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1.
Metabolites ; 11(3)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668370

RESUMO

The identification of patients at high-risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence remains an unmet clinical need. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of metabolites with risk of recurrence in stage II/III CRC patients. A targeted metabolomics assay (128 metabolites measured) was performed on pre-surgery collected EDTA plasma samples from n = 440 newly diagnosed stage II/III CRC patients. Patients have been recruited from four prospective cohort studies as part of an international consortium: Metabolomic profiles throughout the continuum of CRC (MetaboCCC). Cox proportional hazard models were computed to investigate associations of metabolites with recurrence, adjusted for age, sex, tumor stage, tumor site, body mass index, and cohort; false discovery rate (FDR) was used to account for multiple testing. Sixty-nine patients (15%) had a recurrence after a median follow-up time of 20 months. We identified 13 metabolites that were nominally associated with a reduced risk of recurrence. None of the associations were statistically significant after controlling for multiple testing. Pathway topology analyses did not reveal statistically significant associations between recurrence and alterations in metabolic pathways (e.g., sphingolipid metabolism p = 0.04; pFDR = 1.00). To conclude, we did not observe statistically significant associations between metabolites and CRC recurrence using a well-established metabolomics assay. The observed results require follow-up in larger studies.

2.
Metabolites ; 11(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669644

RESUMO

Sporadic colorectal cancer is characterized by a multistep progression from normal epithelium to precancerous low-risk and high-risk adenomas to invasive cancer. Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis are not completely understood. Within the "Metabolomic profiles throughout the continuum of colorectal cancer" (MetaboCCC) consortium we analyzed data generated by untargeted, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics using plasma from 88 colorectal cancer patients, 200 patients with high-risk adenomas and 200 patients with low-risk adenomas recruited within the "Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria" (CORSA). Univariate logistic regression models comparing colorectal cancer to adenomas resulted in 442 statistically significant molecular features. Metabolites discriminating colorectal cancer patients from those with adenomas in our dataset included acylcarnitines, caffeine, amino acids, glycerophospholipids, fatty acids, bilirubin, bile acids and bacterial metabolites of tryptophan. The data obtained discovers metabolite profiles reflecting metabolic differences between colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas and delineates a potentially underlying biological interpretation.

3.
Metabolites ; 11(2)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672542

RESUMO

Metabolomics may help to elucidate mechanisms underlying diet-disease relationships and identify novel risk factors for disease. To inform the design and interpretation of such research, evidence on diet-metabolite associations and cross-assay comparisons is needed. We aimed to compare nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolite profiles between meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans, and to compare NMR measurements to those from mass spectrometry (MS), clinical chemistry and capillary gas-liquid chromatography (GC). We quantified 207 serum NMR metabolite measures in 286 male participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we found that metabolite profiles varied by diet group, especially for vegans; the main differences compared to meat-eaters were lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid, total n-3 and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides in very-low-density lipoproteins, various lipid factions in high-density lipoprotein, sphingomyelins, tyrosine and creatinine, and higher levels of linoleic acid, total n-6, polyunsaturated fatty acids and alanine. Levels in fish-eaters and vegetarians differed by metabolite measure. Concentrations of 13 metabolites measured using both NMR and MS, clinical chemistry or GC were mostly similar. In summary, vegans' metabolite profiles were markedly different to those of men consuming animal products. The studied metabolomics platforms are complementary, with limited overlap between metabolite classes.

4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(7): e2001141, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592132

RESUMO

SCOPE: Processed meat intake has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, little is known about the type of processed meat more particularly responsible for these effects. This study aims to identify novel biomarkers for processed meat intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a controlled randomized cross-over dietary intervention study, 12 healthy volunteers consume different processed and non-processed meats for 3 consecutive days each. Metabolomics analyses are applied on post-intervention fasting blood and urine samples to identify discriminating molecular features of processed meat intake. Nine and five pepper alkaloid metabolites, including piperine, are identified as major discriminants of salami intake in urine and plasma, respectively. The associations with processed meat intake are tested for replication in a cross-sectional study (n = 418) embedded within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Three of the serum metabolites including piperine are associated with habitual intake of sausages and to a lesser extent of total processed meat. CONCLUSION: Pepper alkaloids are major discriminants of intake for sausages that contain high levels of pepper used as ingredient. Further work is needed to assess if pepper alkaloids in combination with other metabolites may serve as biomarkers of processed meat intake.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Emerging evidence suggests that diet is linked to survival in colorectal cancer patients, although underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary exposures are associated with metabolite concentrations in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Concentrations of 134 metabolites of the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit were quantified in plasma samples collected at diagnosis from 195 stage I-IV colorectal cancer patients. Food frequency questionnaires were used to calculate adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) dietary recommendations and the Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD15) index as well as to construct dietary patterns using Principal Component Analysis. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine associations between dietary exposures and metabolite concentrations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, analytical batch, cancer stage, and multiple testing using false discovery rate. RESULTS: Participants had a mean (SD) age of 66 (9) years, were mostly men (60%), and mostly diagnosed with stage II and III cancer. For the dietary pattern analyses, Western, Carnivore, and Prudent patterns were identified. Better adherence to the WCRF dietary recommendations was associated with lower concentrations of ten phosphatidylcholines. Higher intake of the Carnivore pattern was associated with higher concentrations of two phosphatidylcholines. The DHD15-index, Western pattern, or Prudent pattern were not associated with metabolite concentrations. CONCLUSION: In the current study, the WCRF dietary score and the Carnivore pattern are associated with phosphatidylcholines. Future research should elucidate the potential relevance of phosphatidylcholine metabolism in the colorectal cancer continuum. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03191110.

6.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574093

RESUMO

Increasing evidence points to a role for inflammation in lung carcinogenesis. A small number of circulating inflammatory proteins have been identified as showing elevated levels prior to lung cancer diagnosis, indicating the potential for prospective circulating protein concentration as a marker of early carcinogenesis. In order to identify novel markers of lung cancer risk, we measured a panel of 92 circulating inflammatory proteins in 648 pre-diagnostic blood samples from two prospective cohorts in Italy and Norway (women only). To preserve the comparability of results and protect against confounding factors, the main statistical analyses were conducted in women from both studies, with replication sought in men (Italian participants). Univariate and penalized regression models revealed for the first time higher blood levels of CDCP1 protein in cases that went on to develop lung cancer compared to controls, irrespective of time to diagnosis, smoking habits, and gender. This association was validated in an additional 450 samples. Associations were stronger for future cases of adenocarcinoma where CDCP1 showed better explanatory performance. Integrative analyses combining gene expression and protein levels CDCP1 measured in the same individuals suggested a link between CDCP1 and the expression of transcripts of LRRN3 and SEM1. Enrichment analyses indicated a potential role for CDCP1 in pathways related to cell adhesion and mobility, such as the WNT/ß-catenin pathway. Overall, this study identifies lung cancer-related dysregulation of CDCP1 expression years before diagnosis.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530330

RESUMO

We investigated associations of habitual dietary intake with the taxonomic composition and diversity of the human gut microbiota in 222 Koreans aged 18-58 years in a cross-sectional study. Gut microbiota data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing on DNA extracted from fecal samples. The habitual diet for the previous year was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. After multivariable adjustment, intake of several food groups including vegetables, fermented legumes, legumes, dairy products, processed meat, and non-alcoholic beverages were associated with major phyla of the gut microbiota. A dietary pattern related to higher α-diversity (HiαDP) derived by reduced rank regression was characterized by higher intakes of fermented legumes, vegetables, seaweeds, and nuts/seeds and lower intakes of non-alcoholic beverages. The HiαDP was positively associated with several genera of Firmicutes such as Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium (all p < 0.05). Among enterotypes identified by principal coordinate analysis based on the ß-diversity, the Ruminococcus enterotype had higher HiαDP scores and was strongly positively associated with intakes of vegetables, seaweeds, and nuts/seeds, compared to the two other enterotypes. We conclude that a plant- and fermented food-based diet was positively associated with some genera of Firmicutes (e.g., Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium) reflecting better gut microbial health.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5,738 cancer-free EPIC participants with metabolomics data. Partial least squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1,608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of elevated odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were more strongly inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR 0.51 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR 0.62 per unit change, 95% CI 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.93 per unit change, 95% CI 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared to female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of nutrition in the primary prevention of peripheral artery disease (PAD), the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is undetermined. Flavonoids may attenuate atherosclerosis and therefore persons who consume flavonoid-rich foods may have a lower risk of developing PAD. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association between flavonoid intake and PAD hospitalizations and investigate if the association differs according to established risk factors for PAD. METHODS: Baseline data from 55,647 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study without PAD, recruited from 1993 to 1997, were cross-linked with Danish nationwide registries. Flavonoid intake was calculated from FFQs using the Phenol-Explorer database. Associations were examined using multivariable-adjusted restricted cubic splines based on Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After a median [IQR] follow-up time of 21 [20-22] y, 2131 participants had been hospitalized for any PAD. The association between total flavonoid intake and total PAD hospitalizations was nonlinear, reaching a plateau at ∼750-1000 mg/d. Compared with the median flavonoid intake in quintile 1 (174 mg/d), an intake of 1000 mg/d was associated with a 32% lower risk of any PAD hospitalization (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.77), a 26% lower risk of atherosclerosis (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.88), a 28% lower risk of an aneurysm (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88), and a 47% lower risk of a hospitalization for other peripheral vascular disease (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.67). A higher total flavonoid intake was also significantly associated with a lower incidence of revascularization or endovascular surgery and lower extremity amputation. The association between total flavonoid intake and PAD hospitalizations differed according to baseline smoking status, alcohol intake, BMI, and diabetes status. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring the adequate consumption of flavonoid-rich foods, particularly in subpopulations prone to the development of atherosclerosis, may be a key strategy to lower the risk of PAD.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are natural compounds with anticarcinogenic properties in cellular and animal models, but epidemiological evidence determining the associations of these compounds with thyroid cancer (TC) is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between blood concentrations of 36 polyphenols and TC risk in EPIC (the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted on 273 female cases (210 papillary, 45 follicular, and 18 not otherwise specified TC tumors) and 512 strictly matched controls. Blood polyphenol concentrations were analyzed by HPLC coupled to tandem MS after enzymatic hydrolysis. RESULTS: Using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, caffeic acid (ORlog2: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.93) and its dehydrogenated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (ORlog2: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.99), were inversely associated with differentiated TC risk. Similar results were observed for papillary TC, but not for follicular TC. Ferulic acid was also inversely associated only with papillary TC (ORlog2: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91). However, none of these relations was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. No association was observed for any of the remaining polyphenols with total differentiated, papillary, or follicular TC. CONCLUSIONS: Blood polyphenol concentrations were mostly not associated with differentiated TC risk in women, although our study raises the possibility that high blood concentrations of caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic, and ferulic acids may be related to a lower papillary TC risk.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14502-14513, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124810

RESUMO

Mechanisms underlying adverse birth and later in life health effects from exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period have not been not fully elucidated, especially in the context of mixtures. We assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to mixtures of air pollutants of particulate matter (PM), PM2.5, PM10, nitrogen oxides, NO2, NOx, ultrafine particles (UFP), and oxidative potential (OP) of PM2.5 on infant birthweight in four European birth cohorts and the mechanistic underpinnings through cross-omics of metabolites and inflammatory proteins. The association between mixtures of air pollutants and birthweight z-scores (standardized for gestational age) was assessed for three different mixture models, using Bayesian machine kernel regression (BKMR). We determined the direct effect for PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and mediation by cross-omic signatures (identified using sparse partial least-squares regression) using causal mediation BKMR models. There was a negative association with birthweight z-scores and exposure to mixtures of air pollutants, where up to -0.21 or approximately a 96 g decrease in birthweight, comparing the 75th percentile to the median level of exposure to the air pollutant mixture could occur. Shifts in birthweight z-scores from prenatal exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were mediated by molecular mechanisms, represented by cross-omics scores. Interleukin-17 and epidermal growth factor were identified as important inflammatory responses underlyingair pollution-associated shifts in birthweight. Our results signify that by identifying mechanisms through which mixtures of air pollutants operate, the causality of air pollution-associated shifts in birthweight is better supported, substantiating the need for reducing exposure in vulnerable populations.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(4): 1051-1068, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936878

RESUMO

There is a lack of focus on the protective health effects of phytochemicals in dietary guidelines. Although a number of chemical libraries and databases contain dietary phytochemicals belonging to the plant metabolome, they are not entirely relevant to human health because many constituents are extensively metabolized within the body following ingestion. This is especially apparent for the highly abundant dietary (poly)phenols, for which the situation is compounded by confusion regarding their bioavailability and metabolism, partially because of the variety of nomenclatures and trivial names used to describe compounds arising from microbial catabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. This confusion, which is perpetuated in online chemical/metabolite databases, will hinder future discovery of bioactivities and affect the establishment of future dietary guidelines if steps are not taken to overcome these issues. In order to resolve this situation, a nomenclature system for phenolic catabolites and their human phase II metabolites is proposed in this article and the basis of its format outlined. Previous names used in the literature are cited along with the recommended nomenclature, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry terminology, and, where appropriate, Chemical Abstracts Service numbers, InChIKey, and accurate mass.


Assuntos
Dieta , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Terminologia como Assunto , Humanos , Isomerismo , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem
13.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734650

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed for N1-acetylspermidine, isatin, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine, l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.

14.
Metabolites ; 10(7)2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635215

RESUMO

The intake of processed meat has been associated with several adverse health outcomes such as type II diabetes and cancer; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. A better knowledge of the metabolite profiles of different processed and non-processed meat products from this heterogeneous food group could help in elucidating the mechanisms associated with these health effects. Thirty-three different commercial samples of ten processed and non-processed meat products were digested in triplicate with a standardized static in vitro digestion method in order to mimic profiles of small molecules formed in the gut upon digestion. A metabolomics approach based on high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify metabolite profiles specific to the various meat products. Processed meat products showed metabolite profiles clearly distinct from those of non-processed meat. Several discriminant features related to either specific ingredients or processing methods were identified. Those were, in particular, syringol compounds deposited in meat during smoking, biogenic amines formed during meat fermentation and piperine and related compounds characteristic of pepper used as an ingredient. These metabolites, characteristic of specific processed meat products, might be used as potential biomarkers of intake for these foods. They may also help in understanding the mechanisms linking processed meat intake and adverse health outcomes such as cancer.

15.
Food Funct ; 11(8): 6777-6806, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725042

RESUMO

There is an accumulating body of literature reporting on dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in prospective cohort studies. This makes apparent the need for an overview and update on the current state of the science. To date, at least 27 prospective cohorts (in 44 publications) have evaluated the association between estimated habitual flavonoid intake and CVD risk. At this time, the totality of evidence suggests long-term consumption of flavonoid-rich foods may be associated with a lower risk of fatal and non-fatal ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease, and total CVD; disease outcomes which are principally, though not exclusively, composed of cases of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). To date, few studies have investigated outcome specific ASCVD, such as peripheral artery disease (PAD) or ischemic stroke. Of the flavonoid subclasses investigated, evidence more often implicates diets rich in anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols in lowering the risk of CVD. Although inferences are restricted by confounding and other inherent limitations of observational studies, causality appears possible based on biological plausibility, temporality, and the relative consistency of the reported associations. However, whether the associations observed represent a benefit of the isolated bioactives per se, or are a signal of the bioactives acting in concert with the co-occurring nutrient matrix within flavonoid-bearing foods, are issues of consideration. Thus, the simple interpretation, and the one most relevant for dietary advice, is that consumption of flavonoid-rich foods or diets higher in flavonoids, appear nutritionally beneficial in the prevention of CVD.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 1856-1868, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727720

RESUMO

The microbiome has been hypothesized to play a role in cancer development. Because of the diversity of published data, an overview of available epidemiologic evidence linking the microbiome with cancer is now needed. We conducted a systematic review using a tailored search strategy in Medline and EMBASE databases to identify and summarize the current epidemiologic literature on the relationship between the microbiome and different cancer outcomes published until December 2019. We identified 124 eligible articles. The large diversity of parameters used to describe microbial composition made it impossible to harmonize the different studies in a way that would allow meta-analysis, therefore only a qualitative description of results could be performed. Fifty studies reported differences in the gut microbiome between patients with colorectal cancer and various control groups. The most consistent findings were for Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, and Peptostreptococcus being significantly enriched in fecal and mucosal samples from patients with colorectal cancer. For the oral microbiome, significantly increased and decreased abundance was reported for Fusobacterium and Streptococcus, respectively, in patients with oral cancer compared with controls. Overall, although there was a large amount of evidence for some of these alterations, most require validation in high-quality, preferably prospective, epidemiologic studies.

17.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(10): 817-828, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655010

RESUMO

Obesity and obesity-driven cancer rates are continuing to rise worldwide. We hypothesize that adipocyte-colonocyte interactions are a key driver of obesity-associated cancers. To understand the clinical relevance of visceral adipose tissue in advancing tumor growth, we analyzed paired tumor-adjacent visceral adipose, normal mucosa, and colorectal tumor tissues as well as presurgery blood samples from patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. We report that high peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) visceral adipose tissue expression is associated with glycoprotein VI (GPVI) signaling-the major signaling receptor for collagen-as well as fibrosis and adipogenesis pathway signaling in colorectal tumors. These associations were supported by correlations between PPARG visceral adipose tissue expression and circulating levels of plasma 4-hydroxyproline and serum intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), as well as gene set enrichment analysis and joint gene-metabolite pathway results integration that yielded significant enrichment of genes defining epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-as in fibrosis and metastasis-and genes involved in glycolytic metabolism, confirmed this association. We also reveal that elevated prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) colorectal tumor expression is associated with a fibrotic signature in adipose-tumor crosstalk via GPVI signaling and dendritic cell maturation in visceral adipose tissue. Systemic metabolite and biomarker profiling confirmed that high PTGS2 expression in colorectal tumors is significantly associated with higher concentrations of serum amyloid A and glycine, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelin, in patients with colorectal cancer. This multi-omics study suggests that adipose-tumor crosstalk in patients with colorectal cancer is a critical microenvironment interaction that could be therapeutically targeted.See related spotlight by Colacino et al., p. 803.

18.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1057-1067, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710289

RESUMO

Citrus intake has been suggested to increase the risk of skin cancer. Although this relation is highly plausible biologically, epidemiologic evidence is lacking. We aimed to examine the potential association between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. EPIC is an ongoing multi-center prospective cohort initiated in 1992 and involving ~ 520,000 participants who have been followed-up in 23 centers from 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up of 13.7 years, 8448 skin cancer cases were identified among 270,112 participants. We observed a positive linear dose-response relationship between total citrus intake and skin cancer risk (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18 in the highest vs. lowest quartile; Ptrend = 0.001), particularly with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20, Ptrend = 0.007) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47, Ptrend = 0.01). Citrus fruit intake was positively associated with skin cancer risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, Ptrend = 0.01), particularly with melanoma (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48; Ptrend = 0.01), although with no heterogeneity across skin cancer types (Phomogeneity = 0.21). Citrus juice was positively associated with skin cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.004), particularly with BCC (Ptrend = 0.008) and SCC (Ptrend = 0.004), but not with melanoma (Phomogeneity = 0.02). Our study suggests moderate positive linear dose-response relationships between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. Studies with available biomarker data and the ability to examine sun exposure behaviors are warranted to clarify these associations and examine the phototoxicity mechanisms of furocoumarin-rich foods.

19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 381-388, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acylcarnitines (ACs) play a major role in fatty acid metabolism and are potential markers of metabolic dysfunction with higher blood concentrations reported in obese and diabetic individuals. Diet, and in particular red and processed meat intake, has been shown to influence AC concentrations but data on the effect of meat consumption on AC concentrations is limited. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of red and processed meat intake on AC concentrations in plasma and urine using a randomized controlled trial with replication in an observational cohort. METHODS: In the randomized crossover trial, 12 volunteers successively consumed 2 different diets containing either pork or tofu for 3 d each. A panel of 44 ACs including several oxidized ACs was analyzed by LC-MS in plasma and urine samples collected after the 3-d period. ACs that were associated with pork intake were then measured in urine (n = 474) and serum samples (n = 451) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study and tested for associations with habitual red and processed meat intake derived from dietary questionnaires. RESULTS: In urine samples from the intervention study, pork intake was positively associated with concentrations of 18 short- and medium-chain ACs. Eleven of these were also positively associated with habitual red and processed meat intake in the EPIC cross-sectional study. In blood, C18:0 was positively associated with red meat intake in both the intervention study (q = 0.004, Student's t-test) and the cross-sectional study (q = 0.033, linear regression). CONCLUSIONS: AC concentrations in urine and blood were associated with red meat intake in both a highly controlled intervention study and in subjects of a cross-sectional study. Our data on the role of meat intake on this important pathway of fatty acid and energy metabolism may help understanding the role of red meat consumption in the etiology of some chronic diseases. This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03354130.


Assuntos
Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Produtos da Carne/análise , Adulto , Animais , Carnitina/sangue , Carnitina/química , Carnitina/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Estudos Prospectivos , Suínos
20.
Food Chem ; 330: 127317, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569934

RESUMO

Fermentation may enhance the nutritional properties of foods by increasing metabolite bioactivity or bioavailability. This study explored the effect of fermentation on isoflavone bioavailability and metabolism. Isoflavone metabolites were tracked in foods and biospecimens of healthy adults after fermented soybean (FS) or non-fermented soybean (NFS) consumption in a randomized, controlled, crossover intervention study. The change in soybean isoflavones caused by fermentation resulted in faster absorption and higher bioavailability after consumption of FS. Although the urinary level of total isoflavone metabolites was similar after the consumption of the two diets, urinary genistein 7-O-sulfate was derived as a discriminant metabolite for the FS diet by partial least squares discriminant analysis. This study suggests that an isoflavone conjugate profile might be a more appropriate marker than total isoflavone levels for discriminating between the consumption of FS and NFS diets.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/farmacocinética , Soja/metabolismo , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Dieta , Feminino , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Genisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoflavonas/sangue , Isoflavonas/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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