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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(18): 2278-2291, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) expands the risk stratification potential of stress echocardiography (SE) based on stress-induced regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and functional correlates of CFVR. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study initially screened 3,410 patients (2,061 [60%] male; age 63 ± 11 years; ejection fraction 61 ± 9%) with known or suspected coronary artery disease and/or heart failure. All patients underwent SE (exercise, n = 1,288; vasodilator, n = 1,860; dobutamine, n = 262) based on new or worsening RWMA in 20 accredited laboratories of 8 countries. CFVR was calculated as the stress/rest ratio of diastolic peak flow velocity pulsed-Doppler assessment of LAD flow. A subset of 1,867 patients was followed up. RESULTS: The success rate for CFVR on LAD was 3,002 of 3,410 (feasibility = 88%). Reduced (≤2.0) CFVR was found in 896 of 3,002 (30%) patients. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, inducible RWMA (odds ratio [OR]: 6.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9 to 8.5; p < 0.01), abnormal left ventricular contractile reserve (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 2.7 to 4.2; p < 0.01), and B-lines (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9; p = 0.01) were associated with reduced CFVR. During a median follow-up time of 16 months, 218 events occurred. RWMA (hazard ratio: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.3 to 6.3; p < 0.001) and reduced CFVR (hazard ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.009) were independently associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: CFVR is feasible with all SE protocols. Reduced CFVR is often accompanied by RWMA, abnormal LVCR, and pulmonary congestion during stress, and shows independent value over RWMA in predicting an adverse outcome.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(11): 1692-1705, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409330

RESUMO

For a cardiologist, lung ultrasound is an add-on to transthoracic echocardiography, just as lung auscultation is part of a cardiac physical examination. A cardiac 3.5- to 5.0-MHz transducer is generally suitable because the small footprint makes it ideal for scanning intercostal spaces. The image quality is often adequate, and the lung acoustic window is always patent. The cumulative increase in imaging time is <1 min for the 2 main applications targeted on pleural water (pleural effusion) and lung water (pulmonary congestion as multiple B-lines). In these settings, lung ultrasound outperforms the diagnostic accuracy of the chest radiograph, with a low-cost, portable, real-time, radiation-free method. A "wet lung" detected by lung ultrasound predicts impending acute heart failure decompensation and may trigger lung decongestion therapy. The doctors of tomorrow may still listen with a stethoscope to their patient's lung, but they will certainly be seeing it with ultrasound.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Ecocardiografia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
4.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 16(1): 20, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness trial "Stress echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE in and beyond coronary artery disease. The core protocol also includes 4-site simplified scan of B-lines by lung ultrasound, useful to assess pulmonary congestion. PURPOSE: To provide web-based upstream quality control and harmonization of B-lines reading criteria. METHODS: 60 readers (all previously accredited for regional wall motion, 53 B-lines naive) from 52 centers of 16 countries of SE 2020 network read a set of 20 lung ultrasound video-clips selected by the Pisa lab serving as reference standard, after taking an obligatory web-based learning 2-h module ( http://se2020.altervista.org ). Each test clip was scored for B-lines from 0 (black lung, A-lines, no B-lines) to 10 (white lung, coalescing B-lines). The diagnostic gold standard was the concordant assessment of two experienced readers of the Pisa lab. The answer of the reader was considered correct if concordant with reference standard reading ±1 (for instance, reference standard reading of 5 B-lines; correct answer 4, 5, or 6). The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥ 90%) with R value (intra-class correlation coefficient) between reference standard and recruiting center) > 0.90. Inter-observer agreement was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient statistics. RESULTS: All 60 readers were successfully accredited: 26 (43%) on first, 24 (40%) on second, and 10 (17%) on third attempt. The average diagnostic accuracy of the 60 accredited readers was 95%, with R value of 0.95 compared to reference standard reading. The 53 B-lines naive scored similarly to the 7 B-lines expert on first attempt (90 versus 95%, p = NS). Compared to the step-1 of quality control for regional wall motion abnormalities, the mean reading time per attempt was shorter (17 ± 3 vs 29 ± 12 min, p < .01), the first attempt success rate was higher (43 vs 28%, p < 0.01), and the drop-out of readers smaller (0 vs 28%, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based learning is highly effective for teaching and harmonizing B-lines reading. Echocardiographers without previous experience with B-lines learn quickly.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Controle de Qualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 3648-3651, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060689

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to present a computational approach for the estimation of the severity of heart failure (HF) in terms of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and the characterization of the status of the HF patients, during hospitalization, as acute, progressive or stable. The proposed method employs feature selection and classification techniques. However, it is differentiated from the methods reported in the literature since it exploits information that biomarkers fetch. The method is evaluated on a dataset of 29 patients, through a 10-fold-cross-validation approach. The accuracy is 94 and 77% for the estimation of HF severity and the status of HF patients during hospitalization, respectively.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Biomarcadores , Hospitalização , Humanos , Saliva
7.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 479-485, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trial "Stress Echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE beyond coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was control quality and harmonize reading criteria. METHODS: One reader from 78 centers of the SE 2020 network asked for credentials to read a set of 20 SE video-clips selected by the core lab. All aspiring centers met the pre-requisite of high-volume and the years of experience in SE ranged from 5 to 31years (mean value 18years). The diagnostic gold standard was a reading by the core lab. The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥90%). RESULTS: Of the initial 78 who started, 57 completed the first attempt: individual readers' score on first attempt ranged from 07/20 to 20/20 (accuracy from 35% to 100%, mean 78.7±13%) and 44 readers passed it. There was a very poor correlation between years of experience and the reader's score on first attempt (r=-0.161, p=0.231). Of the 13 readers who failed the first attempt, 12 took it again after the web-based session and their accuracy improved (74% vs. 96%, p<0.001). The kappa inter-observer agreement before and after web-based training was 0.59 on first attempt and rose to 0.91 on the last attempt. CONCLUSIONS: In SE reading, the volume of activity or years of experience is not synonymous with diagnostic quality. Qualitative analysis and operator-dependence can become a limiting weakness in clinical practice, in the absence of strict pathways of learning, credentialing and audit.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 43(11): 2558-2566, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865726

RESUMO

Various lung ultrasound (LUS) scanning modalities have been proposed for the detection of B-lines, also referred to as ultrasound lung comets, which are an important indication of extravascular lung water at rest and after exercise stress echo (ESE). The aim of our study was to assess the lung water spatial distribution (comet map) at rest and after ESE. We performed LUS at rest and immediately after semi-supine ESE in 135 patients (45 women, 90 men; age 62 ± 12 y, resting left ventricular ejection fraction = 41 ± 13%) with known or suspected heart failure or coronary artery disease. B-lines were measured by scanning 28 intercostal spaces (ISs) on the antero-lateral chest, 2nd-5th IS, along with the midaxillary (MA), anterior axillary (AA), mid-clavicular (MC) and parasternal (PS) lines. Complete 28-region, 16-region (3rd and 4th IS), 8-region (3rd IS), 4-region (3rd IS, only AA and MA) and 1-region (left 3rd IS, MA) scans were analyzed. In each space, the B-lines were counted from 0 = black lung to 10 = white lung. Interpretable images were obtained in all spaces (feasibility = 100 %). B-lines (>0 in at least 1 space) were present at ESE in 93 patients (69%) and absent in 42. More B-lines were found in the 3rd IS and along AA and MA lines. The B-line cumulative distribution was symmetric at rest (right/left = 1.10) and asymmetric with left lung predominance during stress (right/left = 0.67). The correlation of per-patient B-line number between 28-S and 16-S (R2 = 0.9478), 8-S (R2 = 0.9478) and 4-S scan (R2 = 0.9146) was excellent, but only good with 1-S (R2 = 0.8101). The average imaging and online analysis time were 5 s per space. In conclusion, during ESE, the comet map of lung water accumulation follows a predictable spatial pattern with wet spots preferentially aligned with the third IS and along the AA and MA lines. The time-saving 4-region scan is especially convenient during stress, simply dismissing dry regions and focusing on wet regions alone.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Água Extravascular Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Água Extravascular Pulmonar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Descanso , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
9.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 33(11): 1731-1736, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550586

RESUMO

The diffusion of smart-phones offers access to the best remote expertise in stress echo (SE). To evaluate the reliability of SE based on smart-phone filming and reading. A set of 20 SE video-clips were read in random sequence with a multiple choice six-answer test by ten readers from five different countries (Italy, Brazil, Serbia, Bulgaria, Russia) of the "SE2020" study network. The gold standard to assess accuracy was a core-lab expert reader in agreement with angiographic verification (0 = wrong, 1 = right). The same set of 20 SE studies were read, in random order and >2 months apart, on desktop Workstation and via smartphones by ten remote readers. Image quality was graded from 1 = poor but readable, to 3 = excellent. Kappa (k) statistics was used to assess intra- and inter-observer agreement. The image quality was comparable in desktop workstation vs. smartphone (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.4 ± 0.7, p = NS). The average reading time per case was similar for desktop versus smartphone (90 ± 39 vs. 82 ± 54 s, p = NS). The overall diagnostic accuracy of the ten readers was similar for desktop workstation vs. smartphone (84 vs. 91%, p = NS). Intra-observer agreement (desktop vs. smartphone) was good (k = 0.81 ± 0.14). Inter-observer agreement was good and similar via desktop or smartphone (k = 0.69 vs. k = 0.72, p = NS). The diagnostic accuracy and consistency of SE reading among certified readers was high and similar via desktop workstation or via smartphone.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/instrumentação , Aplicativos Móveis , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Consulta Remota/instrumentação , Smartphone , Brasil , Angiografia Coronária , Europa (Continente) , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(11): 1468-1478, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28198075

RESUMO

AIMS: Exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) is recommended by the European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the evaluation of heart failure (HF) patients. Recently, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been proposed for the assessment of extravascular lung water through B-lines. The aim of this study was to assess B-lines during ESE in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Standard transthoracic and LUS evaluation was performed during semi-supine ESE in 103 NYHA class I-III HF patients (76 male; mean age 64 ± 12 years) with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (35 ± 8%). B-lines were measured by scanning 28 intercostal spaces on antero-lateral chest, both at rest and at peak stress. Resting plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and exercise capacity during cardiopulmonary testing with peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2 ) were assessed in all patients. All patients were followed up for a median of 8 months (first quartile, 6; third quartile, 11). LUS was feasible and interpretable in all subjects. The overall number of B-lines increased from rest (median 5, interquartile range 0-10) to peak stress (median 12, interquartile range 0-45) (P < 0.0001). The number of stress B-lines was closely correlated with resting log-BNP (r = 0.88, P < 0.0001) and peak VO2 (r = -0.90, P < 0.0001). During follow-up, 37 events occurred: 10 deaths, 23 re-hospitalizations for acute HF, and 4 non-fatal myocardial infarctions. Twelve-month event-free survival was 95% in the 36 patients with stress B-lines <30 (best cut-off identified by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis) vs. 7% in patients with ≥30 B-lines (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: B-lines are easy to obtain, frequent in HF patients, and often increase during ESE. Adverse events were more frequent in patients with more B-lines during ESE.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(2): 96-104, feb. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-160132

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: La variación en la relación presión/volumen telesistólica entre el reposo y el estrés máximo es un índice de contractilidad del ventrículo izquierdo independiente de la poscarga. Aún no está claro si depende del volumen telediastólico y hasta qué punto. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la dependencia de la variación de la relación presión/volumen telesistólica entre el reposo y estrés (Δ) y el volumen telediastólico en pacientes con ecocardiografía de estrés negativa y con todos los intervalos de función ventricular izquierda en reposo. Métodos: Analizamos los datos interpretables obtenidos de 891 pacientes (593 varones; 63 ± 12 años) con fracción de eyección del 47 ± 12%: 338 pacientes estaban sanos, prácticamente sanos o hipertensos; 229 tenían arteriopatía coronaria y 324, miocardiopatía dilatada isquémica o no isquémica. Se los estudió con ecocardiografía de estrés en ejercicio (n =172), dipiridamol (n = 482) o dobutamina (n = 237). La relación presión/volumen telesistólica se evaluó en reposo y en estrés máximo a partir de una medición bruta de la presión arterial sistólica mediante esfigmógrafo con manguito y el volumen telesistólico, por ecocardiografía bidimensional mediante el método de Simpson biplanar. Resultados: Los valores absolutos de la variación reposo-estrés en la relación presión/volumen telesistólica fueron más altos con ejercicio y dobutamina que con dipiridamol. En la población general, se observó relación inversa entre la relación presión/volumen telesistólica y el volumen telediastólico en reposo (r2 = 0,69; p < 0,001) y en estrés máximo (r2 = 0,56; p < 0,001), pero no se observó esta relación al considerar la variación reposo-estrés de la relación presión/volumen telesistólica (r2 = 0,13). Conclusiones: El volumen telediastólico ventricular izquierdo no afecta a la variación reposo-estrés de la relación presión/volumen telesistólica en ventrículos izquierdos normales o anómalos durante el estrés físico o farmacológico (AU)


Introduction and objectives: The variation between rest and peak stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation is an afterload-independent index of left ventricular contractility. Whether and to what extent it depends on end-diastolic volume remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the dependence of the delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation on end-diastolic volume in patients with negative stress echo and all ranges of resting left ventricular function. Methods: We analyzed interpretable data obtained in 891 patients (593 men, age 63 ± 12 years) with ejection fraction 47% ± 12%: 338 were normal or near-normal or hypertensive; 229 patients had coronary artery disease; and 324 patients had ischemic or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. They were studied with exercise (n = 172), dipyridamole (n = 482) or dobutamine (n = 237) stress echocardiography. The end-systolic pressure-volume relation was evaluated at rest and peak stress from raw measurement of systolic arterial pressure by cuff sphygmomanometer and end-systolic volume by biplane Simpson rule dimensional echocardiography. Results: Absolute values of delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation were higher for exercise and dobutamine than for dipyridamole. In the overall population, an inverse relationship between end-systolic pressure-volume relation and end-diastolic volume was present at rest (r2 = 0.69, P < .001) and peak stress (r2 = 0.56, P < .001), but was absent if the delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation was considered (r2 = 0.13). Conclusions: Left ventricular end-diastolic volume does not affect the rest-stress changes in end-systolic pressure-volume relation in either normal or abnormal left ventricles during physical or pharmacological stress (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Doença das Coronárias , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Diástole/fisiologia , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia
12.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 15(1): 3, 2017 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography (SE) has an established role in evidence-based guidelines, but recently its breadth and variety of applications have extended well beyond coronary artery disease (CAD). We lack a prospective research study of SE applications, in and beyond CAD, also considering a variety of signs in addition to regional wall motion abnormalities. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, international, observational study design, > 100 certified high-volume SE labs (initially from Italy, Brazil, Hungary, and Serbia) will be networked with an organized system of clinical, laboratory and imaging data collection at the time of physical or pharmacological SE, with structured follow-up information. The study is endorsed by the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography and organized in 10 subprojects focusing on: contractile reserve for prediction of cardiac resynchronization or medical therapy response; stress B-lines in heart failure; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; mitral regurgitation after either transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement; outdoor SE in extreme physiology; right ventricular contractile reserve in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot; suspected or initial pulmonary arterial hypertension; coronary flow velocity, left ventricular elastance reserve and B-lines in known or suspected CAD; identification of subclinical familial disease in genotype-positive, phenotype- negative healthy relatives of inherited disease (such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). RESULTS: We expect to recruit about 10,000 patients over a 5-year period (2016-2020), with sample sizes ranging from 5,000 for coronary flow velocity/ left ventricular elastance/ B-lines in CAD to around 250 for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. This data-base will allow to investigate technical questions such as feasibility and reproducibility of various SE parameters and to assess their prognostic value in different clinical scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: The study will create the cultural, informatic and scientific infrastructure connecting high-volume, accredited SE labs, sharing common criteria of indication, execution, reporting and image storage of SE to obtain original safety, feasibility, and outcome data in evidence-poor diagnostic fields, also outside the established core application of SE in CAD based on regional wall motion abnormalities. The study will standardize procedures, validate emerging signs, and integrate the new information with established knowledge, helping to build a next-generation SE lab without inner walls.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 70(2): 96-104, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27475497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The variation between rest and peak stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation is an afterload-independent index of left ventricular contractility. Whether and to what extent it depends on end-diastolic volume remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the dependence of the delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation on end-diastolic volume in patients with negative stress echo and all ranges of resting left ventricular function. METHODS: We analyzed interpretable data obtained in 891 patients (593 men, age 63 ± 12 years) with ejection fraction 47% ± 12%: 338 were normal or near-normal or hypertensive; 229 patients had coronary artery disease; and 324 patients had ischemic or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. They were studied with exercise (n = 172), dipyridamole (n = 482) or dobutamine (n = 237) stress echocardiography. The end-systolic pressure-volume relation was evaluated at rest and peak stress from raw measurement of systolic arterial pressure by cuff sphygmomanometer and end-systolic volume by biplane Simpson rule 2-dimensional echocardiography. RESULTS: Absolute values of delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation were higher for exercise and dobutamine than for dipyridamole. In the overall population, an inverse relationship between end-systolic pressure-volume relation and end-diastolic volume was present at rest (r2 = 0.69, P < .001) and peak stress (r2 = 0.56, P < .001), but was absent if the delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation was considered (r2 = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular end-diastolic volume does not affect the rest-stress changes in end-systolic pressure-volume relation in either normal or abnormal left ventricles during physical or pharmacological stress.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Pressão Ventricular/fisiologia , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Diástole , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
14.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 18(2): 153-158, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27129537

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac power output to left ventricular mass (power/mass) is an index of myocardial efficiency reflecting the rate at which cardiac work is delivered with respect to the potential energy stored in the left ventricular mass. In the present study, we sought to investigate the capability of power/mass assessed at peak of dobutamine stress echocardiography to predict mortality in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and no inducible ischaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred eleven patients (95 males; age 68 ± 10 years) with 35 ± 7% mean left ventricular ejection fraction and a dobutamine stress echocardiography (up to 40 µg/kg/min) negative by wall motion criteria formed the study population. Power/mass at peak stress was obtained as the product of a constant (K = 2.22 × 10-1) with cardiac output and the mean arterial pressure divided by left ventricular mass to convert the units to W/100 g. Patients were followed up for a median of 29 months (inter-quartile range 16-72 months). All-cause mortality was the only accepted clinical end point. Mean peak-stress power/mass was 0.70 ± 0.31 W/100 g. During follow-up, 29 deaths (26%) were registered. With a receiver operating characteristic analysis, a peak-stress power/mass ≤0.50 W/100 g [area under curve 0.72 (95% CI 0.63; 0.80), sensitivity 59%, specificity 80%] was the best value for predicting mortality. Univariate prognostic indicators were age, male sex, peak-stress ejection fraction, peak-stress stroke volume, peak-stress cardiac output, peak-stress cardiac power output ≤1.48 W, and peak-stress power/mass ≤0.50 W/100 g. At multivariate analysis, age (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04; 1.14; P = 0.004) and peak-stress power/mass ≤0.50 W/100 g (HR 4.05, 95% CI 1.36; 12.00; P = 0.01) provided independent prognostic information. Three-year mortality was 14% in patients with peak-stress power/mass >0.50 W/100 g and 47% in those with peak-stress power/mass ≤0.50 W/100 g (log-rank 20.4; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Power/mass assessed at peak of dobutamine stress echocardiography allows effective prognostication in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and test result negative by wall motion criteria. In particular, a peak-stress power/mass ≤50 W/100 g is a strong and multivariable predictor of mortality.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
15.
Eur Cardiol ; 11(2): 83-84, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310452

RESUMO

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been identified as the optimal diagnostic tool to identify significant coronary lesion. However, current evidence does not support this role. The optimal diagnostic strategy should give highly sensitive and specific results with lowest cost and accomplishing this task has been made more difficult in the era following the COURAGE trial.

16.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 16(1): 21-30, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25689748

RESUMO

Numerous prognostic markers have shown to be predictive of patient outcome in heart failure (HF). The recent guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic HF have identified as many as 57 individual markers in patients with HF, including demographic data, etiology, comorbidities, clinical, radiological, hemodynamic, echocardiographic and biochemical parameters. If more accurate risk stratification is required, several scoring systems have been proposed. This article reviews scoring systems for HF prognostication. Although most of the models include readily available clinical information, usually NYHA functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and comorbidities, quite a few of them comprise Doppler echocardiographic variables, other than LVEF, and circulating levels of natriuretic peptides. In order to achieve a better prediction of the outcome, an ideal score should be based on a comprehensive Doppler echocardiographic examination, the assessment of circulating biomarkers, and a more objective evaluation of exercise tolerance.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Doença Crônica , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Peptídeos Natriuréticos/metabolismo , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
17.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 12: 27, 2014 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25037453

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in guiding Heart Failure (HF) therapy with Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) or N-terminal prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), with the goal of lowering concentrations of these markers (and maintaining their suppression) as part of the therapeutic approach in HF. However, recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) guidelines did not recommend biomarker-guided therapy in the management of HF patients. This has likely to do with the conceptual, methodological, and practical limitations of the Natriuretic Peptides (NP)-based approach, including biological variability, slow time-course, poor specificity, cost and venipuncture, as well as to the lack of conclusive scientific evidence after 15 years of intensive scientific work and industry investment in the field. An increase in NP can be associated with accumulation of extra-vascular lung water, which is a sign of impending acute heart failure. If this is the case, an higher dose of loop diuretics will improve symptoms. However, if no lung congestion is present, diuretics will show no benefit and even harm. It is only a combined clinical, bio-humoral (for instance with evaluation of renal function) and echocardiographic assessment which may unmask the pathophysiological (and possibly therapeutic) heterogeneity underlying the same clinical and NP picture. Increase in B-lines will trigger increase of loop diuretics (or dialysis); the marked increase in mitral insufficiency (at baseline or during exercise) will lead to increase in vasodilators and to consider mitral valve repair; the presence of substantial inotropic reserve during stress will give a substantially higher chance of benefit to beta-blocker or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT). To each patient its own therapy, not with a "blind date" with symptoms and NP and carpet bombing with drugs, but with an open-eye targeted approach on the mechanism predominant in that individual patient. A monocular, specialistic, unidimensional approach to HF can miss its pathogenetic and clinical complexity, which only can be overcome with an integrated, versatile and tailored approach.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Integração de Sistemas
18.
Clin Lab ; 59(7-8): 843-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24133915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess whether dipyridamole therapy exerts a significant anti-inflammatory effect in heart failure patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the stored bio-samples of 3 groups of patients: 1) 25 normal healthy controls (N); 2) 25 heart failure patients (HF) under standard optimal therapy, including aspirin; 3) 17 HF patients with previous stroke and under clinically-driven therapy with A (Aggrenox, long-acting dipyridamole 200 mg + aspirin 25 mg, twice daily) for at least 1 month (HF-A). In all, we evaluated interleukin (IL)-6, adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as NT-proBNP. The same laboratory measurements were performed in the 17 HF patients with recent or previous stroke, both before and 1-month after clinically driven administration of A. RESULTS: All laboratory inflammatory indices were significantly higher in HF patients compared to N: IL-6 (N = 0.68 (0.3 - 12.7) vs. HF = 3.10 (0.5 - 16.7) vs. HF-A = 1.24 (0.3 - 3.3) pg/mL; p < 0.001 N vs. HF, p < 0.01 N vs. HF-A, p = ns HF vs. HF-A); CRP (N = 0.12 (0.01 - 0.45) vs. HF = 0.58 (0.04 - 2.7) vs. HF-A = 0.72 (0.02 - 4.8) mg/dL; p = ns N vs. HF, p = 0.05 N vs. HF-A, p = ns HF vs. HF-A); Adiponectin (N = 8.8 (3.0 - 31.4) vs. HF = 12.16 (4.9 - 27.3) vs. HF-A = 10.0 (4.8 - 15.6) pg/mL; p < 0.05 N vs. HF, p = ns N vs. HF-A p = ns HF vs. HF-A). NT-proBNP was also increased (N = 42.2 (13 - 93) vs. HF = 1907 (18.1 - 8038) vs. HF-A = 497.9 (7.8 - 3686) pg/mL; p < 0.001 N vs. HF, p = 0.01 N vs. HF-A, p = ns HF vs. HF-A). In 17 subjects, the intra-patient assessment (before and 1-month after starting of Aggrenox therapy) did not show a decrease in inflammation markers. CONCLUSIONS: HF patients show an increase in inflammatory indices independently of underlying A therapy.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Dipiridamol/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Dipiridamol/administração & dosagem , Dipiridamol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 10: 27, 2012 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22742054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac and systemic hemodynamics have been historically in the domain of invasive cardiology, but recent advances in real-time 3-Dimensional echocardiography (RT3D echo) provide a reliable measurement of ventricular volumes, allowing to measure a set of hemodynamic parameters previously difficult or impossible to obtain with standard 2D echo. AIM: To assess the feasibility of a comprehensive hemodynamic study with RT-3D echo. METHODS: We enrolled 136 patients referred for routine echocardiography: 44 normal (N), 57 hypertensive (HYP), and 35 systolic heart failure patients (HF). All patients underwent standard 2D echo examination followed by RT3D echo examination, including measurement of left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and derived assessment of LV elastance (an index of LV contractility), arterial elastance (characterizing the distal impedance of the arterial system downstream of the aortic valve); ventricular-arterial coupling (a central determinant of net cardiovascular performance); systemic vascular resistances. Blood pressure was derived from cuff sphygmomanometer and heart rate from ECG. RESULTS: A complete 2D echo was performed in all 136 patients. 3D echo examination was obtained in 130 patients (feasibility = 95 %). Standard 2D echo examination was completed in 14.8 ± 2.2 min. Acquisition of 3D images required an average time of 5 ± 0.9 min (range 3.5-7.5 min) and image analysis was completed in 10.1 ± 2.8 min (range 6-12 min) per patient. Compared to N and HYP, HF patients showed reduced LV elastance (1.7 ± 1.5 mmHg mL(-1) m(-2), p < 0.001 vs N = 3.8 ± 1.3 and HYP = 3.8 ± 1.3) and ventricular-arterial coupling (0.6 ± 0.5, p < 0.01 vs N = 1.4 ± 0.4 and HYP = 1.2 ± 0.4). Systemic vascular resistances were highest in HYP (2736 ± 720, p < .01 vs N = 1980 ± 432 and vs HF = 1855 ± 636 dyne*s/cm5). The LV elastance was related to EF (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and arterial pressure was moderately related to vascular elastance (r = 0.54, p < 0.01). The ventricular-arterial coupling was unrelated to systemic vascular resistances (r = -0.04, p NS). CONCLUSION: RT-3D echo allows a non invasive, comprehensive assessment of cardiac and systemic hemodynamics, offering insight access to key variables--such as increased systemic vascular resistances in hypertensives and reduced ventricular-arterial coupling in heart failure patients.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Volume Sistólico , Sístole
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