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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5701-5724, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe disorder, and it is associated with an increased risk of mortality. About 25% of patients with BD have attempted and 11% have died by suicide. All these characteristics suggest that the disorders within the bipolar spectrum are a crucial public health problem. With the development of molecular genetics in recent decades, it was possible to more easily detect risk genes associated with this disorder. This study aimed at summarizing the findings of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the topic and assessing the quality of the available evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed/Medline and Web of Science were searched to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses published during 2013-2019. Standard methodology was applied to synthesize and assess the retrieved literature. RESULTS: This systematic review identifies a number of potential risk genes associated with bipolar disorder whose mechanism of action has yet to be confirmed. They are divided into several groups: 1) a list of the most significant susceptibility genetic factors associated with BD; 2) the implication of the ZNF804A gene in BD; 3) the role of genes involved in calcium signaling in BD; 4) DNA methylation in BD; 5) BD and risk suicide genes; 6) susceptibility genes for early-onset BD; 7) candidate genes common to both BD and schizophrenia; 8) genes involved in cognitive status in BD cases; 9) genes involved in structural alteration in BD brain tissue; 10) genes involved in lithium response in BD. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should concentrate on molecular mechanisms by which genetic variants play a major role in BD. Supplemental research is needed to replicate the applicable results.

2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 5063-5069, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new syndrome occurring primarily in healthy young adults, with a female predominance, after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We describe VITT syndrome characterized by severe thrombosis and thrombocytopenia found in our patient, with fatal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old man, after 13 days from the first administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca), presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomitus. Laboratory tests revealed a severe thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen serum levels and marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The patient quickly developed a multiple organ failure, till death, three days after the hospital admission. RESULTS: At histology, in the lungs, interalveolar septa appeared thickened with microthrombi in the capillaries and veins. Interalveolar septa appeared thickened and showed vascular proliferation. Thrombi were detected in the capillaries of glomerular tufts. In the hearth, thrombi were observed in veins and capillaries. In the liver, voluminous fibrin thrombi were diffusely observed in the branches of the portal vein. Microthrombi were also found in the vasa vasorum of the wall of abdominal aorta. In the brain, microthrombi were observed in the capillaries of the choroid plexuses. Diffuse hemorrhagic necrosis was observed in the intestinal wall with marked congestion of the venous vessels. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, the majority of data necessary for a VITT final diagnosis were present: thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in pulmonary, portal, hepatic, renal and mesenteric veins, associated with a marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The finding of cerebral thrombosis in choroid plexuses, is a new finding in VITT. These features are suggestive for a very aggressive form of VITT.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/etiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Aorta/patologia , COVID-19/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Plexo Corióideo/patologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Íleo/patologia , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Trombose/sangue
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(12): 4336-4344, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Wilson's Disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive copper overload. Several mutations of the copper pump named ATP7B have been involved. WD is difficult to diagnose mainly because of its heterogeneity of presentation. The histologic spectrum is wide and not specific, ranging from very mild changes to severe disease. The histological picture of WD may overlap different conditions, including ALD, NAFLD, viral hepatitis or autoimmune liver disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe our experience on WD based on a single-center series of liver biopsies. One-hundred twenty-seven liver samples from 43 Sardinian WD patients were reviewed. The most reported pattern was steatohepatitis, accounting 82/127 biopsies (64.6%), followed by hepatitis in 25 biopsies (19.7%), and steatosis in 20 biopsies (15.7%). RESULTS: As for the elementary lesions, inflammation, steatosis, glycogenated nuclei and ballooning were the most frequent, being found in 107, 102, 90 and 86 biopsies out of the 127. Notably, all these lesions showed a predominant periportal location. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic pattern or in each elementary lesion between the biopsies performed at presentation and those performed during the follow-up. Lipogranuloma (significantly more numerous in the follow-up biopsies) and fibrosis (likewise significantly progressed in follow-up biopsies) were the only exceptions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the variability of the histological pattern in WD. However, the preferential localization of steatosis and balloon cells in periportal zone can be a useful clue for the diagnosis of WD.

4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3886-3897, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Platelets, blood coagulation along with fibrinolysis are greatly involved in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases induced by bacteria, parasites and virus. This phenomenon is not surprising since both the innate immunity and the hemostatic systems are two ancestral mechanisms which closely cooperate favoring host's defense against foreign invaders. However, the excessive response of these systems may be dangerous for the host itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched and retrieved the articles, using the following electronic database: MedLine and Embase. We limited our search to articles published in English, but no restrictions in terms of article type, publication year, and geography were adopted. RESULTS: The hemostatic phenotype of the infectious diseases is variable depending on the points of attack of the different involved pathogens. Infectious diseases which show a prothrombotic phenotype are bacterial sepsis, SARS-CoV-2 and malaria. However, among the bacterial sepsis, Yersinia Pestis is characterized by a profibrinolytic behavior. On the contrary, the hemorrhagic fevers, due to Dengue and Ebola virus, mainly exploit the activation of fibrinolysis secondary to a huge endothelial damage which can release a large amount of t-PA in the early phase of the diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis are greatly activated based on the strategy of the different infectious agents which exploit the excess of response of both systems to achieve the greatest possible virulence.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , COVID-19/patologia , Fibrinólise , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Vírus/patogenicidade
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8226-8231, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the climate has played a role in the COVID-19 outbreak, we compared virus lethality in countries closer to the Equator with others. Lethality in European territories and in territories of some nations with a non-temperate climate was also compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lethality was calculated as the rate of deaths in a determinate moment from the outbreak of the pandemic out of the total of identified positives for COVID-19 in a given area/nation, based on the COVID-John Hopkins University website. Lethality of countries located within the 5th parallels North/South on 6 April and 6 May 2020, was compared with that of all the other countries. Lethality in the European areas of The Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom was also compared to the territories of the same nations in areas with a non-temperate climate. RESULTS: A lower lethality rate of COVID-19 was found in Equatorial countries both on April 6 (OR=0.72 CI 95% 0.66-0.80) and on May 6 (OR=0.48, CI 95% 0.47-0.51), with a strengthening over time of the protective effect. A trend of higher risk in European vs. non-temperate areas was found on April 6, but a clear difference was evident one month later: France (OR=0.13, CI 95% 0.10-0.18), The Netherlands (OR=0.5, CI 95% 0.3-0.9) and the UK (OR=0.2, CI 95% 0.01-0.51). This result does not seem to be totally related to the differences in age distribution of different sites. CONCLUSIONS: The study does not seem to exclude that the lethality of COVID-19 may be climate sensitive. Future studies will have to confirm these clues, due to potential confounding factors, such as pollution, population age, and exposure to malaria.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Betacoronavirus , Brunei/epidemiologia , Burundi/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Congo/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , França/epidemiologia , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ilhas do Oceano Índico/epidemiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Micronésia/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ruanda/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Samoa/epidemiologia , São Tomé e Príncipe/epidemiologia , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Somália/epidemiologia , Timor-Leste/epidemiologia , Clima Tropical , Uganda/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(12): 6939-6948, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) represents an emerging public health concern with great impact on cardiovascular state. Oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and altered Nitric Oxide (NO) production are recognized as prominent mechanisms of many acute and chronic diseases and even of the normal aging process. They are investigated as major pathophysiological processes in OSA through the analysis and comparison of significative and validated biomarkers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review is developed using as key terms "sleep apnea", "oxidative stress", "inflammation", and "endothelial dysfunction". Included studies must have followed the American Academy of Sleep Medicine guidelines according to the diagnosis and classification of OSA. Lipid, protein and DNA oxidation products, PCR, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, NO and nitrosative stress compounds, and endothelial functioning tests have been detected for their contribution in OSA along the last 3 decades. RESULTS: Nocturnal intermittent hypoxia has emerged to be significantly associated to oxidative/nitrosative stress, increase in pro-inflammatory markers, imbalance in NO production, and endothelium impairment. Body Mass Index (BMI) contribution needs further clarifications. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy has demonstrated beneficial effects on vascular function and pro-inflammatory milieu in OSA. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress and Inflammation significantly correlate with OSA; similarly, vascular functioning is impaired in accordance to unregulated levels of NO and derived compounds. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure markedly improves oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in OSA.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Estresse Oxidativo
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 23(18): 8148-8157, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to describe the "hot points" of current clinical governance for oral HPV comprising the use of new diagnostic molecular procedures, namely, Pyrosequencing and Next Generation Sequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data on oral HPV was collected through two levels of research. First for all, we used the canonical medical search engines, PubMed, and Medline, followed by the study of current commercial tools for HPV diagnosis, particularly within commercial companies involved in the molecular procedures for HPV detecting and genotyping. RESULTS: Different medical procedures are now described and used throughout the world in HPV diagnosis and treatment. However, the laboratory methods are often validated and used for genital infections, and, in these cases, data are missing in the literature as regards the clinical approach for oral lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Dental care units are often the front line for a clinical evaluation of a possible HPV lesion in the oral cavity, which means that correct clinical governance could avoid a viral neoplastic progression of this disease with great advantages for the patient. In this case, the problem is due to the difficulty in lesion recognition but also and more especially the absence of correct laboratory diagnosis and subsequent treatment in the clinical course.


Assuntos
Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/terapia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Carcinoma Verrucoso/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Verrucoso/terapia , Carcinoma Verrucoso/virologia , Criocirurgia , Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal/terapia , Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal/virologia , Humanos , Terapia a Laser , Leucoplasia Oral/diagnóstico , Leucoplasia Oral/terapia , Leucoplasia Oral/virologia , Líquen Plano Bucal/diagnóstico , Líquen Plano Bucal/terapia , Líquen Plano Bucal/virologia , Doenças da Boca/virologia , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Neoplasias Bucais/virologia , Papiloma/diagnóstico , Papiloma/terapia , Papiloma/virologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Verrugas/diagnóstico , Verrugas/terapia , Verrugas/virologia
9.
Int J Pharm ; 551(1-2): 84-96, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194010

RESUMO

Ball Milling technique has been used to prepare for the first time Vitis Vinifera extract-silica nanocomposites (VV-SiO2 NCs), which combine the pharmacological effects of the extract with the effectiveness of silica as drug delivery system and active component in the treatment of wound healing. Different contents (1.0, 9.0 and 33.0 wt%) of Vitis Vinifera ethanolic extract were loaded into the silica matrix by grinding the extract with fumed silica using a planetary mill apparatus. The effect of the starting mixture composition and milling time on the final products was examined. The efficiency of the milling process was studied by X-ray Powder Diffraction, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and Infrared Spectroscopy, indicating that the natural extract was not affected by the increasing of the milling time. The successful loading of the extract was demonstrated by Nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements, which showed a decrease in the SSA and pore volume of the silica with the increasing of the extract amount. Morphology of the nanocomposites, investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, showed an increased agglomeration in the nanocomposites with the increment of the VV extract amount. Studies on the total phenol quantification and antioxidant activity of the natural extract before and after incorporation in the silica matrix were also carried out. The obtained results indicate that the milling process does not alter the VV extract components, which result to be embedded in the silica matrix. An increase of the antioxidant activity with the increment of the extract amount in the nanocomposites, up to values comparable to the pure VV extract, was also observed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Nanocompostos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Vitis , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fenóis/análise
12.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2017: 527-532, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813874

RESUMO

Robot-assisted training is a widely used technique to promote motor re-learning on post-stroke patients that suffer from motor impairment. While it is commonly accepted that robot-based therapies are potentially helpful, strong insights about their efficacy are still lacking. The motor re-learning process may act on muscular synergies, which are groups of co-activating muscles that, being controlled as a synergic group, allow simplifying the problem of motor control. In fact, by coordinating a reduced amount of neural signals, complex motor patterns can be elicited. This paper aims at analyzing the effects of robot assistance during 3D-reaching movements in the framework of muscular synergies. 5 healthy people and 3 neurological patients performed free and robot-assisted reaching movements at 2 different speeds (slow and quasi-physiological). EMG recordings were used to extract muscular synergies. Results indicate that the interaction with the robot very slightly alters healthy people patterns but, on the contrary, it may promote the emergency of physiological-like synergies on neurological patients.


Assuntos
Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(9): 3162-9, 2012 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22286545

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of ultra-small (~2 nm) δ-(Fe(0.67)Mn(0.33))OOH nanoparticles prepared by a microemulsion technique have been investigated by magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements at variable frequency. The results provide evidence of two different magnetic regimes whose onset is identified by two maxima in the zero-field-cooled susceptibility: a large one, centered at ~150 K (T(mh)), and a narrow one at ~30 K (T(ml)). The two temperatures exhibit a different frequency dependence: T(mh) follows a Vogel-Fulcher law τ = τ(0)exp[(E(a)/k(B))/(T-T(0))], indicating a blocking of weakly interacting nanoparticle moments, whereas T(ml) follows a power law τ = τ(0)(T(g)/T(mν)-T(g))(α), suggesting a collective freezing of nanoparticle moments (superspin-glass state). This picture is coherent with the field dependence of T(ml) and T(mh) and with the temperature dependence of the coercivity, strongly increasing below 30 K.

14.
J Gravit Physiol ; 6(1): P63-4, 1999 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11543029

RESUMO

One of the major concerns in space medicine is post-mission postural hypotension. Since the beginning, most of the studies have been aimed at the identification of mechanical and neuroautonomic mechanisms within the cardiovascular system potentially involved in this phenomenon. Some gender differences in the cardiovascular reactivity to changing posture have been described so far, which still need better clarification. Moreover, the neuroendocrine contribution to postflight readaptation deserves more indepth studies. Sudden passive head-up tilting is considered to be a good simulation method for hemodynamic changes occurring during transition from 0xg to 1xg. The aim of this study was to verify whether cardiovascular or neuroendocrine changes occurring after sudden passive +70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) became already evident within 10 min and were similar in healthy young-adult men and women.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Hormônios/metabolismo , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Análise de Variância , Pressão Sanguínea , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Renina/sangue , Renina/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Teste da Mesa Inclinada
15.
Aviat Space Environ Med ; 69(8): 777-80, 1998 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9715967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microgravity causes cephalad fluid shift and compensatory mechanisms. Hormonal changes suggestive of peripheral sympathetic (catecholaminergic) nervous system activation have been recently found in astronauts during flight. Simulation studies showed increased perivascular sympathetic fiber density in the rat brain. HYPOTHESIS: Intracranial microcirculatory adaptations might also occur in astronauts, involving an increase in the turnover rate of catecholamines, i.e., norepinephrine (NE) and its precursor, Dopamine (DA). DA is known to inhibit prolactin (PRL) release and to enhance growth hormone (GH) secretion by the pituitary. Therefore, increased brain dopaminergic activity would result into lower circulating PRL concentrations. At the same time, plasma levels of GH and of its effector insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would increase during flight. METHODS: Circulating cortisol (CS), PRL, GH and IGF-1 levels were measured 2 d preflight, inflight (4-5 d after launch) and on different days postflight in four astronauts involved in the Spacelab D-2 mission. RESULTS: No significant changes were found in CS concentrations. PRL decreased while GH and IGF-1 increased inflight (p < 0.05). After flight no statistically relevant hormonal changes were found with respect to preflight. CONCLUSION: The observed hormonal changes were consistent with the original hypothesis that spaceflight might activate CNS adrenergic pathways. They occurred in the absence of two typical markers of stress, namely CS and PRL increase, thus ruling out any non-specific effect of acute stress on the results. In agreement with the most recent results of real and simulated microgravity studies performed in both the experimental animal and in man, these data lend support to the hypothesis that the CNS adrenergic pathways are also activated in the human during spaceflight.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Voo Espacial , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Masculino , Prolactina/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiopatologia
16.
Acta Astronaut ; 9(12): 745-7, 1982 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11541696

RESUMO

A simple method is described to evaluate the energetic expenditure of graded muscular exercises carried out on the ground in such a way as to approximate the state of space microgravity. Consumption of O2 measured at different rates of execution is shown as well as a tentative computation of the mechanical work on the basis of the accelerations impressed alternately on the mass of the trunk and upper limbs. The practicability of the method proposed under space conditions is pointed out; it does not require any ergometer, in fact, but only the fixing of the subject's feet to the floor of the vehicle.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Simulação de Ausência de Peso , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia
17.
Minerva Med ; 73(32-33): 2061-6, 1982 Aug 25.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6980383

RESUMO

Since 1957, Italian workers have been carrying out experiments on the physiological and pathological effects of the weightlessness encountered during space travel. Most of this work has been done at the Air Force Aviation Medicine Study and Research Centre, Rome, while other research has been conducted at the Department of Human Physiology, University of Milan. Various original devices (axis subgravitis tower, triaxial clinostats, etc.) have been devised and constructed to simulate partial and total weightlessness. They have been employed well ahead of actual space flights in investigations of the effects of weightlessness on vestibular function, sensory and muscle coordination, the position of the diaphragm and its adjacent viscera, locomotion, plant growth, rapid adaptation phenomena, etc. One experiment conducted during orbital flight was called Orbiting Frog Otolith. This investigated vestibular function under statis and dynamic conditions in the absence of weight. An Italian three-dimensional ballistocardiography experimental project will be conducted during the first Spacelab flight.


Assuntos
Gravitação , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Eletrocardiografia , Eletronistagmografia , Marcha , Humanos , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia
18.
Acta Astronaut ; 9(3): 175-7, 1982 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11541688

RESUMO

The present paper reports a kinetic analysis of changes of some physiological parameters, obtained from international literature, after changes in gravitational environment. The overall phenomenology of the adaptation to weightlessness is characterized by a rapid process followed by a slow one. The two processes show half time values differing by about five times. Also in the case of readaptation to gravity, after recovery on the Earth, two well resolved processes, showing different half time values, are observed. It is of interest to notice that the rate of response to weightlessness is lower than that to gravity. Of course, the half time values observed depend on the different physiological parameters considered. In any case, the experimental data suggest a general trend of many adaptive changes, that may all be described by a simple mathematical model.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Modelos Biológicos , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Medicina Aeroespacial , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/urina , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Minerva Med ; 68(61): 4069-75, 1977 Dec 15.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-600454

RESUMO

The Spacelab programme will run for about 10 years starting from 1980. It is the outcome of scientific, technological and financial cooperation between NASA and ESA. The latter has got together a large laboratory which will be equipped in accordance with individual flight programmes. A large number of scientists are involved in the preparation of suitable and original research projects. The main features of the laboratory and its vector are described and a brief reference is made to main advances that have been gathered from previous medical and biological programmes. The essential aspects of the nine European programmes (one of which was put forward by Italy) accepted for the first flight are explained.


Assuntos
Biologia , Laboratórios , Pesquisa , Voo Espacial , Cooperação Internacional
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