Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 209
Filtrar
1.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054767

RESUMO

The underlying biological mechanisms causing persistent fatigue complaints after colorectal cancer treatment need further investigation. We investigated longitudinal associations of circulating concentrations of 138 metabolites with total fatigue and subdomains of fatigue between 6 weeks and 2 years after colorectal cancer treatment. Among stage I-III colorectal cancer survivors (n = 252), blood samples were obtained at 6 weeks, and 6, 12 and 24 months posttreatment. Total fatigue and fatigue subdomains were measured using a validated questionnaire. Tandem mass spectrometry was applied to measure metabolite concentrations (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQp180 kit). Confounder-adjusted longitudinal associations were analyzed using linear mixed models, with false discovery rate (FDR) correction. We assessed interindividual (between-participant differences) and intraindividual longitudinal associations (within-participant changes over time). In the overall longitudinal analysis, statistically significant associations were observed for 12, 32, 17 and three metabolites with total fatigue and the subscales "fatigue severity," "reduced motivation" and "reduced activity," respectively. Specifically, higher concentrations of several amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, diacylphosphatidylcholines, acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins were associated with less fatigue, while higher concentrations of acylcarnitines were associated with more fatigue. For "fatigue severity," associations appeared mainly driven by intraindividual associations, while for "reduced motivation" stronger interindividual associations were found. We observed longitudinal associations of several metabolites with total fatigue and fatigue subscales, and that intraindividual changes in metabolites over time were associated with fatigue severity. These findings point toward inflammation and an impaired energy metabolism due to mitochondrial dysfunction as underlying mechanisms. Mechanistic studies are necessary to determine whether these metabolites could be targets for intervention.

2.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(165)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948392

RESUMO

Previous studies have explored the relationships of air pollution and metabolic profiles with lung function. However, the metabolites linking air pollution and lung function and the associated mechanisms have not been reviewed from a life-course perspective. Here, we provide a narrative review summarising recent evidence on the associations of metabolic profiles with air pollution exposure and lung function in children and adults. Twenty-six studies identified through a systematic PubMed search were included with 10 studies analysing air pollution-related metabolic profiles and 16 studies analysing lung function-related metabolic profiles. A wide range of metabolites were associated with short- and long-term exposure, partly overlapping with those linked to lung function in the general population and with respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD. The existing studies show that metabolomics offers the potential to identify biomarkers linked to both environmental exposures and respiratory outcomes, but many studies suffer from small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, a preponderance on adult lung function, heterogeneity in exposure assessment, lack of confounding control and omics integration. The ongoing EXposome Powered tools for healthy living in urbAN Settings (EXPANSE) project aims to address some of these shortcomings by combining biospecimens from large European cohorts and harmonised air pollution exposure and exposome data.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Material Particulado
3.
Clin Nutr ; 41(9): 1950-1960, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiological studies that assessed the associations between dietary polyphenol intakes and colon cancer risk have reported largely null results, possibly due to measurement error associated with dietary assessment. We adopted an objective approach by measuring prediagnostic plasma concentrations of 35 polyphenols and assessing associations with colon cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested-case control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC Study) utilizing plasma samples collected at the time of a five-year follow-up survey between 1995 and 1999. We identified colon cancer cases who developed cancer during the follow-up from the time of blood collection. Controls were matched by age, sex, area code, population size of the area, season of blood collection, year of blood collection, and duration of fasting time before the blood collection. Prediagnostic concentrations of 35 polyphenols from 375 incident colon cancer cases (followed until 2012) and 710 matched controls were measured by tandem mass spectrometry coupled with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models adjusted for established colon cancer risk factors to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: In sexes combined log2-transformed multivariable models, circulating levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (P = 0.02), ferulic acid (P = 0.02), and caffeic acid (P = 0.03) were inversely, and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (P = 0.03) was positively, associated with colon cancer risk. For men only, circulating levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid was inversely, and 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid, gallic acid, (+)-epigallocatechin, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, and epicatechin were positively, associated with colon cancer risk. In women, plasma caffeic acid and ferulic acid concentration were inversely associated with colon cancer risk. However, all these associations were nonsignificant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The remaining polyphenols were not associated with colon cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Coffee-derived 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid concentrations were inversely associated with colon cancer risk although the association were nonsignificant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. These results support a possible role of coffee polyphenols in preventing colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Polifenóis , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Café , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated longitudinal associations of sedentary behavior, light-intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with body composition in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, between 6 weeks and 24 months post treatment. In addition, we explored whether body composition mediated associations of sedentary behavior and MVPA with fatigue. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 459 stage I-III CRC patients recruited at diagnosis. Measurements were performed of accelerometer-assessed sedentary time (hours/day), self-reported LPA and MVPA (hours/week), anthropometric assessment of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fat percentage (measures of adiposity), and muscle circumference and handgrip strength (measures of muscle mass/function) repeated at 6 weeks, and 6, 12 and 24 months post treatment. Longitudinal associations of sedentary time and physical activity with body composition were analyzed using confounder-adjusted linear mixed models. Mediation analyses were performed to explore the role of body mass index (BMI) and handgrip strength as mediators in associations of sedentary time and MVPA with fatigue. RESULTS: Less sedentary time and LPA were, independent of MVPA, longitudinally associated with increased handgrip strength, but not with measures of adiposity. More MVPA was associated with increased adiposity and increased handgrip strength. Higher BMI partly mediated associations between higher sedentary time and more fatigue. CONCLUSION: Within the first two years after CRC treatment, changes in sedentary behavior, physical activity and body composition are interrelated and associated with fatigue. Intervention studies are warranted to investigate causality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The EnCoRe study is registered at trialregister.nl as NL6904 (former ID: NTR7099).

5.
Clin Nutr ; 41(8): 1735-1745, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Circulating levels of acylcarnitines (ACs) have been associated with the risk of various diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. Diet and lifestyle factors have been shown to influence AC concentrations but a better understanding of their biological, lifestyle and metabolic determinants is needed. METHODS: Circulating ACs were measured in blood by targeted (15 ACs) and untargeted metabolomics (50 ACs) in 7770 and 395 healthy participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), respectively. Associations with biological and lifestyle characteristics, dietary patterns, self-reported intake of individual foods, estimated intake of carnitine and fatty acids, and fatty acids in plasma phospholipid fraction and amino acids in blood were assessed. RESULTS: Age, sex and fasting status were associated with the largest proportion of AC variability (partial-r up to 0.19, 0.18 and 0.16, respectively). Some AC species of medium or long-chain fatty acid moiety were associated with the corresponding fatty acids in plasma (partial-r = 0.24) or with intake of specific foods such as dairy foods containing the same fatty acid. ACs of short-chain fatty acid moiety (propionylcarnitine and valerylcarnitine) were moderately associated with concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (partial-r = 0.5). Intake of most other foods and of carnitine showed little association with AC levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that determinants of ACs in blood vary according to their fatty acid moiety, and that their concentrations are related to age, sex, diet, and fasting status. Knowledge on their potential determinants may help interpret associations of ACs with disease risk and inform on potential dietary and lifestyle factors that might be modified for disease prevention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 116(2): 511-522, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported meat consumption is associated with disease risk but objective assessment of different dimensions of this heterogeneous dietary exposure in observational and interventional studies remains challenging. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to derive and validate scores based on plasma metabolites for types of meat consumption. For the most predictive score, we aimed to test whether the included metabolites varied with change in meat consumption, and whether the score was associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other noncommunicable diseases. METHODS: We derived scores based on 781 plasma metabolites for red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption assessed with 7-d food records among 11,432 participants in the EPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk) cohort. The scores were then tested for internal validity in an independent subset (n = 853) of the same cohort. In focused analysis on the red meat metabolite score, we examined whether the metabolites constituting the score were also associated with meat intake in a randomized crossover dietary intervention trial of meat (n = 12, Lyon, France). In the EPIC-Norfolk study, we assessed the association of the red meat metabolite score with T2D incidence (n = 1478) and other health endpoints. RESULTS: The best-performing score was for red meat, comprising 139 metabolites which accounted for 17% of the explained variance of red meat consumption in the validation set. In the intervention, 11 top-ranked metabolites in the red meat metabolite score increased significantly after red meat consumption. In the EPIC-Norfolk study, the red meat metabolite score was associated with T2D incidence (adjusted HR per SD: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.24). CONCLUSIONS: The red meat metabolite score derived and validated in this study contains metabolites directly derived from meat consumption and is associated with T2D risk. These findings suggest the potential for objective assessment of dietary components and their application for understanding diet-disease associations.The trial in Lyon, France, was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03354130.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Carne Vermelha , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Humanos , Carne , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(9): 1683-1692, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732488

RESUMO

Endogenous and exogenous metabolite concentrations may be susceptible to variation over time. This variability can lead to misclassification of exposure levels and in turn to biased results. To assess the reproducibility of metabolites, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is computed. A literature search in three databases from 2000 to May 2021 was conducted to identify studies reporting ICCs for blood and urine metabolites. This review includes 192 studies, of which 31 studies are included in the meta-analyses. The ICCs of 359 single metabolites are reported, and the ICCs of 10 metabolites were meta-analyzed. The reproducibility of the single metabolites ranges from poor to excellent and is highly compound-dependent. The reproducibility of bisphenol A (BPA), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), methylparaben, and propylparaben is poor to moderate (ICC median: 0.32; range: 0.15-0.49), and for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], it is excellent (ICC: 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99). Pharmacokinetics, mainly the half-life of elimination and exposure patterns, can explain reproducibility. This review describes the reproducibility of the blood and urine exposome, provides a vast dataset of ICC estimates, and hence constitutes a valuable resource for future reproducibility and clinical epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(7): 1384-1393, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying childhood overweight and obesity are poorly known. Here, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of different prenatal exposures on offspring rapid postnatal growth and overweight in childhood, mediated through cord blood metabolites. Additionally, rapid postnatal growth was considered a potential mediator on childhood overweight, alone and sequentially to each metabolite. METHODS: Within four European birth-cohorts (N = 375 mother-child dyads), information on seven prenatal exposures (maternal education, pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain and tobacco smoke during pregnancy, age at delivery, parity, and child gestational age), selected as obesogenic according to a-priori knowledge, was collected. Cord blood levels of 31 metabolites, associated with rapid postnatal growth and/or childhood overweight in a previous study, were measured via liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry. Rapid growth at 12 months and childhood overweight (including obesity) between four and eight years were defined with reference to WHO growth charts. Single mediation analysis was performed using the imputation approach and multiple mediation analysis using the extended-imputation approach. RESULTS: Single mediation suggested that the effect of maternal education, pregnancy weight gain, parity, and gestational age on rapid postnatal growth but not on childhood overweight was partly mediated by seven metabolites, including cholestenone, decenoylcarnitine(C10:1), phosphatidylcholine(C34:3), progesterone and three unidentified metabolites; and the effect of gestational age on childhood overweight was mainly mediated by rapid postnatal growth. Multiple mediation suggested that the effect of gestational age on childhood overweight was mainly mediated by rapid postnatal growth and that the mediating role of the metabolites was marginal. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence of the involvement of in utero metabolism in the propensity to rapid postnatal growth and of rapid postnatal growth in the propensity to childhood overweight. We did not find evidence supporting a mediating role of the studied metabolites alone between the studied prenatal exposures and the propensity to childhood overweight.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Aumento de Peso
9.
Metabolites ; 12(2)2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35208201

RESUMO

Fruit and vegetables (FV) are part of a healthy diet and should be frequently consumed already at a young age. However, intake of FV is difficult to assess in children and adolescents due to various misreporting aspects. Thus, measurement of dietary biomarkers may be a promising alternative to assess FV intake more objectively at young age. To date, dietary biomarkers have been primarily studied in adults, and research focused on their usefulness in children is scarce. However, clinical studies have revealed important differences between children and adults, most importantly in their gut microbiome composition, resulting in differences in postprandial metabolism, as well as in food choices and meal compositions that may influence individual biomarker levels. Therefore, the present review aimed to identify biomarkers of FV intake (BFVI) currently available in children and adolescents and to explore whether there are any differences in the BFVI profile above between children and adolescents and adults. In addition, the current level of validation of BFVI in children and adolescents was examined. In total, 28 studies were eligible for this review, and 18 compounds were identified as potential biomarkers for FV intake in children and adolescents. Carotenoid concentration in skin was a valuable biomarker for total FV intake for both children and adult populations. Common BFVI in blood in adults (e.g., carotenoids and vitamin C) showed inconsistent results in children and adolescents. Biomarkers particularly useful in children included urinary hippuric acid as a biomarker of polyphenolic compound intake originating from FV and the combination of N-methylnicotinic acid and acetylornithine as a biomarker of bean intake. Further studies are needed to assess their kinetics, dose-response, and other validation aspects. There is limited evidence so far regarding valid BFVI in children and adolescents. Thus, to put BFVI into practice in children and adolescents, further studies, particularly based on metabolomics, are needed to identify and validate BFVI that can be used in future epidemiological studies.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 60(2)2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058251

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Higher flavonoid intakes are beneficially associated with pulmonary function parameters; however, their association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. This study aimed to examine associations between intakes of 1) total flavonoids, 2) flavonoid subclasses and 3) major flavonoid compounds with incident COPD in participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. METHODS: This prospective cohort included 55 413 men and women without COPD, aged 50-65 years at recruitment. Habitual flavonoid intakes at baseline were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire using Phenol-Explorer. Danish nationwide registers were used to identify incident cases of COPD. Associations were modelled using restricted cubic splines within Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 23 years of follow-up, 5557 participants were diagnosed with COPD. Of these, 4013 were current smokers, 1062 were former smokers and 482 were never-smokers. After multivariable adjustments, participants with the highest total flavonoid intakes had a 20% lower risk of COPD than those with the lowest intakes (quintile 5 versus quintile 1: HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87); a 6-22% lower risk was observed for each flavonoid subclass. The inverse association between total flavonoid intake and COPD was present in both men and women but only in current smokers (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.84) and former smokers (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.97), not never-smokers. Furthermore, higher flavonoid intakes appeared to lessen, but not negate, the higher risk of COPD associated with smoking intensity. CONCLUSION: Dietary flavonoids may be important for partially mitigating the risk of smoking-related COPD. However, smoking cessation should remain the highest priority.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes
11.
Int J Cancer ; 150(8): 1255-1268, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843121

RESUMO

Bile acids (BAs) play different roles in cancer development. Some are carcinogenic and BA signaling is also involved in various metabolic, inflammatory and immune-related processes. The liver is the primary site of BA synthesis. Liver dysfunction and microbiome compositional changes, such as during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, may modulate BA metabolism increasing concentration of carcinogenic BAs. Observations from prospective cohorts are sparse. We conducted a study (233 HCC case-control pairs) nested within a large observational prospective cohort with blood samples taken at recruitment when healthy with follow-up over time for later cancer development. A targeted metabolomics method was used to quantify 17 BAs (primary/secondary/tertiary; conjugated/unconjugated) in prediagnostic plasma. Odd ratios (OR) for HCC risk associations were calculated by multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Positive HCC risk associations were observed for the molar sum of all BAs (ORdoubling  = 2.30, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.76-3.00), and choline- and taurine-conjugated BAs. Relative concentrations of BAs showed positive HCC risk associations for glycoholic acid and most taurine-conjugated BAs. We observe an association between increased HCC risk and higher levels of major circulating BAs, from several years prior to tumor diagnosis and after multivariable adjustment for confounders and liver functionality. Increase in BA concentration is accompanied by a shift in BA profile toward higher proportions of taurine-conjugated BAs, indicating early alterations of BA metabolism with HCC development. Future studies are needed to assess BA profiles for improved stratification of patients at high HCC risk and to determine whether supplementation with certain BAs may ameliorate liver dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 73(1): 71-81, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858286

RESUMO

We evaluated the association between intake of total polyphenols, polyphenol classes and the 10 most consumed individual polyphenols with serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 749 European adolescents (53% girls; 15% overweight; 12.5-17.5 years-old) from the cross-sectional HELENA study of 2006-2007. Dietary polyphenol intake was calculated from two non-consecutive 24-h recalls matched with the Phenol-Explorer database. Multilevel linear models examined the associations between dietary polyphenols and TAC. Polyphenol intake was rather low (median = 321mg/day; p25 = 158; p75 = 536) and TAC was comparable to other literature findings (median = 1.57 mmol/L; p25 = 1.45; p75 = 1.74). Total polyphenol intake, polyphenol classes and the top 10 compounds were not associated with TAC in a linear, quadratic or cubic way in partially or fully confounder-adjusted models. A direct anti-oxidative effect of dietary polyphenol intake was not observed in European adolescents. Polyphenol biomarkers and additional antioxidant measures are needed in future prospective studies to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Polifenóis , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(5): e1061-e1082, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale, 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5738 cancer-free European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition participants with metabolomics data. Partial least-squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of the WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of increased odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine, and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were inversely associated more strongly with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR, 0.51 per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR, 0.62 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR, 0.93 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared with female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836412

RESUMO

This study examines the correlation of acute and habitual dietary intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins, and their main food sources with the urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC). Participants (N = 419, men and women) provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using a standardized 24-HDR software and a validated dietary questionnaire, respectively. Intake of flavan-3-ols was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in 24-h urine were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry after enzymatic deconjugation. Simple and partial Spearman's correlations showed that urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and their sum were more strongly correlated with acute than with habitual intake of individual and total monomers (acute rpartial = 0.13-0.54, p < 0.05; and habitual rpartial = 0.14-0.28, p < 0.01), proanthocyanidins (acute rpartial = 0.24-0.49, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.10-0.15, p < 0.05), theaflavins (acute rpartial = 0.22-0.31, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.20-0.26, p < 0.01), and total flavan-3-ols (acute rpartial = 0.40-0.48, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.23-0.33, p < 0.001). Similarly, urinary concentrations of flavan-3-ols were weakly correlated with both acute (rpartial = 0.12-0.30, p < 0.05) and habitual intake (rpartial = 0.10-0.27, p < 0.05) of apple and pear, stone fruits, berries, chocolate and chocolate products, cakes and pastries, tea, herbal tea, wine, red wine, and beer and cider. Moreover, all comparable correlations were stronger for urinary (-)-epicatechin than for (+)-catechin. In conclusion, our data support the use of urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, especially as short-term nutritional biomarkers of dietary catechin, epicatechin and total flavan-3-ol monomers.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/análise , Catequina/urina , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Flavonoides/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/urina , Catequina/análise , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
15.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Cases were diagnosed on average 8 years after blood collection. We found 25 metabolites robustly associated with kidney cancer risk. In particular, 14 glycerophospholipids (GPLs) were inversely associated with risk, including 8 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 2 plasmalogens. The PC with the strongest association was PC ae C34:3 with an odds ratio (OR) for 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.83, p = 2.6 × 10-8). In contrast, 4 amino acids, including glutamate (OR for 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.60, p = 1.6 × 10-5), were positively associated with risk. Adjusting for BMI partly attenuated the risk association for some-but not all-metabolites, whereas other known risk factors of kidney cancer, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, had minimal impact on the observed associations. A mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of the influence of BMI on the blood metabolome highlighted that some metabolites associated with kidney cancer risk are influenced by BMI. Specifically, elevated BMI appeared to decrease levels of several GPLs that were also found inversely associated with kidney cancer risk (e.g., -0.17 SD change [ßBMI] in 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-linoleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:2) levels per SD change in BMI, p = 3.4 × 10-5). BMI was also associated with increased levels of glutamate (ßBMI: 0.12, p = 1.5 × 10-3). While our results were robust across the participating studies, they were limited to study participants of European descent, and it will, therefore, be important to evaluate if our findings can be generalised to populations with different genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI-the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Metaboloma , Obesidade/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia
16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439497

RESUMO

Despite some epidemiological evidence on the protective effects of polyphenol intake on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk from case-control studies, the evidence is scarce from prospective studies and non-existent for several polyphenol classes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between the intake of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and EOC risk in a large prospective study. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included 309,129 adult women recruited mostly from the general population. Polyphenol intake was assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 1469 first incident EOC cases (including 806 serous, 129 endometrioid, 102 mucinous, and 67 clear cell tumours) were identified. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile of total polyphenol intake compared with the lowest quartile (HRQ4vsQ1) was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94-1.39; p-trend = 0.11). Similarly, the intake of most classes and subclasses of polyphenols were not related to either overall EOC risk or any EOC subtype. A borderline statistically significant positive association was observed between phenolic acid intake (HRQ4vsQ1 = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43; p-trend = 0.02) and EOC risk, especially for the serous subtype and in women with obesity, although these associations did not exceed the Bonferroni correction threshold. The current results do not support any association between polyphenol intake and EOC in our large European prospective study. Results regarding phenolic acid intake need further investigation.

17.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(4): e162, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414346

RESUMO

By 2030, more than 80% of Europe's population will live in an urban environment. The urban exposome, consisting of factors such as where we live and work, where and what we eat, our social network, and what chemical and physical hazards we are exposed to, provides important targets to improve population health. The EXPANSE (EXposome Powered tools for healthy living in urbAN SEttings) project will study the impact of the urban exposome on the major contributors to Europe's burden of disease: Cardio-Metabolic and Pulmonary Disease. EXPANSE will address one of the most pertinent questions for urban planners, policy makers, and European citizens: "How to maximize one's health in a modern urban environment?" EXPANSE will take the next step in exposome research by (1) bringing together exposome and health data of more than 55 million adult Europeans and OMICS information for more than 2 million Europeans; (2) perform personalized exposome assessment for 5,000 individuals in five urban regions; (3) applying ultra-high-resolution mass-spectrometry to screen for chemicals in 10,000 blood samples; (4) evaluating the evolution of the exposome and health through the life course; and (5) evaluating the impact of changes in the urban exposome on the burden of cardiometabolic and pulmonary disease. EXPANSE will translate its insights and innovations into research and dissemination tools that will be openly accessible via the EXPANSE toolbox. By applying innovative ethics-by-design throughout the project, the social and ethical acceptability of these tools will be safeguarded. EXPANSE is part of the European Human Exposome Network.

18.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(10): 2252-2260, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolomics may identify biological pathways predisposing children to the risk of overweight and obesity. In this study, we have investigated the cord blood metabolic signatures of rapid growth in infancy and overweight in early childhood in four European birth cohorts. METHODS: Untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles were measured in cord blood from 399 newborns from four European cohorts (ENVIRONAGE, Rhea, INMA and Piccolipiu). Rapid growth in the first year of life and overweight in childhood was defined with reference to WHO growth charts. Metabolome-wide association scans for rapid growth and overweight on over 4500 metabolic features were performed using multiple adjusted logistic mixed-effect models and controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at 5%. In addition, we performed a look-up analysis of 43 pre-annotated metabolites, previously associated with birthweight or rapid growth. RESULTS: In the Metabolome-Wide Association Study analysis, we identified three and eight metabolites associated with rapid growth and overweight, respectively, after FDR correction. Higher levels of cholestenone, a cholesterol derivative produced by microbial catabolism, were predictive of rapid growth (p = 1.6 × 10-3). Lower levels of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) valine (p = 8.6 × 10-6) were predictive of overweight in childhood. The area under the receiver operator curve for multivariate prediction models including these metabolites and traditional risk factors was 0.77 for rapid growth and 0.82 for overweight, compared with 0.69 and 0.69, respectively, for models using traditional risk factors alone. Among the 43 pre-annotated metabolites, seven and five metabolites were nominally associated (P < 0.05) with rapid growth and overweight, respectively. The BCAA leucine, remained associated (1.6 × 10-3) with overweight after FDR correction. CONCLUSION: The metabolites identified here may assist in the identification of children at risk of developing obesity and improve understanding of mechanisms involved in postnatal growth. Cholestenone and BCAAs are suggestive of a role of the gut microbiome and nutrient signalling respectively in child growth trajectories.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13738, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215757

RESUMO

We investigated longitudinal associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light-intensity physical activity (LPA) with plasma concentrations of 138 metabolites after colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. Self-reported physical activity data and blood samples were obtained at 6 weeks, and 6, 12 and 24 months post-treatment in stage I-III CRC survivors (n = 252). Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQp180 kit). Linear mixed models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted longitudinal associations. Inter-individual (between-participant differences) and intra-individual associations (within-participant changes over time) were assessed as percentage difference in metabolite concentration per 5 h/week of MVPA or LPA. At 6 weeks post-treatment, participants reported a median of 6.5 h/week of MVPA (interquartile range:2.3,13.5) and 7.5 h/week of LPA (2.0,15.8). Inter-individual associations were observed with more MVPA being related (FDR-adjusted q-value < 0.05) to higher concentrations of arginine, citrulline and histidine, eight lysophosphatidylcholines, nine diacylphosphatidylcholines, 13 acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, two sphingomyelins, and acylcarnitine C10:1. No intra-individual associations were found. LPA was not associated with any metabolite. More MVPA was associated with higher concentrations of several lipids and three amino acids, which have been linked to anti-inflammatory processes and improved metabolic health. Mechanistic studies are needed to investigate whether these metabolites may affect prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Metaboloma/genética , Idoso , Arginina/sangue , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/sangue , Citrulina/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Histidina/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Esfingomielinas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
J Nutr ; 151(11): 3533-3542, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher flavonoid intakes are hypothesized to confer protection against type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to 1) investigate associations between flavonoid intakes and diabetes, 2) examine the mediating impact of body fat, and 3) identify subpopulations that may receive the greatest benefit from higher flavonoid intakes in participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study followed up for 23 y. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between baseline flavonoid intake, estimated using FFQs and the Phenol Explorer database, and body fat, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, were assessed using multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. Nonlinear associations between flavonoid intake and incident diabetes were examined using restricted cubic splines with multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among 54,787 participants (median age: 56 y; IQR: 52-60 y; 47.3% men), 6700 individuals were diagnosed with diabetes. Participants in the highest total flavonoid intake quintile (median, 1202 mg/d) had a 1.52 kg lower body fat (95% CI: -1.74, -1.30 kg) and a 19% lower risk of diabetes (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.87) after multivariable adjustments and compared with participants in the lowest intake quintile (median: 174 mg/d). Body fat mediated 57% (95% CI: 42, 83%) of the association between flavonoid intake and incident diabetes. Of the flavonoid subclasses, moderate to high intakes of flavonols, flavanol monomers, flavanol oligo + polymers, and anthocyanins were significantly associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Although associations were not modified by sex, smoking status, BMI, or physical activity (Pinteraction > 0.05 for all), findings on an absolute scale suggest that those at a higher risk (those with obesity) may benefit the most from a higher flavonoid intake. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reported in this study suggest that a diet abundant in flavonoid-rich foods may help ameliorate diabetes risk, in part through a reduction in body fat.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Flavonoides , Antocianinas , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...