AD group, 299 edges were occasionally estimated to be nonzero and the average correlation between genes was 0.0023. For co-expression change during AD progression, there are 66 pairs of genes that demonstrated a continuously decreasing or increasing co-expression from CN to EMCI, LMCI and AD.The network level clustering coefficient remains stable from CN to LMCI and then decreases significantly when progressing to AD. When evaluating edge level differences, we identified eight gene modules with continuously decreasing or increasing co-expression patterns during AD progression. Five of them shows significant changes from CN to EMCI and thus have the potential to serve system biomarkers for early screening of AD. CONCLUSION: We employed a modified joint graphical lasso for estimation of co-expression networks for multiple stages of AD. Comparing with graphical lasso, our modified joint graphical lasso model accounts for the similarity in consecutive disease stages. Our results on real data set revealed five gene clusters with obvious co-expression pattern change from CN to EMCI, which could be used as potential system-level biomarkers for early screening of AD.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1148, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123170

RESUMO

Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) can, in part, be considered a metabolic disease. Besides age, female sex and APOE ε4 genotype represent strong risk factors for AD that also give rise to large metabolic differences. We systematically investigated group-specific metabolic alterations by conducting stratified association analyses of 139 serum metabolites in 1,517 individuals from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative with AD biomarkers. We observed substantial sex differences in effects of 15 metabolites with partially overlapping differences for APOE ε4 status groups. Several group-specific metabolic alterations were not observed in unstratified analyses using sex and APOE ε4 as covariates. Combined stratification revealed further subgroup-specific metabolic effects limited to APOE ε4+ females. The observed metabolic alterations suggest that females experience greater impairment of mitochondrial energy production than males. Dissecting metabolic heterogeneity in AD pathogenesis can therefore enable grading the biomedical relevance for specific pathways within specific subgroups, guiding the way to personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Sangue/metabolismo , Metaboloma/genética , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Psychooncology ; 29(6): 1051-1059, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between self-reported and objectively measured cognitive function prior to systemic therapy and subsequent well-being outcomes over 24 months in older breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Data were from 397 women aged 60 to 98 diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer in the Thinking and Living with Cancer Study recruited from 2010-2016. Cognitive function was measured at baseline (following surgery, prior to systemic therapy) using neuropsychological assessments of attention, processing speed, and executive function (APE), learning and memory (LM), and the self-reported FACT-Cog scale. Well-being was measured using the FACT-G functional, physical, social, and emotional well-being domain scales at baseline and 12 and 24 months later, scaled from 0 (low) to 100 (high). Linear mixed-effects models assessed the relationships between each of baseline APE, LM, and FACT-Cog quartiles with well-being scores over 24 months, adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS: At baseline, older survivors in the lowest APE, LM, and FACT-Cog score quartiles experienced poorer global well-being than those in the highest quartiles. At 24 months, older survivors tended to improve in well-being, and there were no differences according to baseline APE or LM scores. At 24 months, mean global well-being was 80.3 (95% CI: 76.2-84.3) among those in the lowest vs 86.6 (95% CI: 83.1-90.1) in the highest FACT-cog quartile, a clinically meaningful difference of 6.3 points (95% CI: 1.5-11.1). CONCLUSIONS: Among older breast cancer survivors, self-reported, but not objective cognitive impairments, were associated with lower global well-being over the first 2 years of survivorship.

13.
Med Image Anal ; 61: 101656, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062154

RESUMO

Brain imaging genetics becomes an important research topic since it can reveal complex associations between genetic factors and the structures or functions of the human brain. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a popular bi-multivariate association identification method. To mine the complex genetic basis of brain imaging phenotypes, there arise many SCCA methods with a variety of norms for incorporating different structures of interest. They often use the group lasso penalty, the fused lasso or the graph/network guided fused lasso ones. However, the group lasso methods have limited capability because of the incomplete or unavailable prior knowledge in real applications. The fused lasso and graph/network guided methods are sensitive to the sign of the sample correlation which may be incorrectly estimated. In this paper, we introduce two new penalties to improve the fused lasso and the graph/network guided lasso penalties in structured sparse learning. We impose both penalties to the SCCA model and propose an optimization algorithm to solve it. The proposed SCCA method has a strong upper bound of grouping effects for both positively and negatively highly correlated variables. We show that, on both synthetic and real neuroimaging genetics data, the proposed SCCA method performs better than or equally to the conventional methods using fused lasso or graph/network guided fused lasso. In particular, the proposed method identifies higher canonical correlation coefficients and captures clearer canonical weight patterns, demonstrating its promising capability in revealing biologically meaningful imaging genetic associations.

14.
Neuroimage Clin ; 26: 102203, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM) are often reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear which brain regions have the strongest WM changes in presymptomatic AD and what biological processes underlie WM abnormality during disease progression. METHODS: We developed a systems biology framework to integrate matched diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), genetic and transcriptomic data to investigate regional vulnerability to AD and identify genetic risk factors and gene subnetworks underlying WM abnormality in AD. RESULTS: We quantified regional WM abnormality and identified most vulnerable brain regions. A SNP rs2203712 in CELF1 was most significantly associated with several DTI-derived features in the hippocampus, the top ranked brain region. An immune response gene subnetwork in the blood was most correlated with DTI features across all the brain regions. DISCUSSION: Incorporation of image analysis with gene network analysis enhances our understanding of disease progression and facilitates identification of novel therapeutic strategies for AD.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919771, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977061

RESUMO

Importance: There is potential scientific and clinical value in validation of objective biomarkers for sport-related concussion (SRC). Objective: To investigate the association of acute-phase blood biomarker levels with SRC in collegiate athletes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, prospective, case-control study was conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the US Department of Defense Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium from February 20, 2015, to May 31, 2018, at 6 CARE Advanced Research Core sites. A total of 504 collegiate athletes with concussion, contact sport control athletes, and non-contact sport control athletes completed clinical testing and blood collection at preseason baseline, the acute postinjury period, 24 to 48 hours after injury, the point of reporting being asymptomatic, and 7 days after return to play. Data analysis was conducted from March 1 to November 30, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), neurofilament light chain, and tau were quantified using the Quanterix Simoa multiplex assay. Clinical outcome measures included the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition (SCAT-3) symptom evaluation, Standardized Assessment of Concussion, Balance Error Scoring System, and Brief Symptom Inventory 18. Results: A total of 264 athletes with concussion (mean [SD] age, 19.08 [1.24] years; 211 [79.9%] male), 138 contact sport controls (mean [SD] age, 19.03 [1.27] years; 107 [77.5%] male), and 102 non-contact sport controls (mean [SD] age, 19.39 [1.25] years; 82 [80.4%] male) were included in the study. Athletes with concussion had significant elevation in GFAP (mean difference, 0.430 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.339-0.521 pg/mL; P < .001), UCH-L1 (mean difference, 0.449 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.167-0.732 pg/mL; P < .001), and tau levels (mean difference, 0.221 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.046-0.396 pg/mL; P = .004) at the acute postinjury time point compared with preseason baseline. Longitudinally, a significant interaction (group × visit) was found for GFAP (F7,1507.36 = 16.18, P < .001), UCH-L1 (F7,1153.09 = 5.71, P < .001), and tau (F7,1480.55 = 6.81, P < .001); the interaction for neurofilament light chain was not significant (F7,1506.90 = 1.33, P = .23). The area under the curve for the combination of GFAP and UCH-L1 in differentiating athletes with concussion from contact sport controls at the acute postinjury period was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.64-0.78; P < .001); the acute postinjury area under the curve for all 4 biomarkers combined was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.65-0.79; P < .001). Beyond SCAT-3 symptom score, GFAP at the acute postinjury time point was associated with the classification of athletes with concussion from contact controls (ß = 12.298; 95% CI, 2.776-54.481; P = .001) and non-contact sport controls (ß = 5.438; 95% CI, 1.676-17.645; P = .005). Athletes with concussion with loss of consciousness or posttraumatic amnesia had significantly higher levels of GFAP than athletes with concussion with neither loss of consciousness nor posttraumatic amnesia at the acute postinjury time point (mean difference, 0.583 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.369-0.797 pg/mL; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The results suggest that blood biomarkers can be used as research tools to inform the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of concussion and provide additional support for future studies to optimize and validate biomarkers for potential clinical use in SRC.

16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942037

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related form of dementia, associated with deposition of intracellular neuronal tangles consisting primarily of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (p-tau) and extracellular plaques primarily comprising amyloid- ß (Aß) peptide. The p-tau tangle unit is a posttranslational modification of normal tau protein. Aß is a neurotoxic peptide excised from the amyloid-ß precursor protein (APP) by ß-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and the γ-secretase complex. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded RNAs that modulate protein expression as part of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). We identified miR-298 as a repressor of APP, BACE1, and the two primary forms of Aß (Aß40 and Aß42) in a primary human cell culture model. Further, we discovered a novel effect of miR-298 on posttranslational levels of two specific tau moieties. Notably, miR-298 significantly reduced levels of ~55 and 50 kDa forms of the tau protein without significant alterations of total tau or other forms. In vivo overexpression of human miR-298 resulted in nonsignificant reduction of APP, BACE1, and tau in mice. Moreover, we identified two miR-298 SNPs associated with higher cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) p-tau and lower CSF Aß42 levels in a cohort of human AD patients. Finally, levels of miR-298 varied in postmortem human temporal lobe between AD patients and age-matched non-AD controls. Our results suggest that miR-298 may be a suitable target for AD therapy.

17.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(3): 271-278, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958406

RESUMO

A growing awareness about brain health and Alzheimer's disease in the general population is leading to an increasing number of cognitively unimpaired individuals, who are concerned that they have reduced cognitive function, to approach the medical system for help. The term subjective cognitive decline (SCD) was conceived in 2014 to describe this condition. Epidemiological data provide evidence that the risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia is increased in individuals with SCD. However, the majority of individuals with SCD will not show progressive cognitive decline. An individually tailored diagnostic process might be reasonable to identify or exclude underlying medical conditions in an individual with SCD who actively seeks medical help. An increasing number of studies are investigating the link between SCD and the very early stages of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 88: 24-32, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901293

RESUMO

Transcriptomics has become an important tool for identification of biological pathways dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We performed a network-based gene expression analysis of blood-based microarray gene expression profiles using 2 independent cohorts, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI; N = 661) and AddNeuroMed (N = 674). Weighted gene coexpression network analysis identified 17 modules from ADNI and 13 from AddNeuroMed. Four of the modules derived in ADNI were significantly related to AD; 5 modules in AddNeuroMed were significant. Gene-set enrichment analysis of the AD-related modules identified and replicated 3 biological pathways including the Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis pathway. Module-based association analysis showed the AD-related module, which has the 3 pathways, to be associated with cognitive function and neuroimaging biomarkers. Gene-based association analysis identified PRKCD in the Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis pathway as being significantly associated with cognitive function and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. The identification of the Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis pathway implicates the peripheral innate immune system in the pathophysiology of AD. PRKCD is known to be related to neurodegeneration induced by amyloid-ß.

19.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 11(2): 290-296, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect alterations in white matter microstructure in older patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: We recruited women age ≥60 years with stage I-III breast cancer (chemotherapy [CT] group; n = 19) to undergo two study assessments: at baseline and within one month after chemotherapy. Each assessment consisted of a brain magnetic resonance imaging scan with DTI and neuropsychological (NP) testing using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox Cognition Battery. An age- and sex-matched group of healthy controls (HC, n = 14) underwent the same assessments at matched intervals. Four DTI parameters (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], axial diffusivity [AD], and radial diffusivity [RD]) were calculated and correlated with NP testing scores. RESULTS: For CT group but not HCs, we detected statistically significant increases in MD and RD in the genu of the corpus callosum from time point 1 to time point 2 at p < 0.01, effect size:0.3655 and 0.3173, and 95% confidence interval: from 0.1490 to 0.5821, and from 0.1554 to 0.4792, for MD and RD respectively. AD values increased for the CT group and decreased for the HC group over time, resulting in significant between-group differences (p = 0.0056, effect size:1.0215, 95% confidence interval: from 0.2773 to 1.7657). There were no significant correlations between DTI parameters and NP scores (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We identified alterations in white matter microstructures in older women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. These findings may potentially serve as neuroimaging biomarkers for identifying cognitive impairment in older adults with cancer.

20.
J Neurotrauma ; 37(1): 152-162, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407610

RESUMO

There has been a recent call for longitudinal cohort studies to track the physiological recovery of sport-related concussion (SRC) and its relationship with clinical recovery. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has shown potential for detecting subtle changes in brain function after SRC. We investigated the effects of SRC on rs-fMRI metrics assessing local connectivity (regional homogeneity; REHO), global connectivity (average nodal strength), and the relative amplitude of slow oscillations of rs-fMRI (fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations; fALFF). Athletes diagnosed with SRC (n = 92) completed visits with neuroimaging at 24-48 h post-injury (24 h), after clearance to begin the return-to-play (RTP) progression (asymptomatic), and 7 days following unrestricted RTP (post-RTP). Non-injured athletes (n = 82) completed visits yoked to the schedule of matched injured athletes and served as controls. Concussed athletes had elevated symptoms, worse neurocognitive performance, greater balance deficits, and elevated psychological symptoms at the 24-h visit relative to controls. These deficits were largely recovered by the asymptomatic visit. Concussed athletes still reported elevated psychological symptoms at the asymptomatic visit relative to controls. Concussed athletes also had elevated REHO in the right middle and superior frontal gyri at the 24-h visit that returned to normal levels by the asymptomatic visit. Additionally, REHO in these regions at 24 h predicted psychological symptoms at the asymptomatic visit in concussed athletes. Current results suggest that SRC is associated with an acute alteration in local connectivity that follows a similar time course as clinical recovery. Our results do not indicate strong evidence that concussion-related alterations in rs-fMRI persist beyond clinical recovery.

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