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1.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 183, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interaction between the brain and periphery might play a crucial role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Using blood transcriptomic profile data from two independent AD cohorts, we performed expression quantitative trait locus (cis-eQTL) analysis of 29 significant genetic loci from a recent large-scale genome-wide association study to investigate the effects of the AD genetic variants on gene expression levels and identify their potential target genes. We then performed differential gene expression analysis of identified AD target genes and linear regression analysis to evaluate the association of differentially expressed genes with neuroimaging biomarkers. RESULTS: A cis-eQTL analysis identified and replicated significant associations in seven genes (APH1B, BIN1, FCER1G, GATS, MS4A6A, RABEP1, TRIM4). APH1B expression levels in the blood increased in AD and were associated with entorhinal cortical thickness and global cortical amyloid-ß deposition. CONCLUSION: An integrative analysis of genetics, blood-based transcriptomic profiles, and imaging biomarkers suggests that APH1B expression levels in the blood might play a role in the pathogenesis of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide , Endopeptidases , Proteínas de Membrana , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Endopeptidases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Transcriptoma
2.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757660

RESUMO

Metabolites, the biochemical products of the cellular process, can be used to measure alterations in biochemical pathways related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relationships between systemic abnormalities in metabolism and the pathogenesis of AD are poorly understood. In this study, we aim to identify AD-specific metabolomic changes and their potential upstream genetic and transcriptional regulators through an integrative systems biology framework for analyzing genetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data in AD. Metabolite co-expression network analysis of the blood metabolomic data in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) shows short-chain acylcarnitines/amino acids and medium/long-chain acylcarnitines are most associated with AD clinical outcomes, including episodic memory scores and disease severity. Integration of the gene expression data in both the blood from the ADNI and the brain from the Accelerating Medicines Partnership Alzheimer's Disease (AMP-AD) program reveals ABCA1 and CPT1A are involved in the regulation of acylcarnitines and amino acids in AD. Gene co-expression network analysis of the AMP-AD brain RNA-seq data suggests the CPT1A- and ABCA1-centered subnetworks are associated with neuronal system and immune response, respectively. Increased ABCA1 gene expression and adiponectin protein, a regulator of ABCA1, correspond to decreased short-chain acylcarnitines and amines in AD in the ADNI. In summary, our integrated analysis of large-scale multiomics data in AD systematically identifies novel metabolites and their potential regulators in AD and the findings pave a way for not only developing sensitive and specific diagnostic biomarkers for AD but also identifying novel molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Older cancer patients are susceptible to long-term effects of chemotherapy, including cancer-related cognitive decline and impairments to quality of life. Taxane-based chemotherapies are associated with physical declines among older women and may negatively impact cognitive performance. We sought to examine whether changes in objective and subjective measures of cognitive performance and well-being differ among older breast cancer survivors as a function of taxane-based chemotherapy treatment regimens. METHODS: Individual-level data were pooled and harmonized from two large prospective studies of older (greater than 60 years) breast cancer survivors. Assessments were conducted prior to systemic therapy and up to 36 months after. Cognitive performance was assessed with objective (working memory, processing speed, and executive functions) and subjective tests and physical, emotional, and functional well-being were also assessed. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-seven (M age = 67.3 years) women with 116 receiving chemotherapy with taxanes and 51 without taxanes contributed data. Declines in subjective cognition for both groups were significant between pre-treatment and 12-month follow-up. Significant improvements were seen on a measure of objective cognition (working memory) from 12 to 36 months. Measures of well-being improved from prior to systemic therapy to 12 months. Longitudinal changes across all measures did not vary as a function of receipt of taxane-based treatment. CONCLUSION: Older women who received treatment with taxanes did not have greater declines in cognitive performance or well-being than women receiving other chemotherapy regimens. Despite older cancer survivors being at greater risk for negative outcomes, treatment with taxane-based chemotherapies does not appear to exacerbate these health consequences.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 590, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785643

RESUMO

Established genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) account for only a portion of AD heritability. The aim of this study was to identify novel associations between genetic variants and AD-specific brain atrophy. We conducted genome-wide association studies for brain magnetic resonance imaging measures of hippocampal volume and entorhinal cortical thickness in 2643 Koreans meeting the clinical criteria for AD (n = 209), mild cognitive impairment (n = 1449) or normal cognition (n = 985). A missense variant, rs77359862 (R274W), in the SHANK-associated RH Domain Interactor (SHARPIN) gene was associated with entorhinal cortical thickness (p = 5.0 × 10-9) and hippocampal volume (p = 5.1 × 10-12). It revealed an increased risk of developing AD in the mediation analyses. This variant was also associated with amyloid-ß accumulation (p = 0.03) and measures of memory (p = 1.0 × 10-4) and executive function (p = 0.04). We also found significant association of other SHARPIN variants with hippocampal volume in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (rs3417062, p = 4.1 × 10-6) and AddNeuroMed (rs138412600, p = 5.9 × 10-5) cohorts. Further, molecular dynamics simulations and co-immunoprecipitation indicated that the variant significantly reduced the binding of linear ubiquitination assembly complex proteins, SHPARIN and HOIL-1 Interacting Protein (HOIP), altering the downstream NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings suggest that SHARPIN plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD.

5.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Amyloid beta (Aß), tau, and neurodegeneration jointly with the Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors affect the severity of clinical symptoms and disease progression. METHODS: Within 248 Aß-positive elderly with and without cognitive impairment and dementia, partial least squares structural equation pathway modeling was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of imaging biomarkers (global Aß-positron emission tomography [PET] uptake, regional tau-PET uptake, and regional magnetic resonance imaging-based atrophy) and risk-factors (age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E [APOE], and white-matter lesions) on cross-sectional cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of variance in cross-sectional cognitive impairment was accounted for by Aß, 46% to 47% by tau, and 25% to 29% by atrophy, although 53% to 58% of total variance in cognitive impairment was explained by incorporating mediated and direct effects of AD risk factors. The Aß-tau-atrophy pathway accounted for 50% to 56% of variance in longitudinal cognitive decline while Aß, tau, and atrophy independently explained 16%, 46% to 47%, and 25% to 29% of the variance, respectively. DISCUSSION: These findings emphasize that treatments that remove Aß and completely stop downstream effects on tau and neurodegeneration would only be partially effective in slowing of cognitive decline or reversing cognitive impairment.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The cognitive reserve hypothesis has been proposed as a key mechanism explaining the link between social networks and cognitive function but has rarely been empirically tested using neuroimaging data. This study examines whether social network attributes moderate the association between amygdalar volume and cognitive function. METHODS: Data were from the Social Networks in Alzheimer Disease study (N=154) and Indiana Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Social networks were measured using the PhenX Social Network Battery. Regional data from MRI (amygdalar volume; AV) were analyzed using FreeSurfer software. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and consensus diagnosis. Linear regression analyses were conducted to test the moderating role of social networks on the association between AV and cognitive function. RESULTS: Participants with greater ability to span multiple social roles and subgroups within their networks scored higher on the MoCA after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, depression, frequency of contact, and AV. Social networks moderated the association between AV and cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants who engaged in diverse and loosely connected social networks, the expected adverse cognitive effects of brain volume in regions implicated in socioemotional processing were attenuated. These findings suggest that cognitive stimulation achieved through social interaction with a diverse array of social relationships across multiple contexts may help promote cognitive reserve.

7.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 7(1): e12201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604500

RESUMO

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological subtypes (limbic predominant [lpAD], hippocampal sparing [HpSpAD], and typical [tAD]), defined by relative neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) burden in limbic and cortical regions, have not been studied in prospectively characterized epidemiological cohorts with robust cognitive assessments. Methods: Two hundred ninety-two participants with neuropathologically confirmed AD from the Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project were categorized by neuropathological subtype based on previously specified diagnostic criteria using quantitative regional NFT counts. Rates of cognitive decline were compared across subtypes using linear mixed-effects models that included subtype, time, and a subtype-time interaction as predictors and four cognitive domain factor scores (memory, executive function, language, visuospatial) and a global score as outcomes. To assess if memory was relatively preserved in HpSpAD, non-memory factor scores were included as covariates in the mixed-effects model with memory as the outcome. Results: There were 57 (20%) with lpAD, 22 (8%) with HpSpAD and 213 (73%) with tAD. LpAD died significantly later than the participants with tAD (2.4 years, P = .01) and with HpSpAD (3.8 years, P = .03). Compared to tAD, HpSpAD, but not lpAD, performed significantly worse in all cognitive domains at the time of initial impairment and declined significantly faster in memory, language, and globally. HpSpAD did not have relatively preserved memory performance at any time point. Conclusion: The relative frequencies of AD neuropathological subtypes in an epidemiological sample were consistent with a previous report in a convenience sample. People with HpSpAD decline rapidly, but may not have a memory-sparing clinical syndrome. Cohort-specific differences in regional tau burden and comorbid neuropathology may explain the lack of clinicopathological correlation.

8.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 164, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that BMI1 confers protective effects against Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism remains elusive. Based on recent pathophysiological evidence, we sought for the first time to identify genetic variants in BMI1 as associated with AD biomarkers, including amyloid-ß. METHODS: We used genetic, longitudinal cognition, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker data from participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort (N = 1565). First, we performed a gene-based association analysis of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 5%) located within ± 20 kb of the gene boundary of BMI1, an optimal width for including potential regulatory SNPs in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of BMI1, with CSF Aß1-42 levels. Second, we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal association analyses of SNPs in BMI1 with cognitive performance using linear and mixed-effects models. We replicated association of SNPs in BMI1 with cognitive performance in an independent cohort (N=1084), Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (ROS/MAP). RESULTS: Gene-based genetic association analysis showed that BMI1 was significantly associated with CSF Aß1-42 levels after adjusting for multiple testing using permutation (permutation-corrected p value=0.005). rs17415557 in BMI1 showed the most significant association with CSF Aß1-42 levels. Participants with minor alleles of rs17415557 have increased CSF Aß1-42 levels compared to those with no minor alleles. Further analysis identified and replicated the minor allele of rs17415557 as being significantly associated with slower cognitive decline rates in AD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide fundamental evidence that BMI1 rs17415557 may serve as a protective mechanism related to AD pathogenesis, which supports the results of previous studies linking BMI1 to protection against AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1 , Proteínas tau
9.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 191, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying biomarkers associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression may enable patient enrichment and improve clinical trial designs. Epigenome-wide association studies have revealed correlations between DNA methylation at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and AD pathology and diagnosis. Here, we report relationships between peripheral blood DNA methylation profiles measured using Infinium® MethylationEPIC BeadChip and AD progression in participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. RESULTS: The rate of cognitive decline from initial DNA sampling visit to subsequent visits was estimated by the slopes of the modified Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (mPACC; mPACCdigit and mPACCtrailsB) and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) plots using robust linear regression in cognitively normal (CN) participants and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), respectively. In addition, diagnosis conversion status was assessed using a dichotomized endpoint. Two CpG sites were significantly associated with the slope of mPACC in CN participants (P < 5.79 × 10-8 [Bonferroni correction threshold]); cg00386386 was associated with the slope of mPACCdigit, and cg09422696 annotated to RP11-661A12.5 was associated with the slope of CDR-SB. No significant CpG sites associated with diagnosis conversion status were identified. Genes involved in cognition and learning were enriched. A total of 19, 13, and 5 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with the slopes of mPACCtrailsB, mPACCdigit, and CDR-SB, respectively, were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate algorithms; these included DMRs annotated to HOXA4. Furthermore, 5 and 19 DMRs were associated with conversion status in CN and MCI participants, respectively. The most significant DMR was annotated to the AD-associated gene PM20D1 (chr1: 205,818,956 to 205,820,014 [13 probes], Sidak-corrected P = 7.74 × 10-24), which was associated with both the slope of CDR-SB and the MCI conversion status. CONCLUSION: Candidate CpG sites and regions in peripheral blood were identified as associated with the rate of cognitive decline in participants in the ADNI cohort. While we did not identify a single CpG site with sufficient clinical utility to be used by itself due to the observed effect size, a biosignature composed of DNA methylation changes may have utility as a prognostic biomarker for AD progression.

10.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 13(1): e12230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466653

RESUMO

Introduction: Head injuries (HI) are a risk factor for dementia, but the underlying etiology is not fully known. Understanding whether tau might mediate this relationship is important. Methods: Cognition and tau deposition were compared between 752 individuals with (impaired, n = 302) or without cognitive impairment (CN, n = 450) with amyloid and [18F]flortaucipir positron emission tomography, HI history information, and cognitive testing from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and the Indiana Memory and Aging Study. Results: Sixty-three (38 CN, 25 impaired) reported a history of HI. Higher neuropsychiatric scores and poorer memory were observed in those with a history of HI. Tau was higher in individuals with a history of HI, especially those who experienced a loss of consciousness (LOC). Results were driven by impaired individuals, especially amyloid beta-positive individuals with history of HI with LOC. Discussion: These findings suggest biological changes, such as greater tau, are associated with HI in individuals with cognitive impairment. Small effect sizes were observed; thus, further studies should replicate and extend these results.

11.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533771

RESUMO

Tau neurofibrillary tangles have a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Mounting evidence indicates that the propagation of tau is assisted by brain connectivity with weakened white-matter integrity along the propagation pathways. Recent advances in tau positron emission tomography tracers and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging allow the visualization of tau pathology and white-matter connectivity of the brain in vivo. The current study aims to investigate how tau deposition and structural connectivity are associated with memory function in prodromal AD. In this study, tau accumulation and structural connectivity data from 83 individuals (57 cognitively normal participants and 26 participants with mild cognitive impairment) were associated with neurocognitive test scores. Statistical analyses were performed in 70 cortical/subcortical brain regions to determine: 1. the level of association between tau and network metrics extracted from structural connectivity and 2. the association patterns of brain memory function with tau accumulation and network metrics. The results showed that tau accumulation and network metrics were correlated in early tau deposition regions. Furthermore, tau accumulation was associated with worse performance in almost all neurocognitive tests performance evaluated in the study. In comparison, decreased network connectivity was associated with declines in the delayed memory recall in Craft Stories and Benson Figure Copy. Interaction analysis indicates that tau deposition and dysconnectivity have a synergistic effect on the delayed Benson Figure Recall. Overall, our findings indicate that both tau deposition and structural dysconnectivity are associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. They also suggest that tau-PET may have better sensitivity to neurocognitive performance than diffusion MRI-derived measures of white-matter connectivity.

12.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581485

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has accumulated 15 years of clinical, neuroimaging, cognitive, biofluid biomarker and genetic data, and biofluid samples available to researchers, resulting in more than 3500 publications. This review covers studies from 2018 to 2020. METHODS: We identified 1442 publications using ADNI data by conventional search methods and selected impactful studies for inclusion. RESULTS: Disease progression studies supported pivotal roles for regional amyloid beta (Aß) and tau deposition, and identified underlying genetic contributions to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vascular disease, immune response, inflammation, resilience, and sex modulated disease course. Biologically coherent subgroups were identified at all clinical stages. Practical algorithms and methodological changes improved determination of Aß status. Plasma Aß, phosphorylated tau181, and neurofilament light were promising noninvasive biomarkers. Prognostic and diagnostic models were externally validated in ADNI but studies are limited by lack of ethnocultural cohort diversity. DISCUSSION: ADNI has had a profound impact in improving clinical trials for AD.

13.
Transl Neurodegener ; 10(1): 32, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combinatorial effect of multiple genetic factors calculated as a polygenic risk score (PRS) has been studied to predict disease progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) from mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Previous studies have investigated the performance of PRS in the prediction of disease progression to AD by including and excluding single nucleotide polymorphisms within the region surrounding the APOE gene. These studies may have missed the APOE genotype-specific predictability of PRS for disease progression to AD. METHODS: We analyzed 732 MCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort, including those who progressed to AD within 5 years post-baseline (n = 270) and remained stable as MCI (n = 462). The predictability of PRS including and excluding the APOE region (PRS+APOE and PRS-APOE) on the conversion to AD and its interaction with the APOE ε4 carrier status were assessed using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: PRS+APOE (hazard ratio [HR] 1.468, 95% CI 1.335-1.615) and PRS-APOE (HR 1.293, 95% CI 1.157-1.445) were both associated with a significantly increased risk of MCI progression to dementia. The interaction between PRS+APOE and APOE ε4 carrier status was significant with a P-value of 0.0378. The association of PRSs with the progression risk was stronger in APOE ε4 non-carriers (PRS+APOE: HR 1.710, 95% CI 1.244-2.351; PRS-APOE: HR 1.429, 95% CI 1.182-1.728) than in APOE ε4 carriers (PRS+APOE: HR 1.167, 95% CI 1.005-1.355; PRS-APOE: HR 1.172, 95% CI 1.020-1.346). CONCLUSIONS: PRS could predict the conversion of MCI to dementia with a stronger association in APOE ε4 non-carriers than APOE ε4 carriers. This indicates PRS as a potential genetic predictor particularly for MCI with no APOE ε4 alleles.

15.
Brain Commun ; 3(3): fcab139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396103

RESUMO

Metabolomics in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort provides a powerful tool for mapping biochemical changes in Alzheimer's disease, and a unique opportunity to learn about the association between circulating blood metabolites and brain amyloid-ß deposition in Alzheimer's disease. We examined 140 serum metabolites and their associations with brain amyloid-ß deposition, cognition and conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Processed [18F] Florbetapir PET images were used to perform a voxel-wise statistical analysis of the effect of metabolite levels on amyloid-ß accumulation across the whole brain. We performed a multivariable regression analysis using age, sex, body mass index, apolipoprotein E ε4 status and study phase as covariates. We identified nine metabolites as significantly associated with amyloid-ß deposition after multiple comparison correction. Higher levels of one acylcarnitine (C3; propionylcarnitine) and one biogenic amine (kynurenine) were associated with decreased amyloid-ß accumulation and higher memory scores. However, higher levels of seven phosphatidylcholines (lysoPC a C18:2, PC aa C42:0, PC ae C42:3, PC ae C44:3, PC ae C44:4, PC ae C44:5 and PC ae C44:6) were associated with increased brain amyloid-ß deposition. In addition, higher levels of PC ae C44:4 were significantly associated with lower memory and executive function scores and conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease dementia. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of peripheral phosphatidylcholine metabolism is associated with earlier pathological changes noted in Alzheimer's disease as measured by brain amyloid-ß deposition as well as later clinical features including changes in memory and executive functioning. Perturbations in phosphatidylcholine metabolism may point to issues with membrane restructuring leading to the accumulation of amyloid-ß in the brain. Additional studies are needed to explore whether these metabolites play a causal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease or if they are biomarkers for systemic changes during preclinical phases of the disease.

17.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(11): 1692-1699, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351358

RESUMO

Importance: The practice of oncology will increasingly involve the care of a growing population of individuals with midlife and late-life cancers. Managing cancer in these individuals is complex, based on differences in biological age at diagnosis. Biological age is a measure of accumulated life course damage to biological systems, loss of reserve, and vulnerability to functional deterioration and death. Biological age is important because it affects the ability to manage the rigors of cancer therapy, survivors' function, and cancer progression. However, biological age is not always clinically apparent. This review presents a conceptual framework of life course biological aging, summarizes candidate measures, and describes a research agenda to facilitate clinical translation to oncology practice. Observations: Midlife and late-life cancers are chronic diseases that may arise from cumulative patterns of biological aging occurring over the life course. Before diagnosis, each new patient was on a distinct course of biological aging related to past exposures, life experiences, genetics, and noncancer chronic disease. Cancer and its treatments may also be associated with biological aging. Several measures of biological age, including p16INK4a, epigenetic age, telomere length, and inflammatory and body composition markers, have been used in oncology research. One or more of these measures may be useful in cancer care, either alone or in combination with clinical history and geriatric assessments. However, further research will be needed before biological age assessment can be recommended in routine practice, including determination of situations in which knowledge about biological age would change treatment, ascertaining whether treatment effects on biological aging are short-lived or persistent, and testing interventions to modify biological age, decrease treatment toxic effects, and maintain functional abilities. Conclusions and Relevance: Understanding differences in biological aging could ultimately allow clinicians to better personalize treatment and supportive care, develop tailored survivorship care plans, and prescribe preventive or ameliorative therapies and behaviors informed by aging mechanisms.

19.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 17(9): 545-563, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285392

RESUMO

The pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) damages structural and functional brain networks, resulting in cognitive impairment. The results of recent connectomics studies have now linked changes in structural and functional network organization in AD to the patterns of amyloid-ß and tau accumulation and spread, providing insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of the disease. In addition, the detection of gene-related connectome changes might aid in the early diagnosis of AD and facilitate the development of personalized therapeutic strategies that are effective at earlier stages of the disease spectrum. In this article, we review studies of the associations between connectome changes and amyloid-ß and tau pathologies as well as molecular genetics in different subtypes and stages of AD. We also highlight the utility of connectome-derived computational models for replicating empirical findings and for tracking and predicting the progression of biomarker-indicated AD pathophysiology.

20.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 13(1): e12197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258377

RESUMO

Introduction: Asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (DIAD-MC) are ideal candidates for preventative treatment trials aimed at delaying or preventing dementia onset. Brain atrophy is an early feature of DIAD-MC and could help predict risk for dementia during trial enrollment. Methods: We created a dementia risk score by entering standardized gray-matter volumes from 231 DIAD-MC into a logistic regression to classify participants with and without dementia. The score's predictive utility was assessed using Cox models and receiver operating curves on a separate group of 65 DIAD-MC followed longitudinally. Results: Our risk score separated asymptomatic versus demented DIAD-MC with 96.4% (standard error = 0.02) and predicted conversion to dementia at next visit (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.15, 1.49]) and within 2 years (area under the curve = 90.3%, 95% CI [82.3%-98.2%]) and improved prediction beyond established methods based on familial age of onset. Discussion: Individualized risk scores based on brain atrophy could be useful for establishing enrollment criteria and stratifying DIAD-MC participants for prevention trials.

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